From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Founder Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi and Mahmoud Zahar
Chief of the Political Bureau Khaled Mashal[1][2]
Deputy Chief of the Political Bureau Mousa Abu Marzouq[1][2]
Founded 1987 (1987)[3][4]
Preceded by Palestinian Muslim Brotherhood
Ideology Palestinian nationalism
Islamic nationalism[5][6][7]
Sunni Islamism[8]
Religion Islam (Specifically Sunni Islam)
International affiliation Muslim Brotherhood
Legislative Council
74 / 132
Party flag
Flag of Hamas.svg
Politics of Palestine
Political parties

Hamas (Arabic: حماس‎‎ Ḥamās, an acronym of حركة المقاومة الاسلامية Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmiyyah Islamic Resistance Movement) is a Palestinian Islamic[9] organization, with an associated military wing, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades,[10] in the Palestinian territories and elsewhere in the Middle East including Qatar.[11] Hamas is designated as a terrorist organization by the European Union,[12][13] Canada,[14] Israel,[15] Egypt,[16] Japan,[17][18][19][20][21] and the United States.[22] Australia and the United Kingdom have designated the military wing of Hamas, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, as a terrorist organization.[23][24] The organization is banned in Jordan.[25] It is not regarded as a terrorist organization by Iran,[26] Russia,[27] Norway,[28] Switzerland,[29] Brazil,[30] Turkey,[31] China,[32][33][34][35] and Qatar.[36]

Hamas was founded in 1987,[37][38] soon after the First Intifada broke out, as an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood,[3][4] which in its Gaza branch had been non-confrontational towards Israel, refrained from resistance, and was hostile to the PLO.[39] Co-founder Sheik Ahmed Yassin stated in 1987, and the Hamas Charter affirmed in 1988, that Hamas was founded to liberate Palestine, including modern-day Israel, from Israeli occupation and to establish an Islamic state in the area that is now Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.[40][41] The group has later stated that it may accept a 10-year truce if Israel withdraws to the 1967 borders and allows Palestinian refugees from 1948, as well as their descendants, to return to what is now Israel.[42][43][44][45]

The military wing of Hamas has launched attacks against Israeli soldiers and civilians. Tactics include suicide bombings, and since 2001, rocket attacks.[46][46][47][48][49][50][51] Hamas's rocket arsenal, though mainly consisting of short-range homemade Qassem rockets,[52] also includes long-range weapons that have reached major Israeli cities including Tel Aviv and Haifa.[53][54] The attacks on civilians have been condemned as war crimes and crimes against humanity by human rights groups such as Human Rights Watch.[55][56]

In the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections, Hamas won a decisive majority in the Palestinian Parliament,[57] defeating the PLO-affiliated Fatah party. Following the elections, the Quartet (the United States, Russia, United Nations, and European Union) made future foreign assistance to the PA conditional upon the future government's commitment to non-violence, recognition of the state of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements. Hamas rejected those changes, which led to the Quartet suspending its foreign assistance program and Israel imposing economic sanctions on the Hamas-led administration.[58][59] In March 2007, a national unity government headed by Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh of Hamas was briefly formed, but this failed to restart international financial assistance.[60] Tensions over control of Palestinian security forces soon erupted in the 2007 Battle of Gaza,[60] after which Hamas took control of Gaza, while its officials were ousted from government positions in the West Bank.[60] Israel and Egypt then imposed an economic blockade of the Gaza Strip, on the grounds that Fatah forces were no longer providing security there.[61] In 2011, Hamas and Fatah announced a reconciliation agreement that provides for creation of a joint caretaker Palestinian government.[62] Progress stalled, until an April 2014 agreement to form a compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014.[63]

In 2006, Hamas used an underground cross-border tunnel to capture the Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit, holding him captive until 2011, when he was released in exchange for 1,027 Palestinian prisoners.[64] Since then, Hamas has continued building a network of internal and cross-border tunnels,[65] which are used to store and deploy weapons, shield militants, and facilitate cross-border attacks. Destroying the tunnels was a primary objective of Israeli forces in the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[66][67]



Hamas is an acronym of the Arabic phrase حركة المقاومة الاسلامية or Harakat al-Muqāwama al-Islāmiyya, meaning "Islamic Resistance Movement". The Arabic word 'Hamas' (حماس) means "enthusiasm" or "zeal".[68][69] The Hamas covenant interprets its name to mean "strength and bravery".[70]

Leadership and structure

Map of key Hamas leadership nodes. 2010
Current leader, Khaled Meshaal

Hamas comprises three interrelated wings – the social welfare and political wings, which are responsible for the social, administrative, political, and propaganda activities of Hamas, and the military wing, which is engaged in covert activities, such as acting against suspected collaborators, gathering intelligence on potential targets, procuring weapons, and carrying out military attacks.[71]

Consultative councils

The Majlis al-Shura (consultative council) is the group's overarching political and decision making body. It includes representatives from Gaza, the West Bank, Israeli prisons, and the exiled external leadership, the Political Bureau. Under this Shura council are committees responsible for supervising Hamas activities, from media relations to military operations. In the West Bank and Gaza, local Shura committees answer to the Shura council and carry out its decisions.[71]

Hamas's highest decision-making body is its Political Bureau, which consists of 15 members. Before the beginning of the Syrian Civil War, it operated in exile in Damascus, Syria. The bureau is elected by members who select their representatives in local Consultative Councils in specific geographic regions. The councils then nominate representatives to the General Consultative Council, and the Political Bureau is elected by members of the General Consultative Council.[2]

Military wing

The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, Hamas's military wing formed in 1992, is named in commemoration of influential Palestinian nationalist Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam. Armed Hamas cells sometimes refer to themselves as "Students of Ayyash", "Students of the Engineer", or "Yahya Ayyash Units",[72] to commemorate Yahya Ayyash, an early Hamas bomb-maker killed in 1996.[57] Since its establishment, the military capability of Hamas has increased markedly, from rifles to Qassam rockets and more.[73]

While the number of members is known only to the Brigades leadership, Israel estimates the Brigades have a core of several hundred members who receive military style training, including training in Iran and in Syria (before the Syrian Civil War).[74] Additionally, the brigades have an estimated 10,000 operatives "of varying degrees of skill and professionalism" who are members of Hamas or their supporters and the internal security forces. These operatives can be expected to reinforce the Brigades in an "emergency situation".[75]

Although the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades are an integral part of Hamas, they also operate independently of Hamas, and at times contrary to Hamas' stated aims.[76] Most analysts agree that although differences of opinion between the Hamas military and political wing exist, Hamas's internal discipline is strong enough to contain them.[77] Political scientists Ilana Kass and Bard O'Neill liken Hamas's relationship with the Brigades to the political party Sinn Féin's relationship to the military arm of the Irish Republican Army.[78] To further explain the relationship, they quote a senior Hamas official: "The Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigade is a separate armed military wing, which has its own leaders who do not take their orders from [Hamas] and do not tell us of their plans in advance."[78] However, according to former U.S. Department of Treasury official and terrorism expert Matthew Levitt, the Hamas Political Bureau operates as the highest ranking leadership body determining the policy of the Hamas organization and has responsibility for directing and coordinating terrorist acts. Hamas' founder, Sheikh Ahmad Yassin, stated in 1998: "We can not separate the wing from the body. If we do so, the body will not be able to fly. Hamas is one body."[79]

Social welfare

Hamas has a welfare wing providing social services to Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, including running relief programs and funding schools, orphanages, mosques, healthcare clinics, soup kitchens, and sports leagues.[80]

In particular, Hamas funded health services where people could receive free or inexpensive medical treatment. Hamas greatly contributed to the health sector, and facilitated hospital and physician services in the Palestinian territory. On the other hand, Hamas's use of hospitals is sometimes criticised as purportedly serving the promotion of violence against Israel.[81] Charities affiliated with Hamas are known to financially support families of those who have been killed or imprisoned while carrying out militant actions or supporting such actions. Families typically receive a one time grant of $500 to $5,000, and those whose homes have been destroyed by the Israel Defense Forces have their rent paid for temporary housing. Families of militants not affiliated with Hamas sometimes receive less.[82]

Hamas has funded education and built Islamic charities, libraries, mosques and education centers for women. They also built nurseries, kindergartens and supervised religious schools that provide free meals to children. When children attend their schools and mosques, parents are required to sign oaths of allegiance. Refugees, as well as those left without homes, are able to claim financial and technical assistance from Hamas.[83]

The work of Hamas in these fields supplements that provided by the United Nations Relief Works Agency (UNRWA).

Despite building materials needing to be smuggled into the territory, luxury beach resorts and tourist facilities operated by the interior ministry have been constructed by Hamas government–linked charities, including gardens, playgrounds, football fields, a zoo and restaurants aimed to provide employment and low cost entertainment for citizens. Some Palestinians have complained about the admission fee, criticizing Hamas for charging them to use "government-owned" property.[84]


Hamas' 1988 charter states that Hamas "strives to raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine" (Article Six) and that "Israel will exist and will continue to exist until Islam will obliterate it, just as it obliterated others before it." Article Thirty-One of the Charter states: "Under the wing of Islam, it is possible for the followers of the three religions—Islam, Christianity and Judaism—to coexist in peace and quiet with each other."[85]

After the elections in 2006, Hamas co-founder Mahmoud Al-Zahar did not rule out the possibility of accepting a "temporary two-state solution", and stated that he dreamed "of hanging a huge map of the world on the wall at my Gaza home which does not show Israel on it".[86] Xinhua reports that Al-Zahar "did not rule out the possibility of having Jews, Muslims and Christians living under the sovereignty of an Islamic state".[86] In late 2006, Ismail Haniyeh, the political leader of Hamas, said that if a Palestinian state was formed within the 1967 lines, Hamas was willing to declare a truce that could last as long as 20 years, and stated that Hamas will never recognize the "usurper Zionist government" and will continue "jihad-like movement until the liberation of Jerusalem".[87]

In March 2006, Hamas released its official legislative program. The document clearly signaled that Hamas could refer the issue of recognizing Israel to a national referendum. Under the heading "Recognition of Israel," it stated simply (AFP, 3/11/06): "The question of recognizing Israel is not the jurisdiction of one faction, nor the government, but a decision for the Palestinian people." This was a major shift away from their 1988 charter.[88] A few months later, via University of Maryland's Jerome Segal, the group sent a letter to U.S. President George W. Bush stating they "don't mind having a Palestinian state in the 1967 borders", and asked for direct negotiations: "Segal emphasized that a state within the 1967 borders and a truce for many years could be considered Hamas' de facto recognition of Israel."[89]

In an April 2008 meeting between Hamas leader Khaled Mashal and former U.S. President Jimmy Carter, an understanding was reached in which Hamas agreed it would respect the creation of a Palestinian state in the territory seized by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, provided this were ratified by the Palestinian people in a referendum. Hamas later publicly offered a long-term truce with Israel if Israel agreed to return to its 1967 borders and grant the "right of return" to all Palestinian refugees.[90] In November 2008, Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh re-stated that Hamas was willing to accept a Palestinian state within the 1967 borders, and offered Israel a long-term truce "if Israel recognized the Palestinians' national rights".[91] In 2009, in a letter to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, Haniyeh repeated his group's support for a two-state settlement based on 1967 borders: "We would never thwart efforts to create an independent Palestinian state with borders [from] June 4, 1967, with Jerusalem as its capital."[92] On December 1, 2010, Ismail Haniyeh again repeated, "We accept a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967, with Jerusalem as its capital, the release of Palestinian prisoners, and the resolution of the issue of refugees," and "Hamas will respect the results [of a referendum] regardless of whether it differs with its ideology and principles."[93]

In February 2012, according to the Palestinian authority, Hamas forswore the use of violence. Evidence for this was provided by an eruption of violence from Islamic Jihad in March 2012 after an Israeli assassination of a Jihad leader, during which Hamas refrained from attacking Israel.[94] "Israel—despite its mantra that because Hamas is sovereign in Gaza it is responsible for what goes on there—almost seems to understand," wrote Israeli journalists Avi Issacharoff and Amos Harel, "and has not bombed Hamas offices or installations".[95]

Israel has rejected some truce offers by Hamas because it contends the group uses them to prepare for more fighting rather than peace.[96] The Atlantic magazine columnist Jeffrey Goldberg, along with other analysts, believes Hamas may be incapable of permanent reconciliation with Israel.[97][98] Mkhaimer Abusada, a political scientist at Al Azhar University, writes that Hamas talks "of hudna [temporary ceasefire], not of peace or reconciliation with Israel. They believe over time they will be strong enough to liberate all historic Palestine."[99]


