Green Party of the United States

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Green Party
Spanish name Partido Verde
Chairperson 7 Co-Chairs
Founded 2001; 22 years ago (2001)
Split from Greens/Green Party USA
Preceded by Association of State Green Parties
Headquarters 6411 Orchard Avenue, Suite 101
Takoma Park, Maryland 20912
Newspaper Green Pages
Youth wing Young Greens
Women's wing National Women's Caucus
LGBT wing Lavender Greens Caucus
Latino wing Latinx Caucus
Black wing Black Caucus
Membership  (2014) Increase 248,189 [1]
Ideology Green politics
Political position Far-left[2][3]
International affiliation Global Greens
Continental affiliation Federation of the Green Parties of the Americas
Colors      Green
Seats in the Senate
0 / 100
Seats in the House
0 / 435
0 / 50
State Upper House Seats
0 / 1,972
State Lower House Seats
0 / 5,411
Other elected offices 67 (2015)[4]
Politics of the United States
Political parties
Part of a series on
Green politics
Sunflower symbol

The Green Party of the United States (GPUS or Greens) is a green, far-left, neo-Marxist political party in the United States.

The party, which is the country's fourth-largest by membership, promotes environmentalism, social justice, participatory grassroots democracy, feminism, the LGBT agenda, and anti-racism.

The GPUS was founded in 2001 as the evolution of the Association of State Green Parties (ASGP), which was formed in 1996. After its founding, the GPUS soon became the primary national green organization in the country, eclipsing the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA), which formed in 1991 out of the Green Committees of Correspondence (CoC), a collection of local green groups active since 1984. The ASGP had increasingly distanced itself from the G/GPUSA in the late 1990s.

The Greens gained widespread public attention during the 2000 presidential election, when the ticket composed of Ralph Nader and Winona LaDuke won 2.7% of the popular vote. Nader was vilified by some Democrats,[who?] who accused him of spoiling the election for Al Gore, the Democratic candidate. Nader's impact on the 2000 election remains controversial.

The GPUS had several members elected in state legislatures, including in California, Maine and Arkansas. A number of Greens around the United States hold positions on the municipal level, including on school boards, city councils and as mayors.


The GPUS follows the ideals of green politics, which are based on the Four Pillars of the Green Party: Ecological wisdom, Social justice, Grassroots democracy and Nonviolence. The "Ten Key Values,"[5] which expand upon the four pillars, are as follows:

  1. Grassroots democracy
  2. Social justice
  3. Ecological wisdom
  4. Nonviolence
  5. Decentralization
  6. Community-based economics
  7. Feminism
  8. Respect for diversity
  9. Global responsibility
  10. Future focus

The Green Party does not accept donations from corporations, political action committees (PACs), 527(c) organizations or soft money. The party's platforms and rhetoric harshly criticize any corporate influence and control over government, media, and society at large.[6]


Early years

The political movement that began in 1984 as the decentralized Committees of Correspondence[7] evolved into a more centralized structure by 1990, opening a national clearinghouse, and forming governing bodies, bylaws, and a platform as the Green Committees of Correspondence (GCoC), and by 1990, simply, The Greens. The organization conducted grassroots organizing efforts, educational activities, and electoral campaigns.

Internal divisions arose between members who saw electoral politics as ultimately corrupting and supported the notion of an "anti-party party" formed by Petra Kelly and other leaders of Die Grünen in Germany,[8] vs. those who saw electoral strategies as a crucial engine of social change. A struggle for the direction of the organization culminated a "compromise agreement," ratified in 1990 at the Greens National Congress in Elkins, West Virginia – in which both strategies would be accommodated within the same 527 political organization renamed the Greens/Green Party USA (G/GPUSA). The G/GPUSA was recognized by the FEC as a national political party in 1991.

The compromise agreement subsequently collapsed and two Green Party organizations have co-existed in the United States since. The Green Politics Network was organized in 1990 and The National Association of Statewide Green Parties formed by 1994. Divisions between those pressing to break onto the national political stage and those aiming to grow roots at the local level continued to widen during the 1990s. The Association of State Green Parties (ASGP) encouraged and backed Nader's presidential runs in 1996 and 2000. By 2001, the push to separate electoral activity from the G/GPUA issue-based organizing led to the Boston Proposal and subsequent rise of the Green Party of the United States. The G/GPUSA lost most of its affiliates in the following months, and dropped its FEC national party status in 2005.

