Guacamole

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Guacamole
Guacamole IMGP1265.jpg
Guacamole, avocado, lime and herbs
Origin
Place of origin Mexico
Details
Type Dip
Main ingredient(s) Avocados, sea salt, lime juice
Variations Mantequilla de pobre
Guasacaca

Guacamole (Spanish: [wakaˈmole]; or[ɡwakaˈmole]; can informally be referred to as "guac" in North America [1]) is an avocado-based dip or salad first created by the Aztecs in what is now Mexico.[2] In addition to its use in modern Mexican cuisine it has also become part of American cuisine as a dip, condiment and salad ingredient.[3][4]

Ingredients

Homemade guacamole
Guacamole with tortilla chips

Guacamole dip is traditionally made by mashing ripe avocados and sea salt with a molcajete (mortar and pestle). Some recipes call for tomato, onion, garlic, lemon or lime juice, chili or cayenne pepper, cilantro or basil, jalapeño, and/or additional seasonings. Some recipes call for sour cream as the main ingredient. Guacamole is also a word for avocado in some areas in Latin America.[2]

On July 2, 2013, the New York Times published a guacamole recipe that included the addition of English peas.[5] Two years later, on July 1, 2015, the newspaper posted a link to the article on Twitter account with the caption, "Add green peas to your guacamole. Trust us."[6] The post sparked overwhelmingly negative feedback from their readers and followers, which prompted the media to pick-up on the story,[7] calling the incident "Guacamolegate."[8] Even United States President Barack Obama weighed in, tweeting that—while he respected the newspaper—peas didn't belong in guacamole.[9]

Due to the presence of polyphenol oxidase in the cells of avocado, exposure to the oxygen in the air causes an enzymatic reaction develops melanoidin pigment, turning the sauce brown.[10] This result is generally considered unappetizing, and there are several methods (some anecdotal) that are used to counter this effect.[10]

History

Avocados were first cultivated in Central America, as early as 7,000 BC. The exact country and area of origin is still debated.[11] From there, the avocado made its way north to Mexico, where the Aztecs turned the fruit into guacamole as early as the 1300s.[12]

Aztecs made Guacamole dip by at least the 16th century.[2] A Spanish-English pronunciation guide from 1900 lists guacamole as a "salad of alligator pear".[13]

Later marketing tried to create a "luau" or Pacific Island image of the avocado in the 1960s, and a Spanish or Mediterranean image in the 1970s.[citation needed] Guacamole has pushed avocado sales in the US to 30 million pounds on two days a year: Super Bowl Sunday and Cinco de Mayo.[14][citation needed][dubious ]

Etymology and pronunciation

The name comes from an Aztec dialect via Nahuatl āhuacamolli [aːwakaˈmolːi], which literally translates to "avocado sauce", from āhuacatl [aːˈwakat͡ɬ] ("avocado") + molli [ˈmolːi] ("sauce", literally "concoction").[2] In Mexican Spanish it is pronounced [wakaˈmole], in American English it is sometimes pronounced /ɡwɑːkəˈml/, and in British English sometimes /ˌwækəˈml/. The name of the Guatemalan version has the final "e" omitted (Spanish: [wakaˈmol]).[citation needed] Early recipes from the California Avocado Advisory Board (Calavo), published in the 1940s, were accompanied with a pronunciation suggestion: "say huakamole".[citation needed]

Nutritional content

Guacamole contains mashed avocados and seasonings, such as lime or lemon juice, garlic and cilantro.[15] You can eat this Mexican food with tortilla chips or as a topping. Avocados contribute vitamins, minerals and healthy fats to the dish. In moderation, guacamole is a healthy addition to a balanced diet.

Avocados are the only only fruit that provides a substantial amount of monounsaturated fat[16] and offers a wide range of ''phytonutrients'' that are related to their unusual fat quality. Included in this category are the phytosterols (beta-sitosterol, campesterol, and stigmasterol as well as their polyhydroxylated alcohols. The major carotenoid found in the pulp of avocado is chrysanthemaxanthin. Other carotenoids in the pulp include neoxanthin, transneoxanthin, neochrome, and several forms of lutein. Avocado is also an especially rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, and in particular, oleic acid, which accounts for over 60% of the total fat found in this food.[17]

Avocados, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 670 kJ (160 kcal)
8.53 g
Starch 0.11 g
Sugars 0.66 g
0
Dietary fiber 6.7 g
14.66 g
Saturated 2.126
Trans 0
Monounsaturated 9.8
Polyunsaturated 1.816
2.00
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(1%)
7 μg
(1%)
62 μg
271 μg
Vitamin A 146 IU
Thiamine (B1)
(6%)
0.067 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(11%)
0.130 mg
Niacin (B3)
(12%)
1.738 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
(28%)
1.389 mg
Vitamin B6
(20%)
0.257 mg
Folate (B9)
(20%)
81 μg
Choline
(3%)
14.2 mg
Vitamin C
(12%)
10.0 mg
Vitamin E
(14%)
2.07 mg
Vitamin K
(20%)
21 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(1%)
12 mg
Iron
(4%)
0.55 mg
Magnesium
(8%)
29 mg
Phosphorus
(7%)
52 mg
Potassium
(10%)
485 mg
Sodium
(0%)
7 mg
Zinc
(7%)
0.64 mg
Other constituents
Water 73.23
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Tomatoes, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g
Energy 63 kJ (15 kcal)
3.89 g
Sugars 2.63 g
Dietary fiber 1.2 g
0.20 g
Saturated 0.028 g
Monounsaturated 0.031
Polyunsaturated 0.083
0.88 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(5%)
42 μg
Vitamin A 833 IU
Thiamine (B1)
(3%)
0.037 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
0.019 mg
Niacin (B3)
(4%)
0.594 mg
Vitamin B6
(6%)
0.080 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
15 μg
Vitamin B12
(0%)
0 μg
Vitamin C
(17%)
13.7 mg
Vitamin D
(0%)
0 μg
Vitamin D
(0%)
0 IU
Vitamin E
(4%)
0.54 mg
Vitamin K
(8%)
7.9 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(1%)
10 mg
Iron
(2%)
0.27 mg
Magnesium
(3%)
11 mg
Phosphorus
(3%)
24 mg
Potassium
(5%)
237 mg
Sodium
(0%)
5 mg
Zinc
(2%)
0.17 mg
Other constituents
Water 94.52 g
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Other amazing information about avocados:

