Green Bay, Wisconsin

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Green Bay, Wisconsin
Downtown Green Bay
Downtown Green Bay
Official seal of Green Bay, Wisconsin
Nickname(s): "Titletown", "Bayland", "Bay City", "Packerland", and "Packer City"
Location in Brown County and the state of Wisconsin.
Location in Brown County and the state of Wisconsin.
Green Bay, Wisconsin is located in USA
Green Bay, Wisconsin
Green Bay, Wisconsin
Location in the United States
Coordinates: Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.[1]
Country United States
State Wisconsin
County Brown
 • Mayor Jim Schmitt
 • City 55.96 sq mi (144.94 km2)
 • Land 45.47 sq mi (117.77 km2)
 • Water 10.49 sq mi (27.17 km2)
Elevation 581 ft (177 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • City 104,057
 • Estimate (2013)[4] 104,779
 • Rank US: 272nd
 • Density 2,288.5/sq mi (883.6/km2)
 • Urban 206,520 (US: 176th)
 • Metro 312,409 (US: 158th)
Time zone Central (UTC−6)
 • Summer (DST) CDT (UTC−5)
Area code(s) 920
FIPS code 55-31000[5]
GNIS feature ID 1565801[6]

Green Bay is a city in and the county seat of Brown County in the State of Wisconsin,[7] located at the head of Green Bay, a sub-basin of Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Fox River. It has an elevation of 581 feet (177 m) above sea level and is located 112 miles (180 km) north of Milwaukee. The population was 104,057 at the 2010 census.[5] It is the third-largest city in the state of Wisconsin, after Milwaukee and Madison. It is also the third-largest city on the west shore of Lake Michigan, after Chicago and Milwaukee. Green Bay is home to the National Football League Green Bay Packers.

Green Bay is the principal city of the Green Bay Metropolitan Statistical Area, which covers Brown, Kewaunee, and Oconto counties;[8] the MSA had a combined population of 306,241 at the 2010 census.[5]

Green Bay is an industrial city with several meatpacking and paper plants, and a port on Green Bay, an arm of Lake Michigan that locals call the Bay of Green Bay, to avoid conflating it with the eponymous city. It is home to the National Railroad Museum; the Neville Public Museum, with exhibitions of art, history, and science; the Children's Museum; and the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay.


Jean Nicolet was commissioned by Samuel de Champlain, the founder of New France, to form a peaceful alliance with Indians in the western areas whose unrest was interfering with French fur trade. In addition, he was to explore in hopes of finding a shorter trade route to China through Canada. Nicolet and others had learned from other First Nations of the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) people, who identified as "People of the Sea", and believed they must reside on or near the Pacific Ocean.[9] Champlain had also heard about natural resources in the area, including fertile soil, forests, and animals. Nicolet set out on his journey for this new land shortly before winter in 1634.[10] In what later became a French fur-trading route, he sailed up the Ottawa River, through Lake Nipissing and down the French River to Lake Huron, then through the straits of Michilimackinac into Lake Michigan. He is believed to have landed at Red Banks, near the site of the modern-day city of Green Bay, Wisconsin.[11]

Nicolet founded a small trading post here in 1634, originally named La Baye or La Baie des Puants (French for "the stinking Bay").[12] From this, Green Bay claims to be one of the oldest European permanent settlements in America, but a 1671 Jesuit mission was the first true European outpost. When Nicolet arrived in the Green Bay area, he encountered the Menominee, as this was their territory. He also met the Ho-Chunk, also known as the Winnebago, a people who spoke a Sioux language. Besides hunting and fishing, the Winnebago cultivated corn, bean, squash, and tobacco. Wild rice, which they had incorporated as a dietary staple, grew in abundance along the riverbanks. They regularly harvested and cooked this, along with a wide variety of nuts, berries, and edible roots of the woods.[13]

The tribe had clearly distinguished gender roles. The men typically hunted and fished for food, and the women processed game and other foods in cooking. They also prepared the furs and made clothing from them, in addition to using other parts of animals for tools, cord, etc. Women also had a role in the political process, as no action could be taken without agreement of half of the women. Nicolet stayed with this tribe for about a year, becoming an ally. He helped open up opportunities for trade and commerce with them before returning to Quebec.[13]

A few months after Nicolet returned to Quebec, Champlain died. His death put a halt to other journeys to La Baie Verte (French for The Green Bay). Pere Claude Allouez sent Nicolas Perrot to La Baie. After this, the French avoided the area for some decades because of the intensity of First Nations and European conflicts in the east. In 1671, a Jesuit Mission was set up in the area. A fort was not added until 1717 and gradually associated development took place. The town was incorporated in 1754. As Great Britain took control of French areas during the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in some areas of North America, this town came under British control in 1761. The French ceded their North American lands East of the Mississippi River to the British following defeat in 1763.