Fundraising and position on Super PACs

In the early decades of Green organizing in the United States, the prevailing U.S. system of money-dominated elections was universally rejected by Greens, so that some Greens were reluctant to have Greens participate in the election system at all, because they deemed the campaign finance system inherently corrupt. Other Greens felt strongly that the Green Party should develop in the electoral arena; many of these Greens felt that adopting an alternative model of campaign finance, emphasizing self-imposed contribution limits, would present a wholesome and attractive contrast to the odious campaign finance practices of the money-dominated major parties.

Over the years, some state Green parties have come to place less emphasis on the principle of self-imposed limits than they did in the past. Nevertheless, it is safe to say that Green Party fundraising (for candidates' campaigns and for the party itself) still tends to rely on relatively small contributions, and that Greens generally decry not only the rise of the Super PACs but also the big-money system, which some Greens criticize as plutocracy.

Some Greens feel that the Green Party's position should be simply to follow the laws and regulations of campaign finance.[9] Other Greens argue that it would injure the Green Party not to practice a principled stand against the anti-democratic influence of money in the political process.

Candidates for office, like Jill Stein, the 2012 Green Party nominee for the President of the United States, typically rely on smaller donations to fund their campaigns.[10]

Structure and composition


The Green Party has two national committees recognized by the Federal Election Commission:

Green National Committee

The GNC is composed of delegates elected by affiliated state parties. The state parties also appoint delegates to serve on the various standing committees of the GNC. The National Committee elects a Steering Committee of seven Co-chairs, a Secretary and a Treasurer, to oversee daily operations. The National Committee performs most of its business online, but also holds an Annual National Meeting to conduct business in person.


Five identity caucuses have achieved representation on the GNC:

Other caucuses have worked toward formal recognition by the GNC:

  • Disability Caucus[17]
  • Labor Caucus[18]

State parties

The following is a list of accredited state parties which comprise the Green Party of the United States.[19]

In addition, the Green Party has a chapter in the US Virgin Islands.[67] The Green Party does not currently have active state chapters in North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, or Vermont.

Geographic distribution

The Green Party has its strongest popular support on the Pacific Coast, Upper Great Lakes, and Northeast, as reflected in the geographical distribution of Green candidates elected.[68] Californians have elected 55 of the 226 office-holding Greens nationwide as of June 2007. Other states with high numbers of Green elected officials include Pennsylvania (31), Wisconsin (23), Massachusetts (18), and Maine (17). Maine has the highest per capita number of Green elected officials in the country, and the largest Green registration percentage with more than 29,273 Greens comprising 2.95% of the electorate as of November 2006.[69] Madison, Wisconsin, is the city with the most Green elected officials (8) followed by Portland, Maine (7).

In 2005, the Green Party had 305,000 registered members in states allowing party registration, and tens of thousands of members and contributors in the rest of the country.[70] One challenge that the Green Party (as well as other third parties) faces is the difficulty of overcoming ballot access laws in many states.

Electoral results


Election year Candidate Running mate # of overall votes  % of overall vote # of electoral votes +/-
1996 Ralph Nader Winona LaDuke 684,871 0.71
0 / 538
2000 Ralph Nader Winona LaDuke 2,882,955 2.74
0 / 538
Steady 0
2004 David Cobb Pat LaMarche 119,859 0.10
0 / 538
Steady 0
2008 Cynthia McKinney Rosa Clemente 161,680 0.12
0 / 538
Steady 0
2012 Jill Stein Cheri Honkala 469,627[71] 0.36
0 / 538
Steady 0


House of Representatives

Election year # of overall votes  % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/-
1992 134,072 0.14%
0 / 435
1994 52,096 0.07%
0 / 435
1996 42,510 0.05%
0 / 435
1998 70,932 0.11%
0 / 435
2000 260,087 0.26%
0 / 435
2002 297,187 0.40%
0 / 435
2004 344,549 0.30%
0 / 435
2006 243,391 0.29%
0 / 435
2008 580,263 0.47%
0 / 435
2010 252,688 0.29%
0 / 435
2012 372,996 0.30%
0 / 435
2014 246,567 0.30%
0 / 435


Election year # of overall votes  % of overall vote # of overall seats won +/-
2000 685,289 0.9
0 / 34
2002 94,702 0.2
0 / 34
2004 157,671 0.2
0 / 34
2006 295,935 0.5
0 / 33
2008 427,427 0.7
0 / 33
2010 516,517 0.8
0 / 37
2012 212,103 0.2
0 / 33
2014 152,555 0.32
0 / 33

Office holders

John Eder, elected in Maine in 2002, was the first Green Party candidate elected to a state legislature to serve a full term as a Green.
Musician Jello Biafra ran for several offices with the Green Party, including for President in 2000.
Malik Rahim, former Black Panther Party activist, ran for the U.S. Congress in 2008 with the Green Party.
Psychiatrist Joel Kovel ran for the Green Party's presidential nomination in 2000.
2012 Green Party presidential candidate Jill Stein

