Hamar Greenwood, 1st Viscount Greenwood
|The Right Honourable
The Viscount Greenwood
Bt KC PC
|Chief Secretary for Ireland|
2 April 1920 – 19 October 1922
|Prime Minister||David Lloyd George|
|Preceded by||Ian Macpherson|
|Succeeded by||Office abolished|
|Born||7 February 1870
Whitby, Ontario, Canada
|Died||10 September 1948|
|Alma mater||University of Toronto|
Hamar Greenwood, 1st Viscount Greenwood PC, KC (7 February 1870 – 10 September 1948), known as Sir Hamar Greenwood, Bt, between 1915 and 1929 and as The Lord Greenwood between 1929 and 1937, was a Canadian-born British lawyer and politician. He served as the last Chief Secretary for Ireland between 1920 and 1922. Both his sons died unmarried rendering the Greenwood viscountcy extinct in 2003.
Background and education
Greenwood was born in Whitby, Ontario, Canada, to John Hamar Greenwood, a lawyer who emigrated from Llanbister, Radnorshire in Wales as a youth, and Charlotte Churchill Hubbard, who was from a United Empire Loyalist family that had an ancestor who immigrated to Canada after the American Revolutionary War. Greenwood was educated at the University of Toronto before migrating to England as a young man.
Greenwood was originally a Liberal and sat as Member of Parliament for York from 1906 to 1910 and for Sunderland from 1910 to 1922. He served under David Lloyd George as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department in 1919, as Additional Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Additional Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of Trade and Secretary for Overseas Trade from 1919 to 1920 and as the last Chief Secretary for Ireland, with a seat in the Cabinet, from 1920 to 1922. He was made a Privy Counsellor in 1920.
As Chief Secretary he was closely identified with the aggressive use of two specially formed paramilitary forces — the Black and Tans and the Auxiliaries — during the Irish War of Independence. After the burning of the centre of the city of Cork by British auxiliary forces in December 1920 Greenwood blamed the "Sinn Féin rebels" and the people of Cork for burning their own city. He lost his seat in the 1922 general election. At the 1924 general election, Greenwood was one of a small number of Liberals, including Winston Churchill, to stand as Constitutionalist candidates. These Liberals advocated closer ties between Liberals and Conservatives. Greenwood's candidature in Walthamstow East was supported by the local Conservative association but not by the local Liberals who had their own candidate. After the elections when it appeared that there was no prospect of formal closer ties between the two parties, Greenwood took the Conservative whip. He continued to represent Walthamstow East until 1929 although he never held office again.
Greenwood had been created a Baronet, of Onslow Gardens in the Royal Borough of Kensington, in 1915, and in the 1929 Dissolution Honours he was raised to the peerage as Baron Greenwood, of Llanbister in the County of Radnor. In 1937 he was further honoured when he was created Viscount Greenwood, of Holbourne in the County of London. He was president of the British Iron and Steel Federation from 1938 to 1939 and chairman of the Pilgrims Society from 1945 till 1948, and president in 1948.
His wife, Margery, Viscountess Greenwood (née Spencer), was knighted as Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1922. She had very considerable political and diplomatic skills, and according to recent research, played a considerable role, behind the scenes, in the negotiations which led to the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921.
They had two sons and two daughters. Their elder son, David Henry Hamar Greenwood, succeeded his father as second Viscount. He died unmarried and was succeeded as third Viscount by his younger brother, Michael George Hamar Greenwood, who died unmarried in 2003 rendering the title extinct. Their elder daughter, Angela Margo Hamar Greenwood, married Edward Dudley Delevingne and is the paternal grandmother of model sisters Poppy and Cara Delevingne. Their younger daughter, Deborah Hamar Greenwood, married Patrick David de László, son of painter Philip de László.
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "Y" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "S" (part 6)[self-published source][better source needed]
- "BLAME CORK FIRES ON MILITARY ALONE; Irish Labor Party and Trades Union Congress Issue Results of Their Inquiry.WITNESSES' NAMES SECRETBut Report Says 70 Were Examined, Including Men froman American Ship. CONTRADICTS GREENWOOD Challenges Government to IssueStrickland Report--Now Official Inquiry Likely". New York Times. 20 January 1921. Retrieved 2008-08-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "W" (part 1)[self-published source][better source needed]
- The London Gazette: . 16 February 1915.
- The London Gazette: . 6 September 1929.
- The London Gazette: . 26 February 1937.
- "Sous-Fonds: Hamar Greenwood, 1st Viscount Greenwood (WA2012-01D), Whitby Archives – Greenwood Family Collection" (PDF). Whitby Public Library. February 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Seedorf, Martin F. "Greenwood, Hamar, first Viscount Greenwood (1870–1948), politician and businessman" (PDF). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33545. Retrieved 1 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Colleges". Oxford University Gazette. 133. 31 July 2003. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
THE HON. MICHAEL GEORGE HAMAR GREENWOOD, 7 July 2003; commoner 1942. Aged 80.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Viscount". Debretts. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
Since 1989 eight viscountcies have become extinct: Muirsheil, Furness, Watkinson, Lambert, Leverhulme, Greenwood, Cross and Ingleby, and Barrington is dormant or extinct.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Hon. Angela Margo Hamar Delevingne (née Greenwood) (1912-), Daughter of 1st Baron Greenwood; wife of (Edward) Dudley Delevingne". National Portrait Gallery. Retrieved 2 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mosley, Charles, ed. (2003). Burke's peerage, baronetage & knightage, clan chiefs, Scottish feudal barons (107th ed.). Wilmington: Burke's Peerage & Gentry. ISBN 9780971196629.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> Search website for "Delevingne" for snippet view.
- Fox, Imogen (7 September 2013). "Six degrees of Cara Delevingne". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Hamar Greenwood, 1st Viscount Greenwood
- British Diplomacy and Canadian Responsibilities (, ).
- Hamar Greenwood at Whitby Public Library and Archives Digital Collection