1867 bird's eye illustration of Green Bay

The first permanent French settlers were Charles de Langlade and his family from Canada, who moved to Green Bay in 1765, becoming the first European-American settlers in today's Wisconsin. Langlade, called the "Founder and Father of Wisconsin", was an Ottawa war chief with a French father. He is credited with planning the ambush of British General Braddock and George Washington in the French and Indian War. The Grignons, Porliers and Lawes who followed brought Canadian-French culture with them. Colorful "jack-knife Judge" Reaume dispensed British justice in the territory.[13] These early French settlers set the tone for many who followed.

Built in 1837, the Hazelwood Historic House Museum is on the National Register of Historic Places and is now used as the Brown County Historical Society.[14]

The British gradually took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette. The first permanent settlers, mostly French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control. Charles Michel de Langlade is generally recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, and moving there permanently in 1764.[15] Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781. The French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the town as "La Bey", however British fur traders referred to it as "Green Bay", because the water and the shore assumed green tints in early spring. The old French title was gradually dropped, and the British name of "Green Bay" eventually stuck. The region coming under British rule had virtually no adverse effect on the French residents as the British needed the cooperation of the French fur traders and the French fur traders needed the goodwill of the British. During the French occupation of the region licenses for fur trading had been issued scarcely and only to select groups of traders, whereas the British, in an effort to make as much money as possible from the region, issued licenses for fur trading freely, both to British and French residents. The fur trade in what is now Wisconsin reached its height under British rule, and the first self-sustaining farms in the state were established as well. From 1763 to 1780, Green Bay was a prosperous community which produced its own foodstuff, built graceful cottages and held dances and festivities.[16]

The Green Bay area was still under British control until the 1783 treaty formally ended the American Revolutionary War. Following the War of 1812, which in part was over disputes related to the border with Canada, the United States built Fort Howard on the Fox River in 1816 to protect its northern border.[13] Doty, Whitney, Arndt, Baird and Martin were among the many British-American settlers whose numbers pushed French culture into the background.[13] As British settlers in the area came to outnumber the French, they referred to the town as "Green Bay" (from the French: Baie Verte).

The Erie Canal was completed in 1825, linking New England with the Great Lakes. This led to the advance of Green Bay as a trading center. The end of the Black Hawk War in 1832 also gave impetus to settlement of the region. Most of the settlers were farmers from New England who began using the Erie Canal to pour into Wisconsin. As more and more New England settlers arrived, Green Bay developed into a trading center for this population.[17]

Before Wisconsin became a state in 1848, its commerce was based on the fur trade, which became dominated by John Jacob Astor's American Fur Company. After statehood, there was a shift away from fur trading toward lumbering. "For a short time in 1860s and 1870s, iron smelting in charcoal kilns rivaled the timber industry while the port handled increasing amounts of fuel, feed, and lumber. Today's major local industry had its start in 1865 when the first paper mill was built."[13]

Wisconsin's first newspaper, The Green Bay Intelligencer, was started in 1833 by Albert Ellis and John V. Suydam. The borough of Green Bay was created in 1838 and is the main center of the current city. The borough combined the town of Astoria (a company town of the American Fur Company), with Navarino, platted by Daniel Whitney.[18]

By 1850 the town had a population of 1,923. The town was incorporated as the city of Green Bay in 1854. The Green Bay Area Public School District was founded in 1856.[13]

Throughout the 1850s, word spread of America's cheap land and good soil, bringing in an influx of Belgian people, German, Scandinavian, Irish and Dutch immigrants, each adding to the culture. The greatest concentration of newcomers came from Belgium. They cleared the land to farm and build their homes.[13]

The railroad arrived in the 1860s. Chicago and Northwestern Railroad companies were formed, which allowed people and products to travel all over the state, increasing business and trade opportunities. The area was able to grow and enrich itself with the use of the river and the plentiful timber resources. This led to the paper industry becoming the major employer in Green Bay, and opened up the port for international trade.[10]

Facing east across the Fox River to downtown Green Bay.

