|Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany|
27 October 1998 – 22 November 2005
( 7 years, 26 days)
|Preceded by||Helmut Kohl|
|Succeeded by||Angela Merkel|
|Leader of the Social Democratic Party|
12 March 1999 – 21 March 2004
( 5 years, 9 days)
|Preceded by||Oskar Lafontaine|
|Succeeded by||Franz Müntefering|
|President of the Bundesrat|
1 November 1997 – 27 October 1998
( 360 days)
|Preceded by||Erwin Teufel|
|Succeeded by||Hans Eichel|
|Minister President of Lower Saxony|
21 June 1990 – 27 October 1998
( 8 years, 128 days)
|Preceded by||Ernst Albrecht|
|Succeeded by||Gerhard Glogowski|
|Born||Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder
7 April 1944
Mossenberg, Nazi Germany
|Political party||Social Democratic Party|
|Spouse(s)||Eva Schubach (1968–1972)
Anne Taschenmacher (1972–1984)
Hiltrud Hampel (1984–1997)
Doris Köpf (1997–present)
|Alma mater||University of Göttingen|
|Religion||Lutheran (Evangelical Church in Germany)|
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder ([ˈɡɛɐ̯haɐ̯t fʁɪts kʊʁt ˈʃʁøːdɐ] ( listen); born 7 April 1944) is a German politician, and served as Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. As a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), he led a coalition government of the SPD and the Greens. Before becoming a full-time politician, he was a lawyer, and before becoming Chancellor he served as Prime Minister of Lower Saxony (1990–1998). Following the 2005 federal election, which his party lost, after three weeks of negotiations he stood down as Chancellor in favour of Angela Merkel of the rival Christian Democratic Union. He is currently the chairman of the board of Nord Stream AG, after having been hired as a global manager by investment bank Rothschild.
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 In federal politics
- 3 Chancellorship
- 4 Personal life
- 5 Criticism and controversies
- 6 Cabinets
- 7 Awards and honours
- 8 See also
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early life and career
Schröder was born in Mossenberg, today an outlying centre of Blomberg, in what is now North Rhine-Westphalia. His father, Fritz Schröder, a lance corporal in the Wehrmacht, was killed in action in World War II in Romania on 4 October 1944, almost six months after Gerhard's birth. His mother, Erika (née Vosseler), worked as an agricultural laborer so that she could support herself and her two sons.
Schröder completed an apprenticeship in retail sales in a Lemgo hardware shop from 1958 to 1961 and subsequently worked in a Lage retail shop and after that as an unskilled construction worker and a sales clerk in Göttingen whilst studying at night school for a high school diploma. He did not have to do military service because his father had died in the war. In 1966, Schröder secured entrance to a university, passing the Abitur exam at Westfalen-Kolleg, Bielefeld. From 1966-71 he studied law at the University of Göttingen. From 1972 onwards, Schröder served as an assistant at the university. In 1976, he passed his second law examination, and he subsequently worked as a lawyer until 1990.
Among his more controversial cases, Schröder helped Horst Mahler, a founding member of the Baader-Meinhof terrorist group, to secure both an early release from prison and permission to practice law again in Germany.
Schröder joined the Social Democratic Party in 1963. In 1978 he became the federal chairman of the Young Socialists, the youth organisation of the SPD. He spoke for the dissident Rudolf Bahro, as did President Jimmy Carter, Herbert Marcuse and Wolf Biermann. In 1982 he wrote an article on the idea of a red/green coalition for a book at Olle & Wolter, Berlin; this appeared later in "Die Zeit". Chancellor Willy Brandt, the SPD and SI chairman, who reviewed Olle & Wolter at that time, had just asked for more books on the subject. In 1980 Gerhard Schröder was elected to the German Bundestag (federal parliament), where he wore a sweater instead of the traditional suit. He became chairman of the SPD Hanover district. In 1985, Schröder met the GDR leader Erich Honecker during a visit to East Berlin. In 1986, Schröder was elected to the parliament of Lower Saxony and became leader of the SPD group. After the SPD won the state elections in June 1990, he became Prime Minister of Lower Saxony as head of an SPD-Greens coalition; in this position, he also won the 1994 and 1998 state elections.
