Greater Middle East

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  Traditional definition of the Middle East
  G8 definition of the Middle East
  Areas sometimes associated with the Middle East (socio-political connections)

The Greater Middle East was a political term coined by the second Bush administration in the first decade of the 21st century,[1] to denote various countries, pertaining to the Muslim world, specifically Iran, Turkey, Afghanistan and Pakistan.[2] Various countries in the South Caucasus and Central Asia are sometimes also included. Some speakers may use the term to denote areas with significant Muslim majorities, but this usage is not universal.[3] The Greater Middle East is sometimes referred to as "The New Middle East",[4] or "The Great Middle East Project".[5][6]

This expanded term was introduced in the U.S. administration's preparatory work for the G8 summit of 2004[7] as part of a proposal for sweeping change in the way the West deals with the Middle East.

Former U.S. National Security Advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, alluded to the modern Middle East as a control lever on an area he calls the Eurasian Balkans.[citation needed][8] The Eurasian Balkans consists of the Caucasus (Georgia, the Republic of Armenia, and Azerbaijan) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan,[citation needed] and Tajikistan). Turkey and Iran form the northernmost part of the Middle East (although some part of both counties lies in the Caucasus).

Countries and territories of the Middle East according to the G8

Countries sometimes associated with the Greater Middle East

See also


  1. Haeri, Safa (2004-03-03). "Concocting a 'Greater Middle East' brew". Asia Times. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  2. Ottaway, Marina & Carothers, Thomas (2004-03-29), The Greater Middle East Initiative: Off to a False Start, Policy Brief, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 29, Pages 1-7
  3. Dimitri Kitsikis, «Les frontières de sang - Géopolitique d'un Proche-Orient à venir»,Diplomatie, no.24, janvier-février 2007
  4. Nazemroaya, Mahdi Darius (2006-11-18). "Plans for Redrawing the Middle East: The Project for a "New Middle East"". Global Research. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  5. “Great Middle East Project” Conference by Prof. Dr. Mahir Kaynak and Ast.Prof. Dr. Emin Gürses in SAU
  6. Turkish Emek Political Parties
  7. Perthes, V., 2004, America's "Greater Middle East" and Europe: Key Issues for Dialogue, Middle East Policy, Volume XI, No.3, Pages 85-97.
  8. Zbigniew Brzezinski, "The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geo-strategic Imperatives"[page needed] Cited in (Nazemroaya, 2006).

External links