The Hamas Charter (or Covenant), issued in 1988, outlined the organization's position on many issues at the time. It identifies Hamas as the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine and declares its members to be Muslims who "fear God and raise the banner of Jihad in the face of the oppressors". The charter states "our struggle against the Jews is very great and very serious" and calls for the eventual creation of an Islamic state in Palestine, in place of Israel and the Palestinian Territories,[70] and the obliteration or dissolution of Israel.[100][101] The Charter also asserts that through shrewd manipulation of imperial countries and secret societies, Zionists were behind a wide range of events and disasters going as far back in history as the French Revolution. Among the charter's controversial statements is the following: "The time will not come until Muslims will fight the Jews [and kill them]; until the Jews hide behind rocks and trees, which will cry: O Muslim! There is a Jew hiding behind me, come on and kill him!"[102] The document also quotes Islamic religious texts to provide justification for fighting against and killing the Jews of Israel,[103] presenting the Arab–Israeli conflict as an inherently irreconcilable struggle between Jews and Muslims, and Judaism and Islam,[102] adding that the only way to engage in this struggle between "truth and falsehood" is through Islam and by means of jihad, until victory or martyrdom.[102] The Charter adds that "renouncing any part of Palestine means renouncing part of the religion" of Islam.[85] The charter states that Hamas is humanistic, and tolerant of other religions as long as they do not block Hamas's efforts.[104]

Current status of the Charter

Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal indicated to Robert Pastor, senior adviser to the Carter Center, that the Charter is "a piece of history and no longer relevant, but cannot be changed for internal reasons".[105] Hamas does not use the Charter on their website and prefer to use their election manifesto to put forth their agenda.[106][107] Pastor states that those who quote the charter rather than more recent Hamas statements may be using the Charter as an excuse to ignore Hamas.[105]

British diplomat and former British ambassador to the United Nations Sir Jeremy Greenstock stated in early 2009 that the Hamas charter was "drawn up by a Hamas-linked imam some [twenty] years ago and has never been adopted since Hamas was elected as the Palestinian government in 2006".[108] Mohammed Nimer of American University comments on the Charter, "It's a tract meant to mobilize support and it should be amended.... It projects anger, not vision."[109] Ahmed Yousef, an adviser to Ismail Haniyeh, has questioned the use of the charter by Israel and its supporters to brand Hamas as a fundamentalist, terrorist, racist, anti-Semitic organization and claims that they have taken parts of the charter out of context for propaganda purposes. "In fact, the movement has to a certain degree moved on from (the charter's) content simply by participating in the political process, accepting a Palestinian state within the 1967 borders and publicly declaring a readiness to explore political solutions with the international community".[110] While Hamas representatives recognize the problem, one official notes that Arafat got very little in return for changing the PLO Charter under the Oslo Accords, and that there is agreement that little is gained from a non-violent approach.[111]

The two state solution and Hamas' Charter

Hamas has opposed the two state solution as conceding the rest of Palestine in exchange for just the West Bank and Gaza. Hamas regards Palestine as an Islamic waqf, consecrated for future Muslim generations, no part of which should be yielded. The Hamas 1988 charter states that the movement’s aim is to

raise the banner of Allah over every inch of Palestine, for under the wing of Islam followers of all religions can coexist in security and safety where their lives, possessions and rights are concerned’ (Article 6)[85][112]

To concede territory has been viewed by Hamas as equivalent to renouncing Islam itself.[113] The charter also states that, 'when our enemies usurp some Islamic lands, jihad becomes a duty binding on all Muslims.[114]

This is frequently cited as proof that Hamas will not accept a two-state solution, and Israeli governments have refused to negotiate with Hamas on the ground that it does not acknowledge Israel’s legitimacy, though Khaled Mashaal, its leader, has publicly affirmed the movement’s readiness to accept such a division.[115][116] When Hamas won a majority in the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, Haniyeh, then president-elect, sent messages to both George Bush and Israel's leaders asking to be recognized and offering a long-term truce (hudna), along the 1967 border lines. No response was forthcoming.[117]


Early Islamic activism in Gaza

With its takeover of Gaza after the 1967 war with Egypt, Israel hunted down secular Palestinian Liberation Organization factions but dropped the previous Egyptian rulers' harsh restrictions against Islamic activists.[3] In fact, Israel both tolerated and at times encouraged Islamic as a counterweight to the secular nationalism promoted by the PLO.[3][118]

Around 1973/4, the Muslim Brotherhood out of which Hamas grew, created a new organization, the Mujama al-Islamiya (Islamic Collective), under a charismatic leader, Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, began to develop networks of Islamic charity (Dawah)organizations, nurseries and kindergartens, and established neighbourhood clubs for study and sports. The general aim was to develop "thinking Muslim individual" Indigent families were supplied with zakat (alms money), orphans were taken under their wing, while children were enrolled in the school system developed by the Islamic organization. Under the aegis of the Israeli Civil Administration, which approved of its legalistic and apolitical pietism, the number of mosques in Gaza doubled between 1967-1986, many coming to serve as centres where young men and women could further their education.[118][119] Israel recognized the Mujama al-Islamiya in 1979.[3][120]

Yitzhak Segev, the acting governor of Gaza in 1979, said he had no illusions about Yassin's intentions, having watched an Islamist movement topple the Shah as Israel's military attache in Iran. According to Segev, Yassin and his charity were completely peaceful towards Israel during this time, and Segev and other Israeli officials feared being viewed as an enemy of Islam. Segev maintained regular contact with Yassin, met with him around a dozen times, and arranged for Yassin to be taken to Israel for hospital treatment.[3]

Also, Segev said, Fatah was "our main enemy".[3][121] Islamists frequently attacked secular and leftist Palestinian movements, including Fatah, but the Israeli military avoided getting involved in those quarrels.[3] It stood aside, for example, when Mujama al-Islamiya activists stormed the Red Crescent charity's headquarters in Gaza, but Segev did send soldiers to prevent the burning down of the home of the head of the organization.[3]

In 1984 the Israeli army received intelligence that Sheikh Yassin's followers were collecting arms in Gaza. Israeli troops raided mosques and found a cache of weapons.[3] Yassin was arrested, but told his interrogators the weapons were meant to be used against secular Palestinians, not Israel. The cleric was released a year later and allowed to continue to develop his movement in Gaza.[3]

Around the time of Yassin's arrest, Avner Cohen, an Israeli religious affairs official, sent a report to senior military officers and civilian leadership in Gaza advising them of the dangers of the Islamic movement, but this report and similar ones were ignored.[3] Former military intelligence officer Shalom Harari said the warnings were ignored out of neglect, not a desire to fortify the Islamists: "Israel never financed Hamas. Israel never armed Hamas."[3][122]


In 1987, several Palestinians were killed in a traffic accident involving an Israeli driver, and the events that followed—a Palestinian uprising (now known as the First Intifada) against Israel's West Bank and Gaza occupation—led Yassin and six other Palestinians, including, Hamad al-Hasanat,[123] to found Hamas as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood movement. The new group was supported by Brotherhood-affiliated charities and social institutions that had already gained a strong foothold in the occupied territories. The acronym "Hamas" first appeared in 1987 in a leaflet that accused the Israeli intelligence services of undermining the moral fiber of Palestinian youth as part of Mossad's recruitment of what Hamas termed collaborators. Nonetheless, Israeli military and intelligence was still focused on Fatah, and continued to maintain contacts with Gaza's Islamic activists. Numerous Islamist leaders, including senior Hamas founder Mahmoud Zahar, met with Yitzhak Rabin as part of "regular consultations" between Israeli officials and Palestinians not linked to the PLO.[3]

Hamas carried out its first attack against Israel in 1989, abducting and killing two soldiers. The Israel Defense Forces immediately arrested Yassin and sentenced him to life in prison, and deported 400 Hamas activists, including Zahar, to South Lebanon, which at the time was occupied by Israel. During this time Hamas built a relationship with Hezbollah.


Hamas's military branch, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, was created in 1991.[124] During the 1990s the al-Qassam Brigades conducted numerous attacks on Israel, with both civilian and military victims. In April 1993, suicide bombings in the West Bank began.[125] After the February 1994 massacre by Baruch Goldstein of 30 Muslim civilians in a Hebron mosque, the al-Qassam Brigades began suicide attacks inside Israel.[126]

In December 1992 Israel responded to the killing of a border police officer by deporting 415 leading figures of Hamas and Islamic Jihad to Lebanon, which provoked international condemnation and a unanimous UN Security Council resolution condemning the action.[127][128]

Although the suicide attacks by the al-Qassam Brigades and other groups violated the 1993 Oslo accords (which Hamas opposed[129]), Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat was reluctant to pursue the attackers and may have had inadequate means to do so.[130] Some analysts state that the Palestinian Authority could have stopped the suicide and other attacks on civilians but refused to do so.[131]

According to the Congressional Research Service, Hamas admitted to having executed Palestinians accused of collaborating with Israeli authorities in the 1990s. A transcript of a training film by the al-Qassam Brigades tells how Hamas operatives kidnapped Palestinians accused of collaboration and then forced confessions before executing them.[4]

In 1996, Yahya Ayash, the chief bombmaker of Hamas and the leader of the West Bank battalion of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, was assassinated by the Israeli secret service.[130][132]

In September 1997, Israeli agents in Jordan attempted but failed to assassinate Hamas leader Khaled Mashal, leading to chilled relations between the two countries and release of Sheikh Yassin, Hamas's spiritual leader, from Israeli prison. Two years later Hamas was banned in Jordan, reportedly in part at the request of the United States, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority.[133] Jordan's King Abdullah feared the activities of Hamas and its Jordanian allies would jeopardize peace negotiations with Israel, and accused Hamas of engaging in illegitimate activities within Jordan.[134][135] In mid-September 1999, authorities arrested Hamas leaders Khaled Mashal and Ibrahim Ghosheh on their return from a visit to Iran, and charged them with being members of an illegal organization, storing weapons, conducting military exercises, and using Jordan as a training base.[134][135][136] Hamas leaders denied the charges.[133] Mashal was exiled and eventually settled in Syria. He fled to Qatar in 2012 as a result of the Syrian civil war.[citation needed]

Second Intifada

August 2001 Sbarro pizza restaurant bombing in Jerusalem, in which 15 Israeli civilians were killed. Hamas said the attack was in response to Israel's assassination of its officials, including two senior leaders.[137]

Al-Qassam Brigades militants were among the armed groups that launched both military-style attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli civilian and military targets during the Second Intifada (also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada (Arabic: انتفاضة الأقصى‎‎, Intifāat El Aqa; Hebrew: אינתיפאדת אל-אקצה‎, Intifādat El-Aqtzah), which began in late September 2000. This Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule in the occupied territories was much more violent than the First Intifada. The military and civilian death toll is estimated at 5500 Palestinians and more than 1100 Israelis, as well as 64 foreigners.[138] A 2007 study of Palestinian suicide bombings during the second intifada (September 2000 through August 2005) found that about 40 percent were carried out by the al-Qassam Brigades.[139]

The immediate trigger for the uprising is disputed, but a more general cause, writes U.S. political science professor Jeremy Pressman, was "popular Palestinian discontent [that] grew during the Oslo peace process because the reality on the ground did not match the expectations created by the peace agreements".[140] Hamas would be the beneficiary of this growing discontent in the 2006 Palestinian Authority legislative elections.

In January 2004, Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin said that the group would end armed resistance against Israel in exchange for a Palestinian state in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and east Jerusalem, and that restoring Palestinians' "historical rights" (relating to the 1948 Palestinian exodus) "would be left for future generations".[141] On January 25, 2004, senior Hamas official Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi offered a 10-year truce, or hudna, in return for the establishment of a Palestinian state and the complete withdrawal by Israel from the territories captured in the 1967 Six Day War.[141] Al-Rantissi stated that Hamas had come to the conclusion that it was "difficult to liberate all our land at this stage, so we accept a phased liberation".[141][142] Israel immediately dismissed al-Rantissi's statements as insincere and a smokescreen for military preparations.[142] Yassin was assassinated on March 22, 2004, by a targeted Israeli air strike,[143] and al-Rantisi was assassinated by a similar air strike on April 18, 2004.[144]

2006 presidential and legislative elections

While Hamas boycotted the 2005 Palestinian presidential election, it did participate in the 2005 municipal elections organized by Yasser Arafat in the occupied territories. In those elections it won control of over one third of Palestinian municipal councils, besting Fatah, which had for long been the biggest force in Palestinian politics.[145]

In its election manifesto for the 2006 Palestinian legislative election, Hamas omitted a call for an end to Israel, though it did still call for armed struggle against the occupation.[146][147] Hamas won the 2006 elections, winning 76 of the 132 seats to Fatah's 43.[148] Seen by many as primarily a rejection of the Fatah government's corruption and ineffectiveness, the Hamas victory seemingly had brought to an end 40 years of PLO domination of Palestinian politics.[148][149]

In early February 2006, Hamas offered Israel a 10-year truce "in return for a complete Israeli withdrawal from the occupied Palestinian territories: the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem,"[57] and recognition of Palestinian rights including the "right of return".[150] Mashal added that Hamas was not calling for a final end to armed operations against Israel, and it would not impede other Palestinian groups from carrying out such operations.[151]

After the election, the Quartet on the Middle East (the United States, Russia, the European Union (EU), and the United Nations) stated that assistance to the Palestinian Authority would only continue if Hamas renounced violence, recognized Israel, and accepted previous Israeli-Palestinian agreements, which Hamas refused to do.[152] The Quartet then imposed a freeze on all international aid to the Palestinian territories.[153]

In 2006 after the Gaza election, Hamas leader sent a letter addressed to George W. Bush where he among other things declared that Hamas would accept a state on the 1967 borders including a truce. However, the Bush administration did not reply.[154]

Electoral Platform for Change and Reform

The Change and Reform List adopts a set of principles stemming from the Islamic tradition that we embrace. We see these principles as agreed upon not only by our Palestinian people, but also by our Arab and Islamic nation as a whole. These principles are:[citation needed]

  1. True Islam with its civilized achievements and political, economic, social, and legal aspects is our frame of reference and our way of life.
  2. Historic Palestine is part of the Arab and Islamic land and its ownership by the Palestinian people is a right that does not diminish over time. No military or legal measures will change that right.
  3. The Palestinian people, wherever they reside, constitute a single and united people and form an integral part of the Arab and Muslim nation ... [Quranic verse]. Our Palestinian people are still living a phase of national liberation, and thus they have the right to strive to recover their own rights and end the occupation using all means, including armed struggle. We have to make all our resources available to support our people and defeat the occupation and establish a Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital.
  4. The right of return of all Palestinian refugees and displaced persons to their land and properties, and the right to self-determination and all other national rights, are inalienable and cannot be bargained away for any political concessions.
  5. We uphold the indigenous and inalienable rights of our people to our land, Jerusalem, our holy places, our water resources, borders, and a fully sovereign independent Palestinian state with Jerusalem as its capital.
  6. Reinforcing and protecting Palestinian national unity is one of the priorities of the Palestinian national action.
  7. The issue of the prisoners is at the top of the Palestinian agenda.[155]

Legislative policy and reforming the judiciary.