In federal politics
Following his election as Minister-President in 1990, Schröder became a member of the board of the federal SPD. In 1997 and 1998 he served as President of the Bundesrat, but he left office on 27 October, three days before his term expired, when he became Chancellor as head of an SPD-Green coalition. At the 22 September 2002 general elections, he secured another four-year term, with a narrow nine-seat majority (down from 21). After the resignation of Oskar Lafontaine as SPD Chairman in March 1999, in protest at Schröder's adoption of a number of what Lafontaine considered "neo-liberal" policies, Schröder took over his rival's office as well. In February 2004, he resigned as chairman of the SPD. Franz Müntefering succeeded him as chairman.
On 22 May 2005, after the SPD lost to the Christian Democrats (CDU) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Gerhard Schröder announced he would call federal elections "as soon as possible". A motion of confidence was subsequently defeated in the Bundestag on 1 July 2005 by 151 to 296 (with 148 abstaining), after Schröder urged members not to vote for his government in order to trigger new elections.
The 2005 German federal elections were held on 18 September. After the elections, neither Schröder's SPD-Green coalition nor the alliance between CDU/CSU and the FDP led by Angela Merkel achieved a majority in parliament, but the CDU/CSU had a stronger popular electoral lead by one percentage point. Since the SPD had been trailing the CDU by more than 15 points only weeks before the election, this outcome was a surprise and was mainly attributed to Schröder's charisma and prowess as a campaigner; polls consistently showed that he was much more popular with the German people than Merkel. On election night, both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory and chancellorship, but after initially ruling out a grand coalition with Merkel, Schröder and Müntefering entered negotiations with her and the CSU's Edmund Stoiber. On 10 October, it was announced that the parties had agreed to form a grand coalition. Schröder agreed to cede the chancellorship to Merkel, but the SPD would hold the majority of government posts and retain considerable control of government policy. Merkel was elected chancellor on 22 November.
On 11 October, Schröder announced that he would not take a post in the new Cabinet and, in November, he confirmed that he would leave politics as soon as Merkel took office. On 23 November 2005, he resigned his Bundestag seat. Subsequently, he joined Ringier AG, the publisher of some of the leading newspapers and magazines in Switzerland and Europe, as a Zurich-based political consultant and lobbyist. On 14 November, at the SPD conference in Karlsruhe, Schröder urged members of the SPD to support the proposed coalition, saying it "carries unmistakably, perhaps primarily, the imprint of the Social Democrats". Many SPD members had previously indicated that they supported the coalition, which would have continued the policies of Schröder's government, but had objected to Angela Merkel replacing him as Chancellor. The conference voted overwhelmingly to approve the deal.
In its first term, Schröder's government decided to phase out nuclear power, fund renewable energies, institute civil unions which enabled same-sex partners to enter into a civil union, and liberalize naturalization law. Most voters associated Schröder with the Agenda 2010 reform program, which included cuts in the social welfare system (national health insurance, unemployment payments, pensions), lowered taxes, and reformed regulations on employment and payment.
After the 2002 election, the SPD steadily lost support in opinion polls. Many increasingly perceived Schröder's Third Way program to be a dismantling of the German welfare state. Moreover, Germany's high unemployment rate remained a serious problem for the government. Schröder's tax policies were also unpopular; when the satirical radio show The Gerd Show released Der Steuersong, featuring Schröder's voice (by impressionist Elmar Brandt) lampooning Germany's indirect taxation with the lyrics "Dog tax, tobacco tax, emissions and environmental tax, did you really think more weren't coming?", it became Germany's 2002 Christmas No. 1 chart hit and sold over a million copies. The fact that Schröder served on the Volkswagen board (a position that came with his position as minister-president of Lower Saxony) and tended to prefer pro-car policies led to him being nicknamed the "Auto-Kanzler" (car chancellor).
Schröder sent forces to Kosovo and to Afghanistan as part of NATO operations. Until Schröder's Chancellorship, German troops had not taken part in combat actions since World War II. With Germany having a long experience with terrorism itself, Schröder declared solidarity with the United States after the September 11 terrorist attacks. When Schröder left office Germany had 2,000 troops in Afghanistan, the largest contingent from any nation other than the United States, Britain, France, Canada and after 2 years Afghanistan.
