Gilbert Sheldon

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The Right Reverend
Gilbert Sheldon
Archbishop of Canterbury
Gilbert Sheldon by Sir Peter Lely.jpg
Church Church of England
Province Province of Canterbury
Diocese Diocese of Canterbury
Elected 11 August 1663 (elected); 31 August 1663 (election confirmed)
Installed 7 September 1663 (by proxy)
Term ended 9 November 1677 (death)
Predecessor William Juxon
Successor William Sancroft
Other posts Dean of the Chapel Royal (1660–1663)
Bishop of London (1660–1663)
Master of the Savoy (1661–1663)
Chancellor of the University of Oxford (1667–1669)
Personal details
Born (1598-06-19)19 June 1598
Stanton, Staffordshire
Died 9 November 1677(1677-11-09) (aged 79)
Lambeth Palace, Surrey
Buried Croydon parish church, Surrey
Nationality English
Denomination Anglican
Parents Roger Sheldon
Profession Theologian
Alma mater Trinity College, Oxford

Gilbert Sheldon (19 June 1598 – 9 November 1677) was an English Archbishop of Canterbury.

Early life

He was born in Stanton, Staffordshire in the parish of Ellastone, on 19 June 1598, (according to an entry in Sheldon's family Bible, now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, which states in handwriting, 'Gilb. Sheldon, borne June 19, 1598.'), the youngest son of Roger Sheldon; his father worked for Gilbert Talbot, 7th Earl of Shrewsbury. He was educated at Trinity College, Oxford; he matriculated at Oxford on 1 July 1614, graduated BA from Trinity College on 27 November 1617, and MA(Oxon) on 28 June 1620. In 1619 he was incorporated at Cambridge.[2] In 1622 he was elected fellow of All Souls' College, where he took the degrees of BD on 11 November 1628 and DD on 25 June 1634. In 1622 he was ordained, and shortly afterwards he became domestic chaplain to Thomas Coventry, 1st Baron Coventry.[3]

In March 1626 he was elected warden of All Souls' on the death of Richard Astley. He had already made the acquaintance of William Laud, and corresponded with him on college business, university politics, and on the conversion of William Chillingworth from Roman Catholicism. Sheldon was not initially a Laudian, and he resisted (unsuccessfully) Laud's appointment of Jeremy Taylor to a fellowship at All Souls'. In 1634 and 1640 he was pro-vice-chancellor. In 1638 he was on the commission of visitation for Merton College; the visit produced a report requiring reforms.[3]

During the years 1632–1639 he received the livings of Hackney (1633); Oddington, Oxfordshire; Ickford, Buckinghamshire (1636); and Newington, Oxfordshire; besides being a prebendary of Gloucester from 1632. Sheldon gravitated towards the Great Tew circle of Lucius Cary (Falkland), and was on friendly terms with Edward Hyde; he had no Puritan sympathies. He became a royal chaplain through Coventry, and the king intended preferment for him, plans interrupted by the political crises.[3]

Civil War period

He was intimate with the Royalist leaders, and participated in the negotiations for the Uxbridge treaty of 1645. During this period he became with Henry Hammond one of the churchmen closest to the king, and attended him in Oxford, later in Newmarket, Suffolk and finally in the Isle of Wight. When the parliamentarians occupied Oxford in 1646 he resisted the visitation, but was finally and physically ejected from All Souls in early 1648. Taken into custody, he was to have been imprisoned in Wallingford Castle with Hammond but the commander was unwilling to have them. He was freed, with restrictions on his movements, later that year.[3]

He lived quietly for a dozen years in the Midlands, at Snelston in Derbyshire or with friends in Staffordshire and Nottinghamshire. He was active in fundraising for the poor clergy and for Charles II in exile. He corresponded with Jeremy Taylor, whom he supported, and with Hyde. On the death of John Palmer, whom the visitors had made warden of All Souls' in his place, on 4 March 1659, he was quietly reinstated.[3]