"stress the separation between the three powers, the legislative, executive and judicial; activate the role of the Constitutional Court; re-form the Judicial Supreme Council and choose its members by elections and on the basis of qualifications rather than partisan, personal, and social considerations ... ; enact the necessary laws that guarantee the neutrality of general prosecutor ... [and] laws that will stop any transgression by the executive power on the constitution".[155]

Public freedoms and citizen rights.

"Achieve equality before the law among citizens in rights and duties; bring security to all citizens and protect their properties and assure their safety against arbitrary arrest, torture, or revenge; stress the culture of dialogue ... ; support the press and media institutions and maintain the right of journalists to access and to publish information; maintain freedom and independence of professional syndicates and preserve the rights of their membership".[155]

Hamas–Fatah conflict

Hamas rally in Bethlehem

After the formation of the Hamas-led cabinet on March 20, 2006, tensions between Fatah and Hamas militants progressively rose in the Gaza strip as Fatah commanders refused to take orders from the government while the Palestinian Authority initiated a campaign of demonstrations, assassinations and abductions against Hamas, which led to Hamas responding.[156] Israeli intelligence warned Mahmoud Abbas that Hamas had planned to kill him at his office in Gaza. According to a Palestinian source close to Abbas, Hamas considers president Abbas to be a barrier to its complete control over the Palestinian Authority and decided to kill him. In a statement to Al Jazeera, Hamas leader Mohammed Nazzal, accused Abbas of being party to besieging and isolating the Hamas-led government.[157]

On June 9, 2006, during an Israeli artillery operation, an explosion occurred on a busy Gaza beach, killing eight Palestinian civilians.[158][159] It was assumed that Israeli shellings were responsible for the killings, but Israeli government officials denied this.[160][161] Hamas formally withdrew from its 16-month ceasefire on June 10, taking responsibility for the subsequent Qassam rocket attacks launched from Gaza into Israel.[162]

On June 25, two Israeli soldiers were killed and another, Gilad Shalit, captured following an incursion by the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, Popular Resistance Committees and Army of Islam. In response, the Israeli military launched Operation Summer Rains three days later, to secure the release of the kidnapped soldier,[163][164][165] arresting 64 Hamas officials. Among them were 8 Palestinian Authority cabinet ministers and up to 20 members of the Palestinian Legislative Council,[165] The arrests, along with other events, effectively prevented the Hamas-dominated legislature from functioning during most of its term.[166][167]

On February 2007 Saudi-sponsored negotiations in Mecca produced agreement on a signed by Mahmoud Abbas on behalf of Fatah and Khaled Mashal on behalf of Hamas. The new government was called on to achieve Palestinian national goals as approved by the Palestine National Council, the clauses of the Basic Law and the National Reconciliation Document (the "Prisoners' Document") as well as the decisions of the Arab summit.[168]

In March 2007, the Palestinian Legislative Council established a national unity government, with 83 representatives voting in favor and three against. Government ministers were sworn in by Mahmoud Abbas, the chairman of the Palestinian Authority, at a ceremony held simultaneously in Gaza and Ramallah. In June that year, renewed fighting broke out between Hamas and Fatah.[169] In the course of the June 2007 Battle of Gaza, Hamas exploited the near total collapse of Palestinian Authority forces in Gaza, to seize[170] control of Gaza, ousting Fatah officials. President Mahmoud Abbas then dismissed the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority government.[171] and outlawed the Hamas militia.[172] At least 600 Palestinians died in fighting between Hamas and Fatah.[173] Human Rights Watch, a U.S.-based group, accused both sides in the conflict of torture and war crimes.[174]

Human Rights Watch estimates several hundred Gazans were "maimed" and tortured in the aftermath of the Gaza War. 73 Gazan men accused of "collaborating" had their arms and legs broken by "unidentified perpetrators" and 18 Palestinians accused of collaborating with Israel, who had escaped from Gaza's main prison compound after Israel bombed the facility, were executed by Hamas security officials in the first days of the conflict.[175][176]

Hamas security forces attacked hundreds Fatah officials who supported Israel. Human Rights Watch interviewed one such person:

"There were eight of us sitting there. We were all from Fatah. Then three masked militants broke in. They were dressed in brown camouflage military uniforms; they all had guns. They pointed their guns at us and cursed us, then they began beating us with iron rods, including a 10-year-old boy whom they hit in the face. They said we were "collaborators" and "unfaithful".

They beat me with iron sticks and gun butts for 15 minutes. They were yelling: "You are happy that Israel is bombing us!" until people came out of their houses, and they withdrew.[175]

In March 2012 Mahmoud Abbas stated that there were no political differences between Hamas and Fatah as they had reached agreement on a joint political platform and on a truce with Israel. Commenting on relations with Hamas, Abbas revealed in an interview with Al Jazeera that "We agreed that the period of calm would be not only in the Gaza Strip, but also in the West Bank," adding that "We also agreed on a peaceful popular resistance [against Israel], the establishment of a Palestinian state along the 1967 borders and that the peace talks would continue if Israel halted settlement construction and accepted our conditions."[177][178]

Progress has stalled, until an April 2014 agreement to form a compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014.[63]

2008-09 Gaza War

On June 17, 2008, Egyptian mediators announced that an informal truce had been agreed to between Hamas and Israel.[179][180] Hamas agreed to cease rocket attacks on Israel, while Israel agreed to allow limited commercial shipping across its border with Gaza, barring any breakdown of the tentative peace deal; Hamas also hinted that it would discuss the release of Gilad Shalit.[181] Israeli sources state that Hamas also committed itself to enforce the ceasefire on the other Palestinian organizations.[182] Even before the truce was agreed to, some on the Israeli side were not optimistic about it, Shin Bet chief Yuval Diskin stating in May 2008 that a ground incursion into Gaza was unavoidable and would more effectively quell arms smuggling and pressure Hamas into relinquishing power.[183]

While Hamas was careful to maintain the ceasefire, the lull was sporadically violated by other groups, sometimes in defiance of Hamas.[182][184][185] For example, on June 24 Islamic Jihad launched rockets at the Israeli town of Sderot; Israel called the attack a grave violation of the informal truce, and closed its border crossings with Gaza.[186] On November 4, 2008, Israeli forces, in an attempt to stop construction of a tunnel, killed six Hamas gunmen in a raid inside the Gaza Strip.[187][188] Hamas responded by resuming rocket attacks, a total of 190 rockets in November according to Israel's military.[189]

Damage to a Beersheba kindergarten from a Grad rocket fired from Gaza

With the six-month truce officially expired on December 19, Hamas launched 50 to more than 70 rockets and mortars into Israel over the next three days, though no Israelis were injured.[190][191] On December 21, Hamas said it was ready to stop the attacks and renew the truce if Israel stopped its "aggression" in Gaza and opened up its border crossings.[191][192]

On December 27 and 28, Israel implemented Operation Cast Lead against Hamas. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said "We warned Hamas repeatedly that rejecting the truce would push Israel to aggression against Gaza." According to Palestinian officials, over 280 people were killed and 600 were injured in the first two days of airstrikes.[193] Most were Hamas police and security officers, though many civilians also died.[193] According to Israel, militant training camps, rocket-manufacturing facilities and weapons warehouses that had been pre-identified were hit, and later they attacked rocket and mortar squads who fired around 180 rockets and mortars at Israeli communities.[194] Chief of Gaza police force Tawfiq Jabber, head of the General Security Service Salah Abu Shrakh,[195] senior religious authority and security officer Nizar Rayyan,[196] and Interior Minister Said Seyam[197] were among those killed during the fighting. Although Israel sent out thousands of cell-phone messages urging residents of Gaza to leave houses where weapons may be stored, in an attempt to minimise civilian casualties,[194] some residents complained there was nowhere to go because many neighborhoods had received the same message.[194][198][199] Israeli bombs landed close to civilian structures such as schools,[200][201] and some alleged that Israel was deliberately targeting Palestinian civilians.[202]

Israel declared a unilateral ceasefire on January 17, 2009.[203] Hamas responded the following day by announcing a one-week ceasefire to give Israel time to withdraw its forces from the Gaza Strip.[204] Israeli, Palestinian, and third-party sources disagreed on the total casualty figures from the Gaza war, and the number of Palestinian casualties who were civilians.[205][206] In November 2010, a senior Hamas official acknowledged that up to 300 fighters were killed and "In addition to them, between 200 and 300 fighters from the Al-Qassam Brigades and another 150 security forces were martyred." These new numbers reconcile the total with those of the Israeli military, which originally said were 709 "terror operatives" killed.[207][208]

After the Gaza War

On August 16, 2009, Hamas leader Khaled Mashal stated that the organization is ready to open dialogue with the Obama administration because its policies are much better than those of former U.S. president George W. Bush: "As long as there's a new language, we welcome it, but we want to see not only a change of language, but also a change of policies on the ground. We have said that we are prepared to cooperate with the US or any other international party that would enable the Palestinians to get rid of occupation."[209] Despite this, an August 30, 2009 speech during a visit to Jordan[210] in which Mashal expressed support for the Palestinian right of return was interpreted by David Pollock of the Washington Institute for Near East Policy as a sign that "Hamas has now clearly opted out of diplomacy."[211] In an interview on May 2010, Mashal said that if a Palestinian state with real sovereignty was established under the conditions he set out, on the borders of 1967 with its capital Jerusalem and with the right of return, that will be the end of the Palestinian resistance, and then the nature of any subsequent ties with Israel would be decided democratically by the Palestinians.[212][213]

In July 2009, Khaled Mashal, Hamas's political bureau chief, stated Hamas's willingness to cooperate with a resolution to the Arab-Israeli conflict, which included a Palestinian state based on 1967 borders, provided that Palestinian refugees be given the right to return to Israel and that East Jerusalem be recognized as the new state's capital.[214]

In 2011, after the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, Hamas distanced itself from the Syrian regime and its members began leaving Syria. Where once there were "hundreds of exiled Palestinian officials and their relatives", that number shrunk to "a few dozen".[215] In 2012, Hamas publicly announced its support for the Syrian opposition.[216] This prompted Syrian state TV to issue a "withering attack" on the Hamas leadership.[217] Khaled Mashal said that Hamas had been "forced out" of Damascus because of its disagreements with the Syrian regime.[218] In late October, Syrian Army soldiers shot dead two Hamas leaders in Daraa refugee camp.[219] On November 5, 2012, the Syrian state security forces shut down all Hamas offices in the country.[220] In January 2013, another two Hamas members were found dead in Syria's Husseinieh camp. Activists said the two had been arrested and executed by state security forces.[221] In 2013, it was reported that the military wing of Hamas had begun training units of the Free Syrian Army.[222]

In 2013, after "several intense weeks of indirect three-way diplomacy between representatives of Hamas, Israel, and the Palestinian Authority", no agreement was reached.[223] Also, intra-Palestinian reconciliation talks stalled and, as a result, during Obama's visit to Israel, Hamas launched five rocket strikes on Israel.[223] In November, Isra Almodallal was appointed the first spokeswoman of the group.[224]

2014 Israel–Gaza conflict

On 8 July 2014 Israel launched Operation Protective Edge to counter increased Hamas rocket fire from Gaza. The conflict ended with a permanent cease-fire after 7 weeks, and more than 2,200 dead. 64 of the dead were Israeli soldiers, 7 were civilians in Israel (from rocket attacks), and 2,101 were killed in Gaza, of which according to UN OCHA at least 1,460 were civilians. Israel says 1,000 of the dead were militants. Following the conflict, Mahmoud Abbas president of the Palestinian Authority, accused Hamas of needlessly extending the fighting in the Gaza Strip, contributing to the high death toll, of running a "shadow government" in Gaza, and of illegally executing scores of Palestinians.[225][226][227]