Along with French President Jacques Chirac and many other world leaders, Schröder spoke out strongly against the 2003 invasion of Iraq and refused any military assistance in that enterprise. Schröder's stance caused political friction between the U.S. and Germany, in particular because he used this topic for his 2002 election campaign. Schröder's stance set the stage for alleged anti-American statements by members of the SPD. The parliamentary leader of the SPD, Ludwig Stiegler, compared U.S. President George W. Bush to Julius Caesar while Schröder's Minister of Justice, Herta Däubler-Gmelin, likened Bush's foreign policy to that of Adolf Hitler. Schröder's critics accused him of enhancing, and campaigning on, anti-American sentiments in Germany. Since his 2002 re-election, Schröder and Bush rarely met and their animosity was seen as a widening political gap between the U.S. and Europe. Bush stated in his memoirs that Schröder initially promised to support the Iraq war but changed his mind with the upcoming German elections and public opinion strongly against the invasion, to which Schröder responded saying that Bush was “not telling the truth”.
On 1 August 2004, the 60th anniversary of the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, he apologised to Poland for "the immeasurable suffering" of its people during the conflict. He was the first German chancellor to be invited to an anniversary of the uprising. In addition to a friendly relationship with Jacques Chirac, Schröder cultivated close ties with Russian President Vladimir Putin, in an attempt to strengthen the "strategic partnership" between Berlin and Moscow, including the opening of a gas pipeline from Russian Dan Marino-Pipelines over the Baltic Sea exclusively between Russia and Germany (see "Gazprom controversy" below).
Schröder was criticized in the media, and subsequently by Angela Merkel, for calling Putin a "flawless democrat" on 22 November 2004, only days before Putin prematurely congratulated Viktor Yanukovich during the Orange Revolution. Only a few days after his chancellorship, Schröder joined the board of directors of the joint venture. Thus bringing about new speculations about his prior objectivity. In his memoirs Decisions: My Life in Politics, Schröder still defends his friend and political ally, and states that "it would be wrong to place excessive demands on Russia when it comes to the rate of domestic political reform and democratic development, or to judge it solely on the basis of the Chechnya conflict."
Schröder has criticised some European countries' swift decision to recognise Kosovo as an independent state after it declared independence in February 2008. He believes the decision was taken under heavy pressure from the U.S. government and has caused more problems, including the weakening of the so-called pro-EU forces in Serbia. In August 2008, Schröder laid the blame for the 2008 South Ossetia war squarely on Mikhail Saakashvili and "the West", hinting at American foreknowledge and refusing to criticize any aspect of Russian policy which had thus far come to light.
In March 2014, Schröder likened Russia's intervention in Crimea with NATO's intervention in Kosovo, citing both cases as violations of international law and the UN Charter. He further stated that there had been “unhappy developments” on the outskirts of the former Soviet Union since the end of the Cold War, leading Putin to develop justifiable “fears about being encircled”. On 13 March 2014, an attempt by the German Green Party to ban Mr Schroeder from speaking in public about Ukraine was narrowly defeated in the European parliament. His decision to celebrate his 70th birthday party with Putin in Saint Petersburg’s Yusupov Palace in late April elicited further criticism from several members of Merkel’s Social Democrat coalition, including human rights spokesperson Christoph Strasser.
Schröder has been married four times:
- Eva Schubach (married 1968, divorced 1972);
- Anne Taschenmacher (married 1972, divorced 1984);
- Hiltrud Hampel ("Hillu"; married 1984, divorced 1997);
- Doris Köpf (married 1997).
Doris Köpf has a daughter from a previous relationship with a television journalist. She lives with the couple. In July 2004, Schröder and Köpf adopted a child from St. Petersburg. In 2006, they adopted another child from St. Petersburg. When not in Berlin, Schröder lives in Hanover.
Schröder identifies himself as a member of the Evangelical Church in Germany, but does not appear to be religious. He did not add the optional phrase So wahr mir Gott helfe ("so help me God") when sworn in as chancellor for his first term in 1998.