In 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt came to Green Bay to honor its tercentenary.[12] By 1950 the city had a population of 52,735. In 1964, the Town of Preble was consolidated with the city of Green Bay.[19]


Green Bay is located in the northeastern part of Wisconsin at the mouth of the Fox River. Today, Interstate 43 meets U.S. Route 41 in Green Bay, about 90 miles (140 km) north of Milwaukee.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 55.96 square miles (144.94 km2), of which, 45.47 square miles (117.77 km2) is land and 10.49 square miles (27.17 km2) is water.[2]


Green Bay has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb),[20] with some moderation due to the city's proximity to Lake Michigan. Like other cities with this type of climate, there are four distinct seasons, often with severe or extreme variation between them in terms of temperature and precipitation. Green Bay experiences warm, humid, frequently hot summers and long, cold and snowy winters. The variance in temperature and precipitation between months is severe and often extreme. Tornadoes are rare in the Green Bay area, with the strongest being an F3 tornado that hit the community of Pittsfield on June 26, 1969.[21]


Monthly mean temperatures range from 16.6 °F (−8.6 °C) in January to 69.1 °F (20.6 °C) in July.[22] In July, the warmest month, the average high temperature is 81.2 °F (27.3 °C).[22] There are 6.1 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs, 68 days where the high remains at or below freezing, and 19 days with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows annually. From December to February, even during thaws, the temperature rarely reaches 50 °F (10 °C). Extremes have ranged from −36 °F (−38 °C) on January 21, 1888 to 104 °F (40 °C) on July 13, 1936.


The wettest month in Green Bay is August, when 3.77 inches (95.8 mm) of precipitation falls, mostly in the form of rainfall from thunderstorms. The driest month in Green Bay is February, when the majority of precipitation falls as low moisture-content snow due to cold, dry air. On average, 1.01 inches (25.7 mm) of precipitation falls in February.


Historical population
Census Pop.
1860 2,276
1870 4,698 106.4%
1880 7,476 59.1%
1890 9,069 21.3%
1900 23,748 161.9%
1910 25,216 6.2%
1920 31,643 25.5%
1930 37,407 18.2%
1940 46,205 23.5%
1950 52,735 14.1%
1960 62,952 19.4%
1970 87,829 39.5%
1980 87,947 0.1%
1990 96,466 9.7%
2000 102,313 6.1%
2010 104,057 1.7%
Est. 2014 104,891 [25] 0.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[26]
2013 Estimate[4]

2010 census

As of the census[3] of 2010, there were 104,057 people, 42,244 households, and 24,699 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,288.5 inhabitants per square mile (883.6/km2). There were 45,241 housing units at an average density of 995.0 per square mile (384.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 77.9% White, 3.5% African American, 4.1% Native American, 4.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 7.2% from other races, and 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.4% of the population.

There were 42,244 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.5% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 3.06.

The median age in the city was 33.7 years. 24.7% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.7% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.7% were from 25 to 44; 24.5% were from 45 to 64; and 11.3% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.4% male and 50.6% female.

2000 census

As of the census of 2000,[5] there were 102,313 people, 41,591 households, and 24,663 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,332.1 people per square mile (900.5/km2). There were 43,123 housing units at an average density of 982.9 per square mile (379.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.86% White, 1.38% African American, 3.28% Native American, 3.76% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 3.72% from other races, and 1.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.13% of the population.

There were 41,591 households of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.7% were non-families. About 31.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 19.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 97.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.8 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $38,820, and the median income for a family was $48,678. Males had a median income of $33,246 versus $23,825 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,269. About 7.4% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under the age of 18 and 9.2% of those 65 and older.


Green Bay is governed by a mayor and a city council. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The city council consists of 12 members each elected from districts.

City Hall
W. C. E. Thomas, first mayor of Green Bay
US Army 101, on display at the National Railroad Museum.
Weidner Center, part of UW–Green Bay
Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier
WBAY-TV studio.