Hamas has complained about the slow delivery of reconstruction materials after the conflict and announced that they were diverting these materials from civilian uses to build more infiltration tunnels.[228]


As of 2009 the Council on Foreign Relations estimates Hamas's annual budget at $70 million.[229]

In the early 2000s, the largest backer of Hamas was Saudi Arabia, with over 50% of its funds coming from that country,[230] mainly through Islamic charity organizations.[231] An earlier estimate by the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs estimated a $50 million annual budget, mostly supplied by private charitable associations but with $12 million supplied directly by Gulf states, primarily Saudi Arabia, and a further $3 million from Iran. In 2002, a Saudi Arabian charity, the Saudi Council to Support the Palestinian Intefada run by then Saudi Interior Minister Prince Nayef Bin Abdul Aziz stated the council will give the families of 102 Hamas militants killed, including eight suicide bombers, $5,340 each.[232][233]

The Saudi owned al-Taqwa Bank has been identified as a holder of money for Hamas since 1997. Jamie C. Zarate, former Deputy Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Department, told Congress that $60 million was moved to Hamas accounts with Al Taqwa bank. The Al Taqwa bank has also been used to launder funds for Al Qaeda.[234][235][236] The funding by Saudi Arabia continued despite Saudi pledges to stop funding groups such as Hamas that have used violence,[237] and its recent denouncements of Hamas' lack of unity with Fatah.[238] According to the U.S. State Department, Hamas is funded by Iran, Palestinian expatriates, and "private benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other Arab states".[22] Saudi spokesman Adel Al Jubeir said, "no Saudi government money goes to Hamas, directly or indirectly." He added that it "very likely" that "some Saudi individuals" have provided financial support to Hamas.[239]

In 2004, reports citing unidentified U.S. and Israeli intelligence officials indicated that Saudi funding for Hamas had been curtailed and replaced by other regional sponsors. In June 2004 testimony before the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, former Treasury Department General Counsel David Aufhauser quoted "informed intelligence sources" as saying, "for whatever reason, the money going to Hamas from Saudi Arabia has substantially dried up."[239] Aufhauser indicated that Saudi financial support "has been supplemented by money from Iran and Syria flowing through even more dangerous rejectionist groups in the West Bank".[239] Similarly, Israeli daily Maariv quoted in 2004 an unidentified Israeli military official as saying that "for the first time in years the Saudis have begun to reduce the flow of funds to Hamas and to the Gaza Strip."[239] This source attributes this change largely to U.S. pressure on Saudi Arabia to stem the flow of funding to Hamas and terrorist organizations.[239] According to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), another reported funding source for Hamas is through the 21,000 Arabs of Palestinian and Lebanese descent who live in the Foz do Iguaçu area of the tri-border region of Latin America. According to Paraguayan Interior Minister Julio César Fanego, they have donated "something between $50 and $500 million" to 16 Arab extremist groups between 1999 and 2001, in amounts ranging from $500 to $2,000.[240][241]

In the late 1980s, 10% of all Hamas funding came from the Islamic Republic of Iran.[242] Later, from 1993 to 2006, Iran provided Hamas with approximately US$30 million annually. More recent assessments indicate that Iranian funding has increased significantly between 2006 and 2009, to hundreds of millions of Euros per year. After 2009, sanctions on Iran made funding difficult, forcing Hamas instead to rely on religious donations by individuals in the West Bank, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia.[243][244] Since June 2011, funding from the Islamic Republic of Iran has been cut to show "displeasure at Hamas's failure to hold public rallies in support of President [Bashar al-] Assad" during the Syrian Civil War, and funding from the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt has been cut so the Muslim Brotherhood can diverts funds "to support Arab Spring revolts".[245] The shortages have meant that Gaza's 40,000 civil service and security employees were not paid July 2011.[245]

Hamas-linked charities in 2010 invested heavily in Gaza business ventures, with the condition that much of revenue stream from those ventures go to Hamas-linked charitable purposes in Gaza.[246] Generally, Hamas and its members have increasingly dominated the Gaza economy, in particular since the 2006 Israel-led blockade of Gaza and Gaza elections.[247][248]

Gaza domestic funding

Hamas approved a 540-million-dollar government budget for 2010 with up to 90% coming from "undisclosed" foreign aid, which includes funding from Iran and Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood according to western intelligence agencies.[245] Due to the Gaza blockade, Hamas still faces a financial crisis. With a bureaucracy of around 30,000 staff, the organisation is growing faster than can be handled, with salaries being delayed or prioritised for the lowest paid. To fund its budget, Hamas has raised new taxes on businesses and imposed a 14.5% tax on luxury goods smuggled through the tunnels. Gaza businessmen have accused Hamas of profiting from the blockade and using these taxes to buy large tracts of land and private buildings for public facilities in competition to established businesses.[245][249][250]

In August 2011, the U.S State Department threatened to cut 100 million dollars in aid it sends to the Gaza Strip if Hamas continues to insist upon auditing American foreign aid organizations after Hamas suspended operations of the International Medical Corps following the group's refusal to submit to an on-site audit. Most foreign charities submit their own audits to the Interior Ministry in Ramallah. Charities must be audited by law, possibly to ensure money is not diverted for political or intelligence-gathering purposes but as the U.S. government forbids direct contact with Hamas, the action prompted Washington to issue the threat via a third party. Aid provided by American and other foreign groups goes to hundreds of thousands of Palestinians in Gaza, where most of the 1.6 million residents are refugees.[251][252]

A U.S. official based in the region said "USAID-funded partner organizations operating in Gaza are forced by Hamas's actions to suspend their assistance work. (They) were put on hold effective August 12."[253] According to the official, Hamas demanded access to files and records of NGOs, which would reveal financial and administrative information, details of staff members and information on beneficiaries. He said Hamas shut down IMC and USAID after the U.S. objected to "unwarranted audits". Hamas administration official Taher al-Nono said Hamas had a right to monitor their work in the territory but an understanding had been reached that would allow independent auditing teams to inspect the files of NGOs.[254]

A day after the U.S. announced it was suspending financial aid to Gaza, Hamas officials said they had reached an agreement with the United States that would allow USAID to continue operations.[255]

In August 2011, the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip imposed new travel restrictions on Palestinians active in non-governmental organizations by requiring them to provide details of the trip to the ministry in what the Palestinian NGO Network regards as another Hamas attempt to control and hamper them. The Palestinian Center for Human Rights condemned the new laws. Tharut al Bic, head of the interior ministry's NGO department, stated, "the new instructions are intended to make it easier for travellers to better organize their trip and to preserve order." Hamas requires sick people wishing to leave the Gaza Strip to submit applications and meet various conditions, in addition to restrictions Israel imposes on Palestinians leaving Gaza.[256]

In 2014 Fatah accused Hamas of stealing a total of $700 million from aid directed at Gaza Strip reconstruction and civilian casualties of the conflict. In the beginning of October Hamas soldiers raided one of the branches of Bank of Palestine and seized $750'000 in cash. A number of Fatah activists also accused Fatah leadership of organized theft of aid resources.[257]


In 2005, Hamas announced its intention to launch an experimental TV channel, Al-Aqsa TV. The station was launched on January 7, 2006, less than three weeks before the Palestinian legislative elections. It has shown television programs, including some children's television, which deliver anti-semitic messages.[258] Hamas has stated that the television station is "an independent media institution that often does not express the views of the Palestinian government headed by Ismail Haniyeh or of the Hamas movement," and that Hamas does not hold anti-semitic views.[259]

Hamas produced several propaganda songs aimed to scare Israeli citizen including Shock Israel's Security and "Go, call a Gazan to rip Giv'ati".[260]

Islamization efforts

In the Gaza Strip

From 1987 to 1991, during the first intifada, Hamas campaigned for the wearing of the hijab alongside other measures, including insisting women stay at home and be segregated from men, and the promotion of polygamy. In the course of this campaign, women who chose not to wear the hijab were verbally and physically harassed, with the result that the hijab was being worn 'just to avoid problems on the streets'.[261]

Since Hamas took control of the Gaza Strip in 2007, some of its members have attempted to impose Islamic dress or the hijab head covering on women.[99][262] Also, the government's "Islamic Endowment Ministry" has deployed Virtue Committee members to warn citizens of the dangers of immodest dress, card playing, and dating.[263] However, there are no government laws imposing dress and other moral standards, and the Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic dress on students.[99] There has also been successful resistance to attempts by local Hamas officials to impose Islamic dress on women.[264]

Hamas officials deny having any plans to impose Islamic law, one legislator stating that "What you are seeing are incidents, not policy," and that Islamic law is the desired standard "but we believe in persuasion".[263] The Hamas education ministry reversed one effort to impose Islamic dress on students.[99] When the BBC in 2010 interviewed five "middle-class" women in Gaza City, the subjects generally indicated Hamas attempts to enforce conservative religious standards of dress had been largely rejected by the local population, with some expressing concern that the closure of Gaza would allow the proliferation of extremist enforcement attempts by low-level Hamas officials, and others indicating they were happy to see Hamas enforcing such requirements. They also cited examples of leniency by Hamas authorities, such as allowing widowed women to keep custody of their children so long as they did not remarry, and other relaxations in the enforcement of Shariah law. One woman noted that the environment was "not as bad" as during the First Intifada, when women were subject to public criticism and stonings for failure to obey conservative Islamic standards of dress. One woman complained that women were not free to speak their minds or travel alone, and added: "Hamas want to force themselves onto the people. They want the people to submit to them, this is their cover. They destroyed the reputation of Islam, by saying we're doing this because it is religion. This is how they won the elections."[265]

In 2013, UNRWA canceled its annual marathon in Gaza after Hamas rulers prohibited women from participating in the race.[266]

In the West Bank

In 2005, the human rights organization Freemuse released a report titled "Palestine: Taliban-like attempts to censor music", which said that Palestinian musicians feared that harsh religious laws against music and concerts will be imposed since Hamas group scored political gains in the Palestinian Authority local elections of 2005.[267]

The attempt by Hamas to dictate a cultural code of conduct in the 1980s and early 1990s led to a violent fighting between different Palestinian sectors. Hamas members reportedly burned down stores that stocked videos they deemed indecent and destroyed books they described as "heretical".[268]

In 2005, an outdoor music and dance performance in Qalqiliya were suddenly banned by the Hamas led municipality, for the reason that such an event would be forbidden by Islam, or "Haram".[269] The municipality also ordered that music no longer be played in the Qalqiliya zoo, and mufti Akrameh Sabri issued a religious edict affirming the municipality decision.[268] In response, the Palestinian national poet Mahmoud Darwish warned that "There are Taliban-type elements in our society, and this is a very dangerous sign."[267][268][270][271]

The Palestinian columnist Mohammed Abd Al-Hamid, a resident of Ramallah, wrote that this religious coercion could cause the migration of artists, and said "The religious fanatics in Algeria destroyed every cultural symbol, shattered statues and rare works of art and liquidated intellectuals and artists, reporters and authors, ballet dancers and singers – are we going to imitate the Algerian and Afghani examples?"[268]

Tayyip Erdoğan's Turkey as a role model

Some Hamas members stated that the model of Islamic government that Hamas seeks to emulate is that of Turkey under the rule of Tayyip Erdoğan. The foremost members to distance Hamas from the practices of Taliban and to publicly support the Erdoğan model were Ahmad Yousef and Ghazi Hamad, advisers to Prime Minister Hanieh.[272][273] Yusuf, the Hamas deputy foreign minister, reflected this goal in an interview to a Turkish newspaper, stating that while foreign public opinion equates Hamas with the Taliban or al-Qaeda, the analogy is inaccurate. Yusuf described the Taliban as "opposed to everything," including education and women's rights, while Hamas wants to establish good relations between the religious and secular elements of society and strives for human rights, democracy and an open society.[274] According to professor Yezid Sayigh of the King's College in London, how influential this view is within Hamas is uncertain, since both Ahmad Yousef and Ghazi Hamad were dismissed from their posts as advisers to Hamas Prime Minister Ismail Hanieh in October 2007.[272] Both have since been appointed to other prominent positions within the Hamas government. Khaled al-Hroub of the West Bank-based and anti-Hamas[275] Palestinian daily Al Ayyam added that despite claims by Hamas leaders that it wants to repeat the Turkish model of Islam, "what is happening on the ground in reality is a replica of the Taliban model of Islam."[276]

Antisemitism and anti-Zionism

According to academic Esther Webman, antisemitism is not the main tenet of Hamas ideology, although antisemitic rhetoric is frequent and intense in Hamas leaflets. The leaflets generally do not differentiate between Jews and Zionists. In other Hamas publications and in interviews with its leaders attempts at this differentiation have been made.[277] In 2009 representatives of the small Jewish sect Neturei Karta met with Hamas leader Ismail Haniyeh in Gaza, who stated that he held nothing against Jews but only against the state of Israel.[278] Some commentators have pointed out parallels between Hamas's youth organization and Hitler Youth.[279] According to writer Tom Doran, Hamas is not recognized as a neo-Nazi group because its members are not "white Christians".[280]