Schröder's plans after leaving office as Chancellor and resigning his Bundestag seat include resuming his law practice in Berlin and writing a book. He will also be retained by the Swiss publisher Ringier AG as a consultant. He rents an apartment in Berlin while retaining his primary residence in Hanover. As a former Chancellor, he is entitled to a permanent office, also situated in Berlin. He spent time improving his English language skills.
Criticism and controversies
As Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder was a strong advocate of the Nord Stream pipeline project, which aims to supply Russian gas directly to Germany, thereby bypassing transit countries. The agreement to build the pipeline was signed two weeks before the German parliamentary election. On 24 October 2005, just a few weeks before Schröder stepped down as Chancellor, the German government guaranteed to cover 1 billion euros of the Nord Stream project cost, should Gazprom default on a loan. However, this guarantee had never been used. Soon after stepping down as chancellor, Schröder accepted Gazprom's nomination for the post of the head of the shareholders' committee of Nord Stream AG, raising questions about a potential conflict of interest. German opposition parties expressed concern over the issue, as did the governments of countries over whose territory gas is currently pumped. In an editorial entitled Gerhard Schroeder's Sellout, the American newspaper The Washington Post also expressed sharp criticism, reflecting widening international ramifications of Schröder's new post. Democrat Tom Lantos, chairman of the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs, likened Schröder to a "political prostitute" for his recent behaviour. In January 2009, the Wall Street Journal reported that Schröder would join the board of the oil company TNK-BP, a joint venture between oil major BP and Russian partners.
In April 2002, Schröder sued the DDP press agency for publishing an opinion of public relations consultant Sabine Schwind saying that he "would be more credible if he didn't dye his gray hair". The court decided to ban the media from suggesting that he colours his hair. The Chancellor's spokesman said: "This is not a frivolous action taken over whether he does or doesn't dye his hair, but is a serious issue regarding his word." The agency's lawyer said that they could not accept a verdict which "does not coincide with freedom of the press."
Dispute over Estonian war memorial
During a heated dispute between Russia and Estonia in May 2007 over the removal of a Soviet-era war memorial from the centre of the Estonian capital Tallinn to a military cemetery, Schröder defended the Kremlin's reaction. He remarked that Estonia had contradicted "every form of civilised behaviour". Consequently, the Estonian government cancelled a planned visit by Schröder in his function as chairman of Nord Stream AG, which promotes the petroleum pipeline from Russia to Germany.
Schröder's first cabinet (27 October 1998 – 22 October 2002)
- Gerhard Schröder (SPD), Chancellor.
- Joschka Fischer (Greens), Vice Chancellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs.
- Bodo Hombach (SPD), Minister for Special Affairs and Chief of the Chancellery.
- Rudolf Scharping (SPD), Minister of Defence.
- Otto Schily (SPD), Minister of the Interior.
- Oskar Lafontaine (SPD), Minister of Finance.
- Herta Däubler-Gmelin (SPD), Minister of Justice.
- de, Minister of Economics.
- Walter Riester (SPD), Minister of Labour and Social Affairs.
- de (SPD), Minister of Food, Agriculture, and Forestry.
- Franz Müntefering (SPD), Minister of Transport and Construction.
- de (SPD), Minister of Family, Senior Citizens, Women, and Youth.
- Andrea Fischer (Greens), Minister of Health.
- Edelgard Bulmahn (SPD), Minister of Education and Research.
- Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul (SPD), Minister of Economic Co-operation and Development.
- Jürgen Trittin (Greens), Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Security.
- 18 March 1999: Lafontaine quits the government, Werner Müller fills in as acting Minister of Finance.
- 12 April 1999: Hans Eichel (SPD) succeeds Lafontaine as Minister of Finance.
- 31 July 1999: Frank-Walter Steinmeier (SPD) succeeds Hombach
- 7 October 1999: Reinhard Klimmt (SPD) succeeds Müntefering as Minister of Transport and Construction.
- 20 November 2000: Kurt Bodewig (SPD) succeeds Klimmt as Minister of Transport and Construction.