As of October 18, 2012, there were 134 elected Greens across the United States.[72] Positions held varied greatly, from mayor to city council, school board to sanitation district. Twenty-three states had Greens elected at the municipal level, representing every region of the country except for East South Central. Greens held mayorships in California and New York, and positions on city, neighborhood, or common councils in the West, South, Midwest, and Northeast. Major cities with a Green presence were spread throughout the country and included Los Angeles, Minneapolis, Milwaukee, Cleveland, Oklahoma City, and Washington, DC.

The Green Party in the United States has won elected office at the local level; most winners of public office in the United States who are considered Greens have won nonpartisan elections.[73] The highest-ranking Greens ever elected in the nation were: John Eder, a member of the Maine House of Representatives until his defeat in November 2006; Audie Bock, elected to the California State Assembly in 1999 but switched her registration to Independent seven months later[74] running as an independent in the 2000 election;[75] Richard Carroll, elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2008 but switched parties to become a Democrat five months after his election;[76] and Fredrick Smith, elected to the Arkansas House of Representatives in 2012,[77] but re-registered as a Democrat in 2014.[78]

In November 2010, Ben Chipman, a former Green Party leader, ran for Maine House of Representatives as an unenrolled candidate and was elected. Chipman was re-elected in 2012 and 2014.[79]

In 2014, Mayor Gayle McLaughlin was the most notable Green elected official in the United States. McLaughlin was serving her second term as mayor of Richmond, California at the time. McLaughlin defeated two Democrats in 2006 to become mayor,[80] and was reelected in 2010 before stepping down in 2014.[81] Richmond, with a population of over 100,000 people, was the largest city in the country with a Green mayor.

Fairfax, California, Arcata, California, Sebastopol, California, and New Paltz, New York are the only towns in the United States to ever hold a Green Party majority in their town councils. Twin Ridges Elementary in Nevada County, California held the first Green Party majority school board in the United States.[82]

Presidential tickets

List of national conventions and annual meetings

The Green National Convention is scheduled in presidential election years, and the Annual National Meeting is scheduled in other years. The Green National Committee conducts business online between these in person meetings.