Hamas has made conflicting statements about its readiness to recognize Israel. In 2006 a spokesman signaled readiness to recognize Israel within the 1967 borders. Speaking of requests for Hamas to recognize agreements between the Palestinian Authority and Israel, senior Hamas member Khaled Suleiman said that "these agreements are a reality which we view as such, and therefore I see no problem."[281] Also in 2006, a Hamas official ruled out recognition of Israel with reference to West and East Germany, which never recognized each other.[282]

Hamas Charter (1988)

  • Article 7 of the Hamas Covenant provides the following quotation, attributed to Muhammad:

"The Day of Judgement will not come about until Moslems fight the Jews (killing the Jews), when the Jew will hide behind stones and trees. The stones and trees will say O Moslems, O Abdulla, there is a Jew behind me, come and kill him. Only the Gharkad tree, (evidently a certain kind of tree) would not do that because it is one of the trees of the Jews."[85]

"You may speak as much as you want about regional and world wars. They were behind World War I, when they were able to destroy the Islamic Caliphate, making financial gains and controlling resources. They obtained the Balfour Declaration, formed the League of Nations through which they could rule the world. They were behind World War II, through which they made huge financial gains by trading in armaments, and paved the way for the establishment of their state. It was they who instigated the replacement of the League of Nations with the United Nations and the Security Council to enable them to rule the world through them. There is no war going on anywhere, without having their finger in it."[283]

"Today it is Palestine, tomorrow it will be one country or another. The Zionist plan is limitless. After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying."[85]

Statements by Hamas members and clerics to an Arab audience

In 2008, Imam Yousif al-Zahar of Hamas said in his sermon at the Katib Wilayat mosque in Gaza that "Jews are a people who cannot be trusted. They have been traitors to all agreements. Go back to history. Their fate is their vanishing."[97][284]

Another Hamas legislator and imam, Sheik Yunus al-Astal, discussed a Koranic verse suggesting that "suffering by fire is the Jews' destiny in this world and the next." He concluded "Therefore we are sure that the Holocaust is still to come upon the Jews."[97][284]

Following the rededication of the Hurva Synagogue in Jerusalem in March 2010, senior Hamas figure al-Zahar called on Palestinians everywhere to observe five minutes of silence "for Israel's disappearance and to identify with Jerusalem and the al-Aqsa mosque". He further stated that "Wherever you have been you've been sent to your destruction. You've killed and murdered your prophets and you have always dealt in loan-sharking and destruction. You've made a deal with the devil and with destruction itself – just like your synagogue."[285][286]

On August 10, 2012, Ahmad Bahr, Deputy Speaker of the Hamas Parliament, stated in a sermon that aired on Al-Aqsa TV:

If the enemy sets foot on a single square inch of Islamic land, Jihad becomes an individual duty, incumbent on every Muslim, male or female. A woman may set out [on Jihad] without her husband's permission, and a servant without his master's permission. Why? In order to annihilate those Jews.... O Allah, destroy the Jews and their supporters. O Allah, destroy the Americans and their supporters. O Allah, count them one by one, and kill them all, without leaving a single one.[287][288][289][290]

In an interview with Al-Aqsa TV in September 12, 2012, Marwan Abu Ras, a Hamas MP, who is also a member of the International Union of Muslim Scholars, stated (as translated by MEMRI):

The Jews are behind each and every catastrophe on the face of the Earth. This is not open to debate. This is not a temporal thing, but goes back to days of yore. They concocted so many conspiracies and betrayed rulers and nations so many times that the people harbor hatred towards them.... Throughout history – from Nebuchadnezzar until modern times ... They slayed the prophets, and so on.... Any catastrophe on the face of this Earth – the Jews must be behind it.[291]

On December 26, 2012, Senior Hamas official and Jerusalem bureau chief Ahmed Abu Haliba, called on "all Palestinian factions to resume suicide attacks ... deep inside the Zionist enemy" and said that "we must renew the resistance to occupation in any possible way, above all through armed resistance." Abu Haliba suggested the use of suicide bombings as a response to Israel's plans to build housing units in East Jerusalem and the West Bank.[292]

In an interview on Lebanese television on July 28, 2014, Hamas spokesman Osama Hamdan claimed:

We all remember how the Jews used to slaughter Christians, in order to mix their blood in their holy matzos. This is not a figment of imagination or something taken from a film. It is a fact, acknowledged by their own books and by historical evidence. It happened everywhere, here and there.[293]

Statements by Hamas members and clerics to an international audience

In an interview with CBS This Morning in July 27, 2014, Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal stated:

We are not fanatics. We are not fundamentalists. We are not actually fighting the Jews because they are Jews per se. We do not fight any other races. We fight the occupiers.[294]

On January 8, 2012, during a visit to Tunis, Gazan Hamas PM Ismail Haniyeh told The Associated Press on that he disagrees with the anti-Semitic slogans. "We are not against the Jews because they are Jews. Our problem is with those occupying the land of Palestine," he said. "There are Jews all over the world, but Hamas does not target them."[295]

In response to a statement by Palestinian Authority leader Mahmoud Abbas that Hamas preferred non-violent means and had agreed to adopt "peaceful resistance," Hamas contradicted Abbas. According to Hamas spokesman Sami Abu-Zuhri, "We had agreed to give popular resistance precedence in the West Bank, but this does not come at the expense of armed resistance."[296]

In May 2009, senior Hamas MP Sayed Abu Musameh said, "in our culture, we respect every foreigner, especially Jews and Christians, but we are against Zionists, not as nationalists but as fascists and racists."[297] In the same interview, he also said, "I hate all kinds of weapons. I dream of seeing every weapon from the atomic bomb to small guns banned everywhere."

In January 2009, Gazan Hamas Health Minister Basim Naim published a letter in The Guardian, stating that Hamas has no quarrel with Jewish people, only with the actions of Israel.[298]

In October 1994, in a response to Isreael's crackdown on Hamas militants following a suicide bombing on a Tel Aviv bus, Hamas promised retaliation: "Rabin must know that Hamas loves death more than Rabin and his soldiers love life."[299] The statement added that "Hamas will not hesitate to retaliate severely against any attempt to harm our leaders."

Statements on the Holocaust

Hamas has been explicit in its Holocaust Denial. In reaction to the Stockholm conference on the Jewish Holocaust, held in late January 2000, Hamas issued a press release that it published on its official website, containing the following statements from a senior leader:

This conference bears a clear Zionist goal, aimed at forging history by hiding the truth about the so-called Holocaust, which is an alleged and invented story with no basis. (...) The invention of these grand illusions of an alleged crime that never occurred, ignoring the millions of dead European victims of Nazism during the war, clearly reveals the racist Zionist face, which believes in the superiority of the Jewish race over the rest of the nations. (...) By these methods, the Jews in the world flout scientific methods of research whenever that research contradicts their racist interests.[300]

In August 2003, senior Hamas official Dr Abd Al-Aziz Al-Rantisi wrote in the Hamas newspaper Al-Risala that the Zionists encouraged murder of Jews by the Nazis with the aim of forcing them to immigrate to Palestine.[301]

In 2005, Khaled Mashal called Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's December 14, 2005 statements on the Holocaust that Europeans had "created a myth in the name of Holocaust"[302]) as "courageous".[303] Later in 2008, Basim Naim, the minister of health in the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority government in Gaza countered holocaust denial, and said "it should be made clear that neither Hamas nor the Palestinian government in Gaza denies the Nazi Holocaust. The Holocaust was not only a crime against humanity but one of the most abhorrent crimes in modern history. We condemn it as we condemn every abuse of humanity and all forms of discrimination on the basis of religion, race, gender or nationality."[304]

In an open letter to Gaza Strip UNRWA chief John Ging published August 20, 2009, the movement's Popular Committees for Refugees called the Holocaust "a lie invented by the Zionists," adding that the group refused to let Gazan children study it.[305] Hamas leader Younis al-Astal continued by saying that having the Holocaust included in the UNRWA curriculum for Gaza students amounted to "marketing a lie and spreading it". Al-Astal continued "I do not exaggerate when I say this issue is a war crime, because of how it serves the Zionist colonizers and deals with their hypocrisy and lies."[306][307]

In February 2011, Hamas voiced opposition to UNRWA's teaching of the Holocaust in Gaza. According to Hamas, "Holocaust studies in refugee camps is a contemptible plot and serves the Zionist entity with a goal of creating a reality and telling stories in order to justify acts of slaughter against the Palestinian people."[308][309]

In July 2012, Fawzi Barhoum, a Hamas spokesman, denounced a visit by Ziad al-Bandak, an adviser to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas, to the Auschwitz death camp, saying it was "unjustified" and "unhelpful" and only served the "Zionist occupation" while coming "at the expense of a real Palestinian tragedy". He also called the Holocaust an "alleged tragedy" and "exaggerated".[310][311][312][313]

In October 2012, Hamas said that they were opposed to teaching about the Holocaust in Gaza Strip schools run by the UN Relief and Works Agency. The Refugee Affairs Department of Hamas said that teaching the Holocaust was a "crime against the issue of the refugees that is aimed at canceling their right of return".[314]


Proximity to civilians during warfare

After Operation Pillar of Defense, Human Rights Watch stated that Palestinian groups had endangered civilians by "repeatedly fired rockets from densely populated areas, near homes, businesses, and a hotel" and noted that under international law, parties to a conflict may not to place military targets in or near densely populated areas. One rocket was launched close to the Shawa and Housari Building, where various Palestinian and international media have offices; another was fired from the yard of a house near the Deira Hotel.[315][316] New York Times journalist Steven Erlanger reported that "Hamas rocket and weapons caches, including rocket launchers, have been discovered in and under mosques, schools and civilian homes."[317] Another report published by Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center revealed that Hamas used close to 100 mosques to store weapons and as launch-pads to shoot rockets. The report contains testimony from variety Palestinian sources, including a Hamas militant Sabhi Majad Atar, who said he was taught how to shoot rockets from inside a mosque.[318] Hamas has also been criticized by Israeli officials for blending into or hiding among the Palestinian civilian population During the 2008–2009 Israel–Gaza conflict.[319] The Israeli government published what it said was video evidence of human shield tactics by Hamas.[320] Israel said that Hamas frequently used mosques and school yards[321] as hideouts and places to store weapons,[322][323] and that Hamas militants stored weapons in their homes, making it difficult to ensure that civilians close to legitimate military targets are not hurt during Israeli military operations.[324] Israeli officials also accused the Hamas leadership of hiding under Shifa Hospital during the conflict, using the patients inside to deter an Israeli attack.[317][325]

The Israeli government filed a report entitled "Gaza Operations Investigation: Second Update" to the United Nations accusing Hamas of exploiting its rules of engagement by shooting rockets and launching attacks within protected civilian areas.[326][327][328] Israel says 12,000 rockets and mortars were fired at it between 2000 and 2008—nearly 3,000 in 2008 alone.[329]

In one case, an errant Israeli mortar strike killed dozens of people near a UN school. Hamas said that the mortar killed 42 people and left dozens wounded. Israel said that Hamas militants had launched a rocket from a yard adjacent to the school and one mortar of three rounds hit the school, due to a GPS error. According to the Israeli military probe, the remaining two rounds hit the yard used to launch rockets into Israel, killing two members of Hamas' military wing who fired the rockets.[330]

Human Right Watch called Hamas to "publicly renounce" the rocket attacks against Israeli civilians and hold those responsible to account. Human Right Watch program director Iain Levine said the attacks by Hamas were "unlawful and unjustifiable, and amount to war crimes", and accused Hamas of putting Palestinians at risk by launching attacks from built-up areas.[329] Hamas spokesman relied that the report was "biased" and he denied that Hamas uses human shields.[329]

Human Rights Watch investigated 19 incidents involving 53 civilian deaths in Gaza that Israel said were the result of Hamas fighting in densely populated areas and did not find evidence for existence of Palestinian fighters in the areas at the time of the Israeli attack. In other cases where no civilians had died, the report concluded that Hamas may have deliberately fired rockets from areas close to civilians.[331] HRW also investigated 11 deaths that Israel said were civilians being used as human shields by Hamas. HRW found no evidence that the civilians were used as human shields, nor had they been shot in crossfire.[332]

The Israeli 'human shields' charge against Hamas was called "full of holes" by The National (UAE), which stated that only Israel accused Hamas of using human shields during the conflict, though Hamas "may be guilty" of "locating military objectives within or near densely populated areas" and for "deliberately firing indiscriminate weapons into civilian populated areas".[333]

On July 8, 2014, Hamas' spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri encouraged the "policy of people confronting the Israeli warplanes with their bare chests", saying it has proven itself.[334]

One survey of Gazan residents addressed the subject of human shields during the 2014 war, with respondents issuing statements such as "People received warnings from the Israelis and tried to evacuate...Hamas shot some of those people...the rest were forced to return to their homes and get bombed"; "Hamas imposed a curfew: anyone walking out in the street was shot without being asked any questions. That way Hamas made sure people had to stay in their homes even if they were about to get bombed"; and "My father received a text-message from the Israeli army warning him that our area was going to be bombed, and Hamas prevented us from leaving."[335] Israeli soldiers recounted "Suddenly, a small boy appeared, and the terrorist grabbed him and escaped with him";[336] "I saw with my own eyes someone using another person, a woman, as a shield...And I can see very clearly that the woman doesn't want to be there and he's pulling her with him";[337] and "We even found explosives in nurseries. The whole neighborhood was practically a terrorist base."[338]