  • They contain 60% more potassium than bananas.
  • Over 70% of the oil is polyunsaturated – the good kind of fat.
  • They’re one of only three fruits that have oil in their flesh.
  • They have more fat than any other fruit.
  • They have two to three times the amount of protein as other fruits.
  • They contain almost 20 vitamins and minerals.[12]

Similar foods

Mantequilla de pobre

Mantequilla de pobre (Spanish for "poor-man's butter") is a mixture of avocado, tomato, oil, and citrus juice. Despite its name, it predates the arrival of dairy cattle in the Americas, and thus was not originally made as a butter substitute.[3]

Guasacaca

Thinner and more acidic,[18] or thick and chunky,[19] guasacaca is a Venezuelan avocado-based sauce; it is made with vinegar,[20] and is served over parrillas (grilled food), arepas, empanadas, and various other dishes. It is common to make the guasacaca with a little hot sauce instead of jalapeño, but like a guacamole, it is not usually served as a hot sauce itself.

Salat avocado

Salat avocado (Hebrew: סלט אבוקדו‎) is a rural Israeli avocado salad, with lemon juice and chopped scallions (spring onions) with salt and black pepper added, was introduced by farmers who planted avocado trees on the coastal plain in the 1920s. Avocados have since become a winter delicacy and are cut into salads as well as being spread on bread today also with pita and flat bread.[21] usually eaten in the villages of the coastal plain. It is also common today to add cumin before adding the lemon juice as well as feta cheese or safed cheese.

Commercial products

Prepared guacamoles are available in stores, often available refrigerated, frozen, or in high pressure packaging. High-pressure technology cold-pasteurizes and extends shelf life. Products still need to be refrigerated and should be maintained at 34 to 40 degrees Fahrenheit, according to Santa Paula, Calif.-based Calavo Growers Inc.’s recommendations.[22]

Consumer Reports tested eight over-the-counter brands and found that, "Sabra costs a bit more than others but tastes fresher and has balanced flavors, with a distinct avocado taste. The rest have one or more slight flaws, including bitterness and a slick texture."[23]

See also

References

  1. "Oxford Dictionary".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Zeldes, Leah A. (November 4, 2009). "Eat this! Guacamole, a singing sauce, on its day". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Retrieved November 5, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.0 3.1 Beard, James; Bittman, Mark (September 4, 2007). Beard on Food: The Best Recipes and Kitchen Wisdom from the Dean of American Cooking. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-1-59691-446-9. Retrieved March 14, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Smith, Andrew F. (May 1, 2007). The Oxford companion to American food and drink. Oxford University Press. pp. 144–146. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved March 14, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. CLARK, MELISSA (July 2, 2013), "Green Pea Guacamole", The New York Times. Retrieved November 6, 2015.
  6. https://twitter.com/nytimes/status/616303020574441472?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw
  7. Lo Dico, Joy (July 2, 2015), "Mind your peas and Qs over guacamole." Evening Standard. :16
  8. Zillman, Claire (July 14, 2015). "Adding peas to guacamole is actually terrible for the environment," Fortune p. 1.
  9. https://twitter.com/POTUS/status/616338528138608640?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw
  10. 10.0 10.1 Hartel, 2009, p. 43
  11. "Food Timeline FAQs: Mexican & Tex Mex foods". Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. 12.0 12.1 "Food history: guacamole (and the avocado)". ErinNudi.com. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. Edward Gray, A New Pronouncing Dictionary of the Spanish and English Languages, Part 1 (D. Appleton, 1900) 349.
  14. Charles, Jeffrey (2002). "8. Searching for gold in Guacamole: California growers market the avocado, 1910–1994". In Belasco, Warren; Scranton, Philip. Food nations: selling taste in consumer societies. Routledge. pp. 131–154. ISBN 0-415-93077-4. Retrieved September 20, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. Stein, Natalie. "Nutrition Facts for Guacamole". Healthy Eating. SFGate. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "Avocados: Health Benefits, Nutritional Information". MNT. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. "What's New and Beneficial About Avocados". World's healthiest foods. The George Mateljan Foundation. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Caracas Calling". New York Press. Manhattan Media. July 13, 2004. Retrieved March 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Guasacaca — Venezuelan-style Guacamole". About.com. July 2, 2009. Retrieved October 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  21. Ansky, pg. 50
  22. "High-pressure processing ideal for guacamole lovers". The Packer. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. "Taste test of store-bought brands of guacamole". Consuner Reports. Retrieved 12 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

Bibliography

  • Hartel, Richard W and Hartel, AnnaKate (Mar 1, 2009), Springer Science & Business Media, ISBN 0387758453