Bishop of London

On 21 September 1660, Sheldon was nominated Bishop of London; he was elected on 9 October and his election confirmed on 23 October. On 28 October, he was consecrated in the Henry VII Chapel at Westminster Abbey; he had been made Dean of the Chapel Royal not long before and became Master of the Savoy not long after. Since William Juxon was now Archbishop of Canterbury, but was aged and infirm, Sheldon in practical terms exercised many of the powers of the archbishopric in the period to 1663, and he was on the privy council. He was commissioned to consecrate the new Scottish bishops.[3]

The Savoy Conference of 1661 was held at his lodgings. He hardly participated, but was understood to be pulling strings in terms of the outcome. In his formulation, Puritan objections should be set out and considered; the point of the Conference was liturgical, to look into reform of the Book of Common Prayer. The subsequent Uniformity Act 1662 was very much in line with Sheldon's thinking.[3] The Act was a sequel to Sheldon's successful orchestration of opposition to Charles II's intended Declaration of Indulgence, earlier in 1662.[4]

Archbishop of Canterbury

He was translated to become Archbishop of Canterbury in 1663: the congé d'élire was issued on 14 July, Sheldon was elected on 11 August, royal assent was given on 20 August and his election was confirmed (in a legal ceremony by which he officially took his new post) on 31 August at Lambeth Palace;[N 1][5] he was enthroned by proxy and vested with the temporalities on 7 September.[6] He was greatly interested in the welfare of the University of Oxford, of which he became Chancellor in 1667, succeeding Lord Clarendon, as Hyde now was. The Sheldonian Theatre at Oxford was built and endowed at his expense.[3]

He accepted much purely secular work, acting as arbiter on petitions presented through him, and taking up investigations passed on by the king, especially in connection with the navy. Sheldon lost political influence after the fall of Clarendon in 1667, and by making Charles's philandering a matter of religious reproach. He was vocal against the Royal Declaration of Indulgence of 1672.[3][4] He is depicted in a window in Gray's Inn Chapel.

Sheldon is mentioned in Pepys' Diary who relates a story from his "Cozen Roger" that "...the Archbishop of Canterbury that now is, do keep a wench, and that he is a very wencher as can be and tells us that is publicly known that Sir Charles Sedley had got away one of the Archbishop's wenches from him..." There is in fact no credible evidence that Sheldon led an immoral life, and a later entry in Pepys' Diary praises the Archbishop as a "stout and high spirited man", who openly spoke his mind to the King on matters of morality.

Sheldon never married: this may have inspired the gossip reported by Pepys about his immoral private life. His niece, Catherine, married John Dolben, Archbishop of York.

Sheldon was buried in Croydon Parish Church, now renamed as Croydon Minster.


  1. The bishops present to confirm Sheldon's election were: George Morley, Bishop of Winchester; William Piers, Bishop of Bath and Wells; Robert Skinner, Bishop of Oxford; Humphrey Henchman, Bishop of Salisbury; Seth Ward, Bishop of Exeter; and John Earle, Bishop of Worcester.


  1. Perceval, A.P. An Apology for the Doctrine of Apostolical Succession: with an Appendix on the English Orders p. 206 (Google Books)
  2. "Sheldon, Gilbert (SHLN619G)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8  Hutton, William Holden (1897). [ "Sheldon, Gilbert" ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). In Lee, Sidney (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography. 52. London: Smith, Elder & Co.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ronald H. Fritze, William B. Robison, Historical Dictionary of Stuart England, 1603–1689 (1996), p. 492
  5. Lambeth Palace Library Research Guide – Places of Confirmation of Election of Archbishops of Canterbury (Accessed 31 July 2013)
  6. Horn, Joyce M., Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857, 3, pp. 8–12<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (Accessed 31 July 2013)


  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain[ "Sheldon, Gilbert" ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Further reading

  • Victor D. Sutch (1973), Gilbert Sheldon, Architect of Anglican Survival 1640–1675
Church of England titles
Title last held by
William Juxon
Bishop of London
Succeeded by
Humphrey Henchman
Preceded by
William Juxon
Archbishop of Canterbury
Succeeded by
William Sancroft
Academic offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Clarendon
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
Succeeded by
The Duke of Ormonde