- 18 January 2001: Renate Künast (Greens) succeeds Funke as Minister of Consumer Protection, Food, and Agriculture. Ulla Schmidt (SPD) succeeds Fischer as Minister of Health.
- 19 July 2002: Peter Struck (SPD) succeeds Scharping as Minister of Defence.
- Däubler-Gmelin was dropped from ministerial duties in Schröder's second chancellorship because of comments comparing US President George W. Bush to Adolf Hitler.
Schröder's second cabinet (22 October 2002 – 21 November 2005)
- Gerhard Schröder (SPD), Chancellor.
- Joschka Fischer (Gr), Vice Chancellor and Minister of Foreign Affairs.
- Peter Struck (SPD), Minister of Defence.
- Otto Schily (SPD), Minister of the Interior.
- Hans Eichel (SPD), Minister of Finance.
- Brigitte Zypries (SPD), Minister of Justice.
- Wolfgang Clement (SPD), Minister of Economics and Labour.
- Renate Künast (Gr), Minister of Consumer Protection, Food, and Agriculture.
- Manfred Stolpe (SPD), Minister of Transport, Construction, and Eastern Reconstruction.
- Renate Schmidt (SPD), Minister of Family, Senior Citizens, Women, and Youth.
- Ulla Schmidt (SPD), Minister of Health and Social Affairs.
- Edelgard Bulmahn (SPD), Minister of Education and Research.
- Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul (SPD), Minister of Economic Co-operation and Development.
- Jürgen Trittin (Gr), Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Security.
Awards and honours
- Order of the White Eagle (Poland, 2002)
- Schröder has been awarded honorary doctorates by
- Honorary citizen of Hanover (24 February 2006)
- Knight Grand Cross of the Grand Order of Queen Jelena 24 April 2007, "for exceptional merit in the recognition of Croatia and the support of Croatia on the road to the EU".
- Quadriga Prize (2007)
- Elected a corresponding member of the Department of Social Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (28 May 2008)
- Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania
- Béla Anda, Rolf Kleine: Gerhard Schröder. Eine Biographie. Ullstein, Berlin 1996, ISBN 3-550-07092-6 (updated 2nd edition Ullstein, 2002, ISBN 3-548-36387-3).
- de:Jürgen Hogrefe: Gerhard Schröder: Ein Porträt. Siedler Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-88680-757-6.
- de:Reinhard Urschel: Gerhard Schröder. DVA, 2002, ISBN 3-421-05508-4.
- Gerhard Schröder and Ulrich Wickert: Deutschland wird selbstbewusster. Hohenheim-Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-89850-010-1.
- de:Gregor Schöllgen: Gerhard Schröder. Die Biographie. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2015, ISBN 978-3421046536.
- "Altkanzler: Gerhard Schröder und seine Mutter Erika Vosseler - Bilder & Fotos - DIE WELT". Welt.de. Retrieved 2015-12-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Zivildienst: Hat sich Joschka Fischer gedrückt?". Spiegel.de. 17 April 2001. Retrieved 17 March 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Thaler, Thorsten (8 May 1998). "Gerhard-Schröder-Biographie: Horst Mahler stellt das Buch eines Konservativen vor Hoffnung keimt im Verborgenen". Junge Freiheit (in German). Retrieved 7 November 2007. <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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- "Schroeder: Kosovo recognition "against Europe's interests"". B92. 5 May 2008. Retrieved 5 May 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gerhard Schröder.|
- Official Homepage of Gerhard Schröder
- Gerhard Schröder's presence on facebook
- (German) Pictures "Spuren der Macht"
- From Ironmonger's Apprentice to Chancellor, Deutsche Welle, July 2005
- Profile: Gerhard Schroeder, BBC News, July 2005
- The Modern Chancellor: Taking Stock of Gerhard Schröder, Der Spiegel Online, 14 October 2005
- Gerhard Schröder: The Man Who Rescued the German Economy by Raymond Zhong, Wall Street Journal, 7 July 2012
|Prime Minister of Lower Saxony
|President of the Bundesrat
|Chancellor of Germany
|Party political offices|
|Leader of the Social Democratic Party
|Chairperson of the G8