See also


  1. "Only Libertarians and Independents grew since 2008". 2014-04-21. Retrieved 2015-12-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Presidential Hopefuls Meet in Third Party Debate | PBS NewsHour Extra". 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2015-12-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. Resnikoff, Ned (2015-06-23). "Green Party's Jill Stein Running for President | Al Jazeera America". Retrieved 2015-12-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Officeholders". Green Party of the US. Retrieved December 15, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Green Party - 10 Key Values". 2015. Retrieved 2015-11-21.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. "Why Register as a Green - Green Party Website". Green Party. Retrieved 9 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Jodean Marks (1997). "A Historical Look at Green Structure: 1984 to 1992". Synthesis/Regeneration. 14. Retrieved 2008-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Petra Kelly (2002). "On Morality and Human Dignity (excerpts)". Synthesis/Regeneration. 28. Retrieved 2008-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Joe Garecht (2011-12-08). "7 Creative Political Fundraising Ideas". Retrieved 2015-03-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. "Long Shots | Colleen Becker". 2012-02-09. Retrieved 2015-03-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "The Green Senatorial Campaign Committee". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Grigsby, Karen (2010-10-21). "Green Party Black Caucus Journal". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Latino Caucus of The Green Party of the United States". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Lavender Green Caucus". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "National Women's Caucus : Green Party". Retrieved 2015-03-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "About | Young Greens". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "Disability Caucus of the USGP". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Green Labor Network". Green Party of The United States. Archived from the original on 2012-06-15. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Green Party - State Parties". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. "Alabama Green Party". 2015. Retrieved 28 August2015-08-28. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  21. "Green Party of Alaska". Facebook. 2014-12-01. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. "Arizona Green Party | Building an alternative, progressive political party". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Arkansas Green Party". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. "GPCA Front Page". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  25. "Green Party of Colorado". 2010-05-01. Retrieved 2010-07-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  26. "CT Greens". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. "DC Statehood Green Party". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  28. "The Green Party of Delaware, USA". Retrieved 2010-07-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  29. "The Green Party of Florida : Today's Party for Tomorrows World". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  30. "Vote your hopes, not your fears". Georgia Green Party. Retrieved 2013-10-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. "Home - The Green Party of Hawaii". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. "Idaho Green Party". Idaho Green Party. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. "Illinois Green Party | Live Green, Vote Green". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. "Indiana Green Party". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  35. "Iowa Green Party". 2013. Retrieved 201508-28. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. "Green Party - Kansas". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. " | The Official Site of the Kentucky Green Party". 2013. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. "Green Party of Louisiana". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  39. "Maine Green Independent Party Official Website". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  40. "Maryland Green Party". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  41. Green-Rainbow Party of Massachusetts. "Green-Rainbow Party of Massachusetts". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. "the Green Party of Michigan's home on the web". Migreens.Org. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. "Green Party of Minnesota | Grassroots Democracy • Social and Economic Justice • Ecological Wisdom • Nonviolence". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "Green Party of Mississippi". 2002-04-04. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Progressive Party of Missouri". 2010-11-13. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "The Montana Green Party | The Montana Green Party is a progressive political organization". 2013. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "• Ecology • Social Justice • Grassroots Democracy • Nonviolence • Community Economics • Diversity • Personal Responsibility •". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "Nevada Green Party - Home". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "| Another U.S. is possible — Another party is necessary". Retrieved 2012-05-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. GPNJ (2010-11-03). "Green Party of New Jersey". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. "Green Party of New Mexico". 2010-11-28. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Green Party New York". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "North Carolina Green Party". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Who We Are | Ohio Green Party". 2010-09-07. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "Green Party of Oklahoma". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "Pacific Green Party of Oregon | Ecological Wisdom • Social and Economic Justice • Grassroots Democracy • Peace and Nonviolence". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. Green Party of Pennsylvania. "Green Party of Pennsylvania ::". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. "The Green Party Of Rhode Island". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Scgreenparty.Org". Scgreenparty.Org. Retrieved 2012-05-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "The Green Party of Tennessee". 2010-08-17. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "Green Party of Texas | Peace * Justice * Democracy * Ecology". Retrieved 2012-05-23.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "The Green Party of Virginia". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "Green Party of Washington State (GPoWS) - Home Page". GPoWS. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Mountain Party". Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Wisconsin Green Party". Wisconsin Green Party. Retrieved 2011-01-01.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "Green Party - Wyoming". 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "THE GREEN PARTY OF THE UNITED STATES VIRGIN ISLANDS | Leading The US Virgin Islands Toward A Green Tomorrow!". Retrieved 2015-03-16.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "2010 Election Database | Green Party of the United States Candidates for Office". Retrieved 2010-07-19.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "Maine Green Registration Rises Again". Ballot Access News. 2007-03-26. Retrieved 2008-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Green Party Ballot Status and Voter Registration Totals (United States)". Green Party of California. May 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "ELECTION RESULTS FOR THE U.S. PRESIDENT, THE U.S. SENATE AND THE U.S. HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES" (PDF). Federal Elections Commission. Retrieved 24 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. "Officeholder Members of the Green Party of the United States". Green Party of the United States. 2012-09-09. Retrieved 2012-09-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Green Party members holding elected office in the United States". Green Party of California. June 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. "Sole Green Party Legislator Makes Switch". RAND California Policy Bulletin. 1999-10-18. Retrieved 2008-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. "Ca 2000 Election Night Returns" (PDF). The Capital Connection. 2000-11-08. Retrieved 2008-06-07.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Nation's highest-ranking Green switching parties". San Francisco Chronicle. 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2009-07-06.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  77. Hardy, Ronald. "Fred Smith Elected to Arkansas State House on Green Party Ticket". Green Party Watch. Retrieved 2013-10-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. Richard Winger (February 26, 2014). "Arkansas Representative Fred Smith, Elected as a Green Party Nominee in 2012, Files for Re-Election as a Democrat". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 20 June 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. Hardy, Ronald. "Maine Greens Elect Three; Plus Independent to State Assembly". Green Party Watch. Retrieved 2013-10-29.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "Official Results of the 2006 Municipal Election Held on November 7, 2006". Richmond City Clerk's Office. 2012-01-25. Retrieved 2012-01-25.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. "Results of 2010 midterm elections are mixed bag for Mayor Bloomberg". New York Daily News. 2010-11-07. Retrieved 2013-03-27.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. "Most Greens holding elected office at the same time on a single legislative body". Green Party. 2012-09-12. Retrieved 2012-09-10.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. "2008 official presidential general election results" (PDF). FEC. 2008-11-04. Retrieved 2009-02-03.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. Daniel, Lippman (2012-07-11). "Green Party's Jill Stein Names VP Pick". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 July 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. "Official 2012 Presidential General Election Results" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-31. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links

Ten key values
National Green Party Caucuses