Rocket and mortar attacks

Rocket attacks by Hamas have been condemned by Human rights organizations as war crimes, both because they usually take aim at civilians and because the weapons' inaccuracy would disproportionately endanger civilians even if military targets were chosen. After Operation Pillar of Defense, Human Rights Watch stated that armed Palestinian groups fired hundreds of rockets at Israeli cities, violating international humanitarian law, and that statements by Palestinian groups that they deliberately targeted Israeli civilians demonstrated an "intent to commit war crimes". HRW's Middle East director Sarah Leah Whitson said that Palestinian groups made clear that "harming civilians was their aim" and said that launching rockets at populated areas had no legal justification. International humanitarian law prohibits deliberate attacks on civilians and intentional violations can be war crimes.[315]

In July 2008 Barack Obama, then the Democratic presidential candidate, said: "If somebody was sending rockets into my house, where my two daughters sleep at night, I'm going to do everything in my power to stop that, and I would expect Israelis to do the same thing."[339] On December 28, 2008, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice said in a statement: "the United States strongly condemns the repeated rocket and mortar attacks against Israel."[340] On March 2, 2009, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton condemned the attacks.[341]


Children and women as human shields

Israel has accused Hamas of using children as human shields. The Israeli government released video footage in which it claims two militants are shown grabbing a young boy's arm from behind holding him to walk in front of them toward a group of people waiting near a wall. The IDF argues the militants were placing the boy between themselves and an Israeli sniper. The second scene shows an individual, described as a terrorist, grabbing a school boy off of a floor, where he is hiding behind a column from IDF fire, and using him as a human shield to walk to a different location.[342][343]

After 15 alleged militants sought refuge in a mosque from Israeli forces, the BBC reported that Hamas radio instructed local women to go the mosque to protect the militants. Two women were later killed when Israeli forces opened fire.[344]

In November 2006, the Israeli Air Force warned Muhammad Weil Baroud, commander of the Popular Resistance Committees who are accused of launching rockets into Israeli territory, to evacuate his home in a Jabalya refugee camp apartment block in advance of a planned Israeli air strike. Baroud responded by calling for volunteers to protect the apartment block and nearby buildings and, according to The Jerusalem Post, hundreds of local residents, mostly women and children, responded. Israel suspended the air strike. Israel termed the action an example of Hamas using human shields.[345] In response to the incident, Hamas proclaimed: 'We won. From now on we will form human chains around every house threatened with demolition.'"[346] In a November 22 press release, Human Rights Watch condemned Hamas, stating: "There is no excuse for calling civilians to the scene of a planned attack. Whether or not the home is a legitimate military target, knowingly asking civilians to stand in harm's way is unlawful."[347] Following criticism, Human rights Watch issued a statement saying that their initial assessment of the situation was in error. They stated that, on the basis of available evidence, the home demolition was in fact an administrative act, viewed in the context of Israel's longstanding policy of punitive home demolitions, not a military act and thus would not fall within the purview of the law regulating hostilities during armed conflict, which had been the basis for their initial criticism of Hamas.[344]

When the UN-sponsored Goldstone Commission Report on the Gaza War was commissioned in 2009, it stated that it "found no evidence that Palestinian combatants mingled with the civilian population with the intention of shielding themselves from attack" though they deemed credible reports that Palestinian militants were "not always dressed in a way that distinguished them from civilians".[348]

Hamas MP Fathi Hamed stated that "For the Palestinian people, death has become an industry, at which women excel ... the elderly excel at this ... and so do the children. This is why they have formed human shields of the women, the children."[349]

Following the release of the Goldstone Report, the former commander of the British forces in Afghanistan Col. Richard Kemp was invited to testify at the UN Human Rights Council 12th Special Session that during Operation Cast Lead Israel encountered an "enemy that deliberately positioned its military capability behind the human shield of the civilian population".[350][351][352]

Children as combatants

The Israeli government released a video compiled mostly from Arab news sources showing Palestinian children under the age of 15 going through military training and carrying and firing arms. The video's narration explains that Hamas indoctrinates these child combatants and that Hamas operators send the children "on missions from which they would not risk their own lives". According to the Israeli government, the children are used as spotters, to transport explosives and weapons, sent to play in areas to deter Israeli attacks and are sent unknowingly with explosive devices in their schoolbags to be blown up in the vicinity of Israelis.[353] The United Nations defines the use of children for military purposes as a war crime and a form of slavery. See Military use of children.

Although Hamas admits to sponsoring summer schools to train teenagers in handling weapons they condemn attacks by children. Following the deaths of three teenagers during a 2002 attack on Netzarim in central Gaza, Hamas banned attacks by children and "called on the teachers and religious leaders to spread the message of restraint among young boys".[354][355]

Hamas' use of child labor to build tunnels with which to attack Israel has also been criticized, with at least 160 children killed in the tunnels as of 2012.[356]

Children's magazine

Al-Fateh ("the conqueror") is the Hamas children's magazine, published biweekly in London, and also posted in an online website. It began publication in September 2002, and its 108th issue was released in mid-September 2007. The magazine features stories, poems, riddles, and puzzles, and states it is for "the young builders of the future".[357]

According to MEMRI (three of whose seven founding staff had formerly served in the IDF), the magazine includes incitement to jihad and martyrdom and glorification of terrorist operations and of their planners and perpetrators. as well as characterizations of Jews as "murderers of the prophets" and laudatory descriptions of parents who encourage their sons to kill Jews. In each issue, a regular feature titled "The Story of a Martyr" presents the "heroic deeds" of a mujahid from one of the organizations who died in a suicide operation, including operations against civilians, or who was killed by the IDF. MEMRI also noted that the magazine includes illustrations of figures, including child warriors, who embody the ethos of jihad and martyrdom, presenting them as role models. These include the magazine's titular character, Al-Fateh ("The Conqueror")—a small boy on a horse brandishing a drawn scimitar—as well as children carrying guns, and photos of Hamas fighters launching Qassam rockets.[358][359]

Al-Aqsa TV

Al-Aqsa TV is a television channel founded by Hamas.[360] The station began broadcasting in the Gaza Strip on January 9, 2006.[361][362] Its programming includes ideologically tinged children's shows, news talk, and religiously inspired entertainment.[363] According to the Anti-Defamation League, the station promotes terrorist activity and incites hatred of Jews and Israelis.[362] Hamas has stated that the television station is "an independent media institution that often does not express the views of the Palestinian government headed by Ismail Haniyeh or of the Hamas movement," and that Hamas does not hold anti-semitic views.[259]

Al-Aqsa TV is headed by Fathi Ahmad Hammad, chairman of al-Ribat Communications and Artistic Productions—a Hamas-run company that also produces Hamas's radio station, Voice of al-Aqsa, and its biweekly newspaper, The Message.[364]

Dissent and the media

Hamas mural in the West Bank

Human rights groups and Gazans have accused the Hamas government in the Gaza Strip of restricting freedom of the press and forcefully suppressing dissent. Both foreign and Palestinian journalists report harassment and other measures taken against them.[365][366] In September 2007 the Gaza Interior Ministry disbanded the Gaza Strip branch of the pro-Fatah Union of Palestinian Journalists, a move criticized by Reporters without borders.[367] In November of that year the Hamas government arrested a British journalist and for a time canceled all press cards in Gaza.[368][369] On February 8, 2008, Hamas banned distribution of the pro-Fatah Al-Ayyam newspaper, and closed its offices in the Gaza Strip because it ran a caricature that mocked legislators loyal to Hamas,.[370][371] The Gaza Strip Interior Ministry later issued an arrest warrant for the editor.[372]

More widely, in late August 2007 the group was accused in The Telegraph, a conservative British newspaper, of torturing, detaining, and firing on unarmed protesters who had objected to policies of the Hamas government.[373] Also in late August, Palestinian health officials reported that the Hamas government had been shutting down Gaza clinics in retaliation for doctor strikes – The Hamas government confirmed the "punitive measure against doctors" because, in its view, they had incited other doctors to suspend services and go out on strike.[374]

In September 2007 the Hamas government banned public prayers, after Fatah supporters began holding worship sessions that quickly escalated into raucous protests against Hamas rule. Government security forces beat several gathering supporters and journalists.[375]

In October 2008, the Hamas government announced it would release all political prisoners in custody in Gaza. Several hours after the announcement, 17 Fatah members were released.[376]

On August 2, 2012, the International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) accused Hamas of harassing elected officials belong to the Palestinian Journalists' Syndicate (PJS) in Gaza. The IFJ said that journalists' leaders in Gaza have faced a campaign of intimidation, as well as threats designed to force them to stop their union work. Some of these journalists are now facing charges of illegal activities and a travel ban, due to their refusal "to give in to pressure". The IFJ said that these accusations are "malicious" and "should be dropped immediately". The IFJ explained that the campaign against PJS members began in March 2012, after their election, and included a raid organized by Hamas supporters who took over the PJS offices in Gaza with the help of the security forces, and subsequently evicted the staff and elected officials. Other harassment includes the targeting of individuals who were bullied into stopping union work. The IFJ backed the PJS and called on Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh to intervene to stop "his officials' unwarranted interference in journalists' affairs".[377]

In November 2012, two Gazan journalists were prevented from leaving Gaza by Hamas. There were scheduled to participate in a conference in Cairo, Egypt. After being questioned by security forces, their passports were confiscated.[378]

Human rights abuses

In June 2011, the Independent Commission for Human Rights based in Ramallah published a report whose findings included that the Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip were subjected in 2010 to an "almost systematic campaign" of human rights abuses by the Palestinian Authority and Hamas, as well as by Israeli authorities, with the security forces belonging to the PA and Hamas being responsible for torture, arrests and arbitrary detentions.[379]

In 2012, the Human Rights Watch presented a 43 page long list of human rights violation committed by Hamas. Among actions attributed to Hamas the HRW report mentions beatings with metal clubs and rubber hoses, hanging of alleged collaborationists with Israel, and torture of 102 individuals. According to the report, Hamas also tortured civil society activists and peaceful protesters. Reflecting on the captivity of Gilad Shalit, the HRW report described it as "cruel and inhuman". The report also slams Hamas for harassment of people based on so called morality offenses and for media censorship.[380][381] In a public statement Joe Stork, the deputy Middle East director of HRW claimed, "after five years of Hamas rule in Gaza, its criminal justice system reeks of injustice, routinely violates detainees' rights and grants impunity to abusive security services." Hamas responded by denying charges and describing them as "politically motivated"[382]

On May 26, 2015 Amnesty International released a report saying that Hamas carried out extrajudicial killings, abductions and arrests of Palestinians and used the Al-Shifa Hospital to detain, interrogate and torture suspects during the Israel–Gaza conflict in 2014. It details the executions of at least 23 Palestinians accused of collaborating with Israel and torture of dozens of others, many victims of torture were members of the rival Palestinian movement, Fatah.[383][384]

Violence and terrorism

Hamas uses both political activities and violence in pursuit of its goals. For example, while politically engaged in the 2006 Palestinian Territories parliamentary election campaign, Hamas stated in its election manifesto that it was prepared to use "armed resistance to end the occupation".[385]

From 2000 to 2004, Hamas was responsible for killing nearly 400 Israelis and wounding more than 2,000 in 425 attacks, according to the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2001 through May 2008, Hamas launched more than 3,000 Qassam rockets and 2,500 mortar attacks into Israel.[17]

Attacks on civilians

In the first years of the First Intifada (1987–93), Hamas violence was directed first at collaborators with Israel and at individuals it considered moral deviants, and then later at the Israeli military.[386] A new direction began with the formation of the al-Qassam Brigades militia in 1992, and in 1993 suicide attacks began against Israeli targets on the West Bank.[387]

Aftermath of 1996 Jaffa Road bus bombings in which 26 people were killed

The first such attack occurred on April 16, 1993, when an al-Qassam Brigades operative detonated explosives in a car he parked next to two buses, one military and one civilian, in the West Bank town of Mehola, killing a Palestinian civilian and wounding 8 Israeli soldiers.[388] After the February 1994 massacre by Baruch Goldstein of 30 Muslim civilians in a Hebron mosque, the al-Qassam Brigades expanded suicide attacks to target primarily civilians.[126] The first of the suicide bombings that targeted civilians was at Afula on April 16, 1994, when a suicide bomber detonated an explosives-laden car next to a bus, killing nine (including the bomber) and wounding 50. The most deadly suicide bombing was an attack on a Netanya hotel on March 27, 2002, in which 30 people were killed and 140 were wounded. The attack has also been referred to as the Passover massacre since it took place on the first night of the Jewish festival of Passover at a Seder.