Green Bay is represented by Reid Ribble (R) in the United States House of Representatives, and by Ron Johnson (R) and Tammy Baldwin (D) in the United States Senate. Frank Lasee (R), Robert Cowles (R), and Dave Hansen (D) represent Green Bay in the Wisconsin State Senate, and Garey Bies (R), Chad Weininger (R), John Klenke (R), and Eric Genrich (D) represent Green Bay in the Wisconsin State Assembly.

Law enforcement

The Green Bay Police Department was established in on August 27, 1857, when the Green Bay Police Corps was established, and Henry Baird was named Chief of Police. The Green Bay Police Department provides many specialized services such as a Dive Team, Harbor Patrol, Motorcycle Patrol, and a S.W.A.T. Team.

Since the establishment of the Green Bay Police Department, one officer has died in the line of duty.[27]



From 1896 to 1993 the city was the headquarters of the Green Bay and Western Railroad. In 1993, the line was purchased by the Wisconsin Central. In 2001, the WC was merged into the Canadian National Railway. The Chicago and North Western Railway also served Green Bay and its depot still stands. Green Bay was last served with a regular passenger train, the CNW's Peninsula 400, in 1971. The CNW sold its trackage from Green Bay south to Sheboygan in 1987 to the Fox River Valley Railroad, which became part of the WC in 1993. Green Bay also saw passenger service from the Milwaukee Road's Chippewa-Hiawatha, which ran from Chicago into the upper peninsula of Michigan. Green Bay is also served by the Escanaba and Lake Superior Railroad.


Green Bay is served by Austin Straubel International Airport.


Green Bay is connected to the rest of the state by four major highways: U.S. Route 41 in Wisconsin, U.S. Route 141, Interstate 43, and Interstate 41.

Mass transit

Green Bay's mass transit system is known as Green Bay Metro (formerly Green Bay Transit).


Green Bay is served by the Green Bay Area Public School District. It operates 25 elementary schools, two K-8 schools, four middle schools, and four high schools. Private schools in Green Bay include Notre Dame de la Baie Academy, Northeastern Wisconsin Lutheran High School, and Bay City Baptist School.

Colleges and universities in Green Bay include: Bellin College of Nursing, ITT Technical Institute, Northeast Wisconsin Technical College, Rasmussen College, St. Norbert College (in nearby De Pere), and the University of Wisconsin–Green Bay.

Public libraries

The Brown County Library (BCL) Central Branch is located downtown in downtown Green Bay and has served as the county public library since 1968. The Central Branch is the headquarters for the BCL system, which encompasses all public libraries in Brown County, including eight branch libraries and a bookmobile that regularly visits locations throughout the county. In 1994, the Brown County Library was named Wisconsin Library of the Year.[28]


The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Green Bay. The Cathedral of Saint Francis Xavier in Green Bay is the mother church of the Diocese. The diocese is in the province of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee. The Saint Joseph Oratory is located in Green Bay. St. Willebrord on S. Adams St is where former Green Bay Packers head coach Vince Lombardi went to church every morning.

In 2000, the American Religion Data Archive reported Green Bay to be predominantly Catholic (71.5%), with Lutherans composing an additional 16.4%. The remaining 12% are almost entirely Protestant denominations. There is also an Islamic mosque and an Unitarian Universalist Fellowship located in the city.

Congregation Cnesses Israel Temple, serving the area's Jewish population, is on the city's east-side.


  • Green Bay Gladiators (football)
  • Green Bay Blackjacks (football)
Major running races


The Green Bay Packers professional football team was formed in 1919 and joined the National Football League (NFL) in 1921. Green Bay is by far the smallest market in North America with a major league sports team;[30] however, the Packers enjoy one of the largest and most loyal followings in the NFL, with avid support stemming from the larger Milwaukee market, throughout Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula (as well as smaller support in other areas in eastern Minnesota and northern Illinois, splitting support with those areas' respective teams), in addition to fans scattered throughout the entire country, and many more throughout Canada. Green Bay's unofficial nickname is "Titletown, USA" [30] for the record number of NFL championship titles (13) the Packers have won, including four Super Bowls in 1967, 1968, 1997 and 2011. "Titletown" and the Packers' "G" appear on the city seal, is used by the Green Bay Chamber of Commerce for its web address, and appears in the name of more than two dozen local businesses.[31]

Media and internet

Television stations in Green Bay are WBAY (2), (ABC), WFRV (5), (CBS), WLUK (11), (FOX), WCWF (14), (CW), WGBA (26), (NBC), WACY (32), (MNT), and WPNE (38), a PBS affiliate. Green Bay is served by the Green Bay Press-Gazette. Another local newspaper, the Green Bay News-Chronicle, ceased publication in 2005.