Hamas has defended suicide attacks as a legitimate aspect of its asymmetric warfare against Israel, but they are consideted as crimes against humanity under international law.[389][390] In a 2002 report, Human Rights Watch stated that Hamas leaders "should be held accountable" for "war crimes and crimes against humanity" committed by the al-Qassam Brigades.[391][392][393]

In May 2006 Israel arrested a top Hamas official, Ibrahim Hamed, who Israeli security officials alleged was responsible for dozens of suicide bombings and other attacks on Israelis.[394] Hamed's trial on those charges has not yet concluded.[395] In 2008, Hamas explosives engineer Shihab al-Natsheh organized a deadly suicide bombing in Dimona.[49][396]

Since 2002, paramilitary soldiers of al-Qassam Brigades and other groups have used homemade Qassam rockets to hit Israeli towns in the Negev, such as Sderot. Al-Qassam Brigades was estimated in 2007 to have launched 22% of the rocket and mortar attacks,[397] which killed fifteen people between the years 2000 and 2009 (see Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel).[398] The introduction of the Qassam-2 rocket in 2008 enabled Palestinian paramilitary groups to reach, from Gaza, such Israeli cities such as Ashkelon.[399]

In 2008, Hamas leader Khaled Mashal, offered that Hamas would attack only military targets if the IDF would stop causing the deaths of Palestinian civilians.[400] Following a June 19, 2008 ceasefire, the al-Qassam Brigades ended its rocket attacks and arrested Fatah militants in Gaza who had continued sporadic rocket and mortar attacks against Israel. The al-Qassam Brigades resumed the attacks after the November 4 Israeli incursion into Gaza.[182][401]

On 15 June 2014, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu accused Hamas of involvement in the kidnapping of three Israeli teenagers (including one who held American citizenship), saying "This has severe repercussions."[402] On 20 July 2014, nearly two weeks into Operation Protective Edge, Netanyahu in an interview with CNN described Hamas as "genocidal terrorists."[403]

On 5 August 2014 Israel announced that Israeli security forces arrested Hussam Kawasme, in Shuafat, in connection with the murders.[404] During interrogation, Kawasme admitted to being the mastermind behind the attack, in addition to securing the funding from Hamas.[405] Officials have stated that additional people arrested in connection with the murders are still being held, but no names have been released.[406]

On 20 August, Saleh al-Arouri, a Hamas leader in exile in Turkey, claimed responsibility for the kidnapping of the three Israeli teens. He delivered an address on behalf of Khaled Mashal at the conference of the International Union of Muslim Scholars in Istanbul, a move that might reflect a desire by Hamas to gain leverage.[407] In it he said: "Our goal was to ignite an intifada in the West Bank and Jerusalem, as well as within the 1948 borders... Your brothers in the Al-Qassam Brigades carried out this operation to support their imprisoned brothers, who were on a hunger strike... The mujahideen captured these settlers in order to have a swap deal."[408] Hamas political leader Khaled Mashal accepted that members of Hamas were responsible, stating that he knew nothing of it in advance and that what the leadership knew of the details came from reading Israeli reports.[409] Meshaal, who has headed Hamas' exiled political wing since 2004, has denied being involved in the "details" of Hamas "military issues", but "justified the killings as a legitimate action against Israelis on "occupied" lands."[410]

Rocket attacks on Israel

According to Human Rights Watch, Hamas and other Palestinian armed groups have launched thousands of rockets into Israel since 2001, killing 15 civilians, wounding many more, and posing an ongoing threat to the nearly 800,000 Israeli civilians who live and work in the weapons' range. Hamas officials have said that the rockets were aimed only at military targets, saying that civilian casualties were the "accidental result" of the weapons' poor quality. According to Human Rights Watch, statements by Hamas leaders suggest that the purpose of the rocket attacks was indeed to strike civilians and civilian objects. From January 2009, following Operation Cast Lead, Hamas largely stopped launching rocket attacks on Israel and has on at least two occasions arrested members of other groups who have launched rockets, "showing that it has the ability to impose the law when it wants".[411] In February 2010, Hamas issued a statement regretting any harm that may have befallen Israeli civilians as a result of Palestinian rocket attacks during the Gaza war. It maintained that its rocket attacks had been aimed at Israeli military targets but lacked accuracy and hence sometimes hit civilian areas. Israel responded that Hamas had boasted repeatedly of targeting and murdering civilians in the media.[412]

According to one report, commenting on the 2014 conflict, "nearly all the 2,500–3,000 rockets and mortars Hamas has fired at Israel since the start of the war seem to have been aimed at towns", including an attack on "a kibbutz collective farm close to the Gaza border", in which an Israeli child was killed.[413] Former Israeli Lt. Col. Jonathan D. Halevi stated that "Hamas has expressed pride in aiming long-range rockets at strategic targets in Israel including the nuclear reactor in Dimona, the chemical plants in Haifa, and Ben-Gurion Airport", which "could have caused thousands" of Israeli casualties "if successful".[414]

Attempts to derail 2010 peace talks

In 2010, Hamas, who have been actively sidelined from the peace talks by Israel, spearheaded a coordinated effort by 13 Palestinian militant groups, in attempt to derail the stalled peace talks between Israel and Mahmoud Abbas, President of the Palestinian Authority. According to the Israeli Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories Major Gen. Eitan Dangot, Israel seeks to work with Salam Fayyad, to help revive the Palestinian economy, and hopes to ease restrictions on the Gaza Strip further, "while somehow preventing the Islamic militants who rule it from getting credit for any progress". According to Dangot, Hamas must not be seen as ruling successfully or be allowed to "get credit for a policy that would improve the lives of people".[415] The campaign consists of attacks against Israelis in which, according to a Hamas declaration in early September, "all options are open."[416][417][418][419] The participating groups also include Palestinian Islamic Jihad, the Popular Resistance Committees and an unnamed splinter group of Fatah.[420]

As part of the campaign, on August 31, 2010, 4 Israeli settlers, including a pregnant woman, were killed by Hamas militants while driving on Route 60 near the settlement Kiryat Arba, in the West bank. According to witnesses, militants opened fire on the moving vehicle, but then "approached the car" and shot the occupants in their seats at "close range". The attack was described by Israeli sources as one of the "worst" terrorist acts in years.[421][422][423] A senior Hamas official said that Israeli settlers in the West Bank are legitimate targets since "they are an army in every sense of the word."[424][425]

Themes of martyrdom

According to a translation by Palestinian Media Watch, in 2008, Fathi Hamad, a member of the Palestinian Legislative Council, stated on Al-Aqsa TV, "For the Palestinian people death became an industry, at which women excel and so do all people on this land: the elderly excel, the Jihad fighters excel, and the children excel. Accordingly (Palestinians) created a human shield of women, children, the elderly and the Jihad fighters against the Zionist bombing machine, as if they were saying to the Zionist enemy: 'We desire death as you desire life.'"[426]

In 2010, Hamas speaker Ahmad Bahr praised the virtues of martyrdom and Jihad, and said that 2.5 million black-eyed virgins were waiting in the Garden of Eden, which could be entered only by prophets, by the righteous, and by martyrs. He continued by saying that nobody on Earth "will be able to confront the resistance, or to confront the mujahideen, those who worship Allah and seek martyrdom".[427]

Guerrilla warfare

Hamas anti-tank rockets, captured by Israel Defense Forces during Operation Protective Edge

Hamas has made great use of guerrilla tactics in the Gaza Strip and to a lesser degree the West Bank.[428] It has successfully adapted these techniques over the years since its inception. According to a 2006 report by rival Fatah party, Hamas had smuggled between several hundred and 1,300 tons of advanced rockets, along with other weaponry, into Gaza.[428]

Hamas has used IEDs and anti-tank rockets against the IDF in Gaza. The latter include standard RPG-7 warheads and home-made rockets such as the Al-Bana, Al-Batar and Al-Yasin. The IDF has a difficult, if not impossible time trying to find hidden weapons caches in Palestinian areas — this is due to the high local support base Hamas enjoys.[429]

Extrajudicial executions of rivals

In addition to killing Israeli civilians and armed forces, Hamas has also murdered suspected Palestinian Israel collaborators and Fatah rivals.[430] Hundreds of Palestinians were executed by both Hamas and Fatah during the First Intifada.[431] In the wake of the 2006 Israeli conflict with Gaza, Hamas was accused of systematically rounding up, torturing and summarily executing Fatah supporters suspected of supplying information to Israel. Human Rights Watch estimates several hundred Gazans were "maimed" and tortured in the aftermath of the conflict. Seventy-three Gazan men accused of "collaborating" had their arms and legs broken by "unidentified perpetrators" and 18 Palestinians accused of helping Israel were executed by Hamas security officials in the first days of the conflict.[175][176][432] In November 2012, Hamas' Izzedine al-Qassam brigade publicly executed six Gaza residents accused of collaborating with Israel. According to the witnesses, six alleged informers were shot dead one by one in Gaza City, while the corpse of the sixth victim was tied by a cable to the back of a motorcycle and dragged through the streets.[433] In 2013, Human Rights Watch issued a statement condemning Hamas for not investigating and giving a proper trial to the 6 men. Their statement was released the day before Hamas issued a deadline for "collaborators" to turn themselves in, or they will be pursued "without mercy".[434] In August 2014, during the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict, at least 22 accused collaborators were executed by Hamas shortly after 3 of its commanders were assassinated by Israeli forces.[435] An Israeli source denied that any of the commanders had been targeted on the basis of human intelligence.[436]

Frequent killings of unarmed people have also occurred during Hamas-Fatah clashes.[437][438] NGOs have cited a number of summary executions as particular examples of violations of the rules of warfare, including the case of Muhammad Swairki, 28, a cook for Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas's presidential guard, who was thrown to his death, with his hands and legs tied, from a 15-story apartment building in Gaza City.[439] Hamas security forces reportedly shoot and torture Palestinians who opposed Hamas rule in Gaza.[175] In one case, a Palestinian had criticized Hamas in a conversation on the street with some friends. Later that day, more than a dozen armed men with black masks and red kaffiyeh took the man from his home, and brought him to a solitary area where they shot him three times in the lower legs and ankles. The man told Human Rights Watch that he was not politically active.[175]

On August 14, 2009, Hamas fighters stormed the Mosque of cleric Abdel-Latif Moussa.[440] The cleric was protected by at least 100 fighters from Jund Ansar Allah ("Army of the Helpers of God"), an Islamist group with links to Al-Qaeda. The resulting battle left at least 13 people dead, including Moussa and 6 Hamas fighters, and 120 people injured.[441]

According to Palestinian president Mahmoud Abbas, during 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, Hamas killed more than 120 Palestinian youths for defying house arrest imposed on them by Hamas, in addition to 30-40 Palestinians killed by Hamas in extrajudicial executions after accusing them of being collaborators with Israel.[442] Referring to the killing of suspected collaborators, a Shin Bet official stated that "not even one" of those executed by Hamas provided any intelligence to Israel, while the Shin Bet officially "confirmed that those executed during Operation Protective Edge had all been held in prison in Gaza in the course of the hostilities."[436]

2011–13 Sinai insurgency

Hamas has been accused of providing weapons, training and fighters for Sinai-based insurgent attacks,[443][444] although Hamas strongly denies the allegations, calling them a smear campaign aiming to harm relations with Egypt.[443] According to the Egyptian Army, since the ouster of Egypt's Muslim-Brotherhood president Mohamed Morsi, over 600 Hamas members have entered the Sinai Peninsula through smuggling tunnels.[445] In addition, several weapons used in Sinai's insurgent attacks are being traced back to Hamas in the Gaza Strip, according to the army.[445] The four leading insurgent groups in the Sinai have all reportedly maintained close ties with the Gaza Strip.[446] Hamas is also accused of helping Morsi and other high-ranking Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood members break out of the Wadi Natroun prison in Cairo during the 2011 revolution.[447] Hamas called the accusation a "dangerous development".[448] Egyptian authorities stated that the 2011 Alexandria bombing was carried out by the Gaza-based Army of Islam, which has received sanctuary from Hamas and earlier collaborated in the capture of Gilad Shalit.[446][449][450][451] Army of Islam members linked to the August 2012 Sinai attack have reportedly sought refuge in the Gaza Strip.[446] Egypt stated that Hamas directly provided logistical support to the Muslim Brotherhood militants who carried out the December 2013 Mansoura bombing.[452]

Debate whether to attack America

Hamas officials have publicly debated whether or not to attack American interests in the Middle East in response to US support of Mahmoud Abbas preceding the 2006 Gaza elections.[453]