There is a free public Wi-Fi system in the downtown Green Bay Broadway District that went into operation in 2007.[32]


Largest employers

As of 2010, the largest employers in the city were:[33]

# Employer # of Employees
1 Humana 3,169
2 Schneider National 2,994
3 Oneida Nation of Wisconsin 2,916
4 Green Bay Area Public School District 2,818
5 Georgia-Pacific 2,400
6 Bellin Memorial Hospital 2,203
7 Aurora BayCare Medical Center 1,703
8 St. Vincent Hospital 1,556
9 Brown County 1,554
10 UnitedHealth Group 1,538

Other major employers include Associated Banc-Corp, Wisconsin Public Service, American Foods Group, JBS USA, Expert Global Solutions, Walmart, Green Bay Packaging, Procter & Gamble, Schreiber Foods, the Green Bay Packers, Nature's Way, HJ Martin and Son, and Nicolet National Bank.[34]

Points of interest

Modern-day Old City Stadium


File:First Shopko.JPG
Shopko store #1.

Green Bay has two shopping malls, and dozens of strip malls. The city is home to the first Shopko discount department store. Goodwill has three locations in the city.

Bay Park Square & The Village at Bay Park

Built in 1980, Bay Park Square is the main shopping center in the Green Bay area. Located in the village of Ashwaubenon, Bay Park Square is anchored by Shopko, Kohl's, and Younkers/Younkers Furniture Gallery, and has hundreds of retail and specialty shops. Bay Park Square has a football stadium-themed food court with seven eateries. Neighboring Bay Park Square is a shopping plaza known as The Village at Bay Park, home to Fashion Bug, JCPenney, DSW, and a few specialty shops.

East Town Mall

Built in 1982 and remodeled three times (the latest in 2010), East Town Mall is an enclosed shopping center on Green Bay's east side, near Interstate 43 on East Mason Street. East Town's anchors are Hobby Lobby, Office Max, Budget Cinema, Petco & Kohl's. East Town has around 17 specialty shops. A budget cinema is located inside the mall. East Town Mall has seven Windspire vertical wind turbines outside of its main entrance that help reduce costs to the common area. While not connected, there is also a Shopko and Aldi store next to the mall.

Green Bay Plaza

Built in 1960, Green Bay Plaza is a large strip mall located on Green Bay's west side at the Military Ave./West Mason St. intersection. It is anchored by Party City, T.J. Maxx, HomeGoods, Big Lots, Office Depot, and a free-standing Sears department store. Green Bay Plaza has numerous specialty shops and restaurants. A Ross Dress for Less store will soon open in the former Michaels store space (Michaels now shares a space with Burlington Coat Factory inside the former Cub Foods building on 1616 West Mason Street next to Toys "R" Us and a Goodwill Store.).

Notable people

Literature, music, arts
Inventors, business leaders



Building Year Built Height Floors
Lambeau Field 1957 232 feet N/A
St. Vincent Hospital 1957 10
400 Monroe Plaza 10
Bellin Building[38] 1915 114 feet 9
Northland Hotel 1924 98 feet 9
Bellin Hospital 8
Flats on the Fox 2008 8
Hyatt on Main 1984 8
Mason Manor 8
Metreau Apartments 2015 80 feet 8
425 Pine Street 7
Wisconsin Public Service 7
Hampton Inn Downtown Green Bay 1973 7
YMCA 1924 7
Green Bay State Office Building 1983 6
Watermark 6


  • Green Bay featured in the 1992 TV Show "Picket Fences", as being the point of origin of 400 school children to be bussed to Rome, Wisconsin.


  1. Official records for Green Bay were kept at downtown from September 1886 to 15 August 1949, and at Austin Straubel Int'l since 16 August 1949. For more information, see ThreadEx.


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External links