International designation of Hamas

Country Designation
 Australia The military wing of Hamas, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, is listed as a terrorist organization.[454]
 New Zealand The military wing of Hamas, the Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades, has been listed as a terrorist entity since 2010.[455]
 Canada Under the Anti-Terrorism Act, the Government of Canada currently lists Hamas as a terrorist entity, thus establishing it as a terrorist group, since 2002.[456][457]
 European Union The EU designated Hamas as a terrorist group from 2003. In December 2014, the General Court of the European Union ordered to remove HAMAS from the register. The court stated that the move was technical and was not a reassessment of Hamas' classification as a terrorist group. In March 2015, EU decided to keep Hamas on its terrorism blacklist "despite a controversial court decision", appealing the court's judgment.[12][458][459][460][461][462][463][464]
 Israel The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs states, "Hamas maintains a terrorist infrastructure in Gaza and the West Bank, and acts to carry out terrorist attacks in the territories and Israel."[465]
 Japan As of 2005, Japan had frozen the assets of 472 terrorists and terrorist organizations including those of Hamas.[466] However, in 2006 it publicly acknowledged that Hamas had won the 2006 Palestinian legislative elections democratically.[467]
 Jordan Banned Hamas in 1999[468] In 2013, Jordan rejected requests to allow Hamas to return.[25]
 Russia Russia does not designate Hamas a terrorist organisation, and held direct talks with Hamas in 2006, after Hamas won the Palestine elections, stating that it did so to press Hamas to reject violence and recognise Israel.[469] An Israeli official has said that Russia will reduce its ties to Hamas.[470]
 Turkey The Turkish government met with Hamas leaders in February 2006, after the organization's victory in the Palestinian elections. In 2010, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan described Hamas as "resistance fighters who are struggling to defend their land".[471][472]
 United Kingdom The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades have been listed as a proscribed organization under the Terrorism Act since 2001, but Hamas as a whole is not listed.[473]
 China As of 2006, China does not designate Hamas to be a terrorist organization and acknowledges Hamas to be the legitimately elected political entity in the Gaza Strip that represents the Palestinian people. Despite U.S. and Israeli opposition, the Chinese government met with senior Hamas representative Mahmoud al-Zahar, who previously served as Palestinian foreign minister, during the June 2006 China-Arab Cooperation Forum in Beijing, an held direct bilateral talks with Hamas and the Arab World. In addition, during the same month, a spokesperson for the Chinese Foreign Ministry further elucidated China's pro-Palestinian stance regarding Hamas in spite of U.S. and Israeli opposition to China's associations and close relationship with the organization, stating, "We believe that the Palestinian government is legally elected by the people there and it should be respected."[32][33][35][474]
 United States Lists Hamas as a "Foreign Terrorist Organization"[475]
 Saudi Arabia Banned the Muslim Brotherhood in 2014 and branded it a terrorist organization. While Hamas is not specifically listed, a non-official Saudi source stated that the decision also encompasses its branches in other countries, including Hamas.[476]

According to Tobias Buck, while Hamas is listed as a terrorist organisation by Israel, the U.S. and the EU, few treat it that way. In the Arab and Muslim world, Hamas has lost its pariah status and its emissaries are welcomed in capitals of Islamic countries.[477] In August 2014 Jimmy Carter and Mary Robinson at the height of the 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict called for the recognition of Hamas as a legitimate political actor, noting the group had recently formed a unity government with the Palestinian Authority, and in so doing had agreed to denounce violence, recognize Israel and adhere to past agreements.[478]

United States designation of Hamas

Hamas is listed by the United States as a Foreign Terrorist Organizations since 1993. In 2011, Ismail Haniyeh, head of the Hamas in the Gaza Strip, denounced the killing of Osama bin Laden by the United States, and praised him as an "Arab holy warrior".[479]

The State Department decided to add Hamas to its U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations in April 1993.[4] As of 2009, Hamas is still listed.[480]

The United States states that its strong stand against Hamas arises from the group's use of violence, its opposition to U.S. interests in the Middle East, and because Hamas is allegedly receiving support from Iran and collaborating with the Lebanese group Hezbollah. The Hamas representative in Iran denied the allegation that it had received $30 million from Iran in 1992, but acknowledged Iranian assistance to Palestinian groups. In particular, the U.S. alleges that Hamas soldiers have been given refuge in southern Lebanon, where they receive training and support from Hezbollah guerrillas.[citation needed]

The FBI and United States Department of Justice also stated, in 2004, that Hamas threatened the United States through covert cells on U.S. soil.[481][482] Researcher Steven Emerson in 2006 alleged that the group had "an extensive infrastructure in the U.S. mostly revolving around the activities of fundraising, recruiting and training members, directing operations against Israel, organizing political support and operating through human-rights front groups". Emerson added that while the group had never acted outside of Israel or the Palestinian Territories, it does have the capacity to carry out attacks in the U.S. "if it decided to enlarge the scope of its operations".[483] FBI director Robert Mueller in 2005 testified to the Senate Intelligence Committee that, the FBI's assessment at that time was that there was "a limited threat of a coordinated terrorist attack in the US from Palestinian terrorist organizations" such as Hamas. He added that Hamas had "maintained a longstanding policy of focusing their attacks on Israeli targets in Israel and the Palestinian territories", and that the FBI believed that the main interest of Hamas in the U.S. remained "the raising of funds to support their regional goals". Mueller also stated, "of all the Palestinian groups, Hamas has the largest presence in the US, with a robust infrastructure, primarily focused on fundraising, propaganda for the Palestinian cause, and proselytizing." Although it would be a major strategic shift for Hamas, its United States network is theoretically capable of facilitating acts of terrorism in the U.S.[484]

On May 2, 2011, Prime Minister Ismail Haniyeh condemned the killing of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan by the United States.[479] Haniyeh praised Bin Laden, the founder of the jihadist organization al-Qaeda, as a "martyr" and an "Arab holy warrior".[485][486] The United States government condemned his remarks as "outrageous".[487] Hamas has reportedly maintained operational and financial ties with al Qaeda.[488]

Public opinion about Hamas

In Israel and the Palestinian Territories

Prior to 2006, Hamas was well regarded by Palestinians for its efficiency and perceived lack of corruption compared to Fatah.[489][490]

Public opinions of Hamas have deteriorated in the Palestinian territories since it took control of the Gaza Strip in 2007. Prior to the takeover, 62% of Palestinians and held a favorable view of the group, while a third had negative views. According to a 2014 Pew Research just prior to the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict, only about a third had positive opinions and more than half viewed Hamas negatively. Furthermore, 68% of Israeli Arabs viewed Hamas negatively.[491] Hamas popularity however surged again after the war in 2014 with polls reporting that 81 percent of Palestinians felt that Hamas had "won" that war.[492][493]

In Arab and Muslim countries

Pro-Hamas rally in Damascus

In Lebanon, 65% see Hamas negatively. In Jordan and Egypt, roughly 60% see Hamas negatively, and in Turkey, 80% have a negative opinion of Hamas. In Tunisia, 42% have a negative opinion of Hamas, while 56% of Bangladeshis and 44% of Indonesians have a negative opinion of Hamas.[491]

Legal action against Hamas

In the United States

The charitable trust Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development was accused in December 2001 of funding Hamas.[494] The U.S. Justice Department filed 200 charges against the foundation. The case first ended in a mistrial, in which jurors acquitted on some counts and were deadlocked on charges ranging from tax violations to providing material support for terrorists. In a retrial, on November 24, 2008, the five leaders of the Foundation were convicted on 108 counts.[495]

In 2004, a federal court in the United States found Hamas liable in a civil lawsuit for the 1996 murders of Yaron and Efrat Ungar near Bet Shemesh, Israel. Hamas has been ordered to pay the families of the Ungars $116 million.[498] On July 5, 2004, the court issued a default judgment against the PNA and the PLO regarding the Ungars' said that the Palestinian Authority and the PLO provide safe haven to Hamas.[citation needed]

On August 20, 2004, three Palestinians, one a naturalized American citizen, were charged with a "lengthy racketeering conspiracy to provide money for terrorist acts in Israel". The indicted include Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook, a senior member of Hamas considered a fugitive by the U.S.[499]

On February 1, 2007, two men were acquitted of contravening United States law by supporting Hamas. Both men argued that they helped move money for Palestinian causes aimed at helping the Palestinian people and not to promote terrorism.[500]

In January 2009, a Federal prosecutor accused the Council on American-Islamic Relations of having links to a charity designated as a support network for Hamas.[501] The Justice Department identified CAIR as an "un-indicted co-conspirator" in the Holy Land Foundation case in Dallas, which concluded with the sentencing of the two founders of the foundation to life in prison for funneling $12 million to Hamas.[502] Later, a federal appeals court removed that label for all parties and instead, named them "joint venturers".[503]

In Germany

A German federal court ruled in 2004 that Hamas was a unified organisation whose humanitarian aid work could not be separated from its "terrorist and political activities".[504] In July 2010, Germany also outlawed Frankfurt-based International Humanitarian Aid Organization (IHH e.V.), saying it had used donations to support Hamas-affiliated relief projects in Gaza.[505][506] While presenting their activities to donors as humanitarian assistance, German Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere said, IHH e.V. had "exploited trusting donors' willingness to help by using money that was given for a good purpose for supporting what is, in the final analysis, a terrorist organization".[505][506][507] A spokesperson for the Islamic Human Rights Commission described the decision as "a victory for those who seek to stigmatise all Islamic activism as supporting terrorism".[508]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya (Hamas)". Transnational and non state armed groups. Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research Harvard University. 2008. Retrieved February 7, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Mash'al reelected leader of Hamas politburo". Ma'an news agency. April 27, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 Higgins, Andrew (January 24, 2009). "How Israel Helped to Spawn Hamas". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3  This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document "Hamas: The Organizations, Goals and Tactics of a Militant Palestinian Organization".
  5. Ekaterina Stepanova, Terrorism in Asymmetrical Conflict: Ideological and Structural Aspects, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Oxford University Press 2008, p. 113
  6. Rajendra Madhukar Abhyankar (2008). West Asia and the Region: Defining India's Role. p. 465. Hamas considers Palestine the main front of jihad and viewed the uprising as an Islamic way of fighting the Occupation. The leaders of the organisation argued that Islam gave the Palestinian people the power to confront Israel and described the Intifada as the return of the masses to Islam. Since its inception, Hamas has tried to reconcile nationalism and Islam. ... 'Hamas claims to speak as a nationalist movement but with an Islamic-nationalist rather than a secular nationalist agenda.'<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Meir Litvak (2005). Religious and Nationalist Fanaticism: The Case of Hamas in Fanaticism and Conflict in the Modern Age (edited by Matthew Hughes & Gaynor Johnson). pp. 156–57. Hamas is primarily a religious movement whose nationalist world view is shaped by its religious ideology.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • "Hamas is a radical Islamic fundamentalist organization that has stated that its highest priority is a Jihad (holy war) for the liberation of Palestine ..." Peace and War: The Arab–Israeli Military Balance Enters the 21st Century, by Anthony H. Cordesman, 2002, p. 243 [1]
    • "One of the secrets behind the success of Hamas is that it is an Islamic and national movement at one and the same time ..." "Hamas: Palestinian Identity, Islam, and National Sovereignty", by Meir Litvak, in Challenges to the Cohesion of the Arabic State, by Asher Susser, 2008, p. 153.[2]
    • "Hamas is an Islamic fundamentalist movement founded in 1987 ..." Understanding Terrorism: Challenges, Perspectives, and Issues, by Gus Martin, 2009, p. 153 [3]
    • "Hamas is an Islamic jihadist organization ..." Why Israel Can't Wait: The Coming War Between Israel and Iran, by Jerome R. Corsi, 2009, p. 39.[4]
    • "Understanding Islamism", Crisis Group Middle East/North Africa Report N°37, March 2, 2005
    • "Hamas leader condemns Islamist charity blacklist". Reuters. August 23, 2007. Retrieved January 28, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • Hider, James (October 12, 2007). "Islamist leader hints at Hamas pull-out from Gaza". The Times. London. Retrieved January 28, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • "The New Hamas: Between Resistance and Participation". Middle East Report. Graham Usher, August 21, 2005
    • "Council on Foreign Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. "Frequently Asked Questions About Hamas". ABC News. January 6, 2006. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. "Split between Egypt and Hamas plagues efforts to bring cease-fire in Gaza". Fox News. Retrieved July 28, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. 12.0 12.1
  11. See also: Hamas#International designation of Hamas
  12. "Currently listed entities". Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness. November 22, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Profile: Hamas Palestinian movement". BBC. July 11, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. "Egypt courts list Hamas as terrorist group, give Brotherhood leader life". Reuters. Retrieved February 28, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. 17.0 17.1 Israel At 'War to the Bitter End,' Strikes Key Hamas Sites December 29, 2008, Fox News
  16. "Profile: Hamas Palestinian movement". BBC News. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. 問10.ハマスとは何ですか。Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.' 日本は、ハマスを、国連安保理決議1373に基づいて、外国為替及び外国貿易法(外為法)に基づく資産凍結措置の対象としています。'On the basis of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373, Japan applies to Hamas the frozen assets measures in accordance with its Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law (Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Control Law).'
  18. "テロ資金対策". 外務省. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. According to Michael Penn, (Japan and the War on Terror: Military Force and Political Pressure in the US-Japanese Alliance, I.B. Taurus 2014 pp.205-206), Japan initially welcomed the democratic character of the elections that brought Hamas to power, and only set conditions on its aid to Palestine, after intense pressure was exerted by the Bush Administration on Japan to alter its policy.
  20. 22.0 22.1 "Country reports on terrorism 2005"
  21. ' Hamas's Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades,' Australian National Security:'Like its parent, Hamas is a multifaceted, well organised and relatively moderate organisation renowned for its extensive social service networks in the Palestinian Territories.'
  22. "Proscribed Terrorist Organisations" (PDF). UK Home Office. Retrieved July 31, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. 25.0 25.1 King Abdullah Says No To Hamas. September 17, 2013. Khaled Abu Toameh.
  24. 'Hamas is not a terrorist organization:Iran,' Iran Daily 1 May 2015.
  25. "How to Confront Russia's Anti-American Foreign Policy" The Heritage Foundation. June 27, 2007
  26. criticizes Norway on Hamas,' Views and News from Norway, 6 May 2011: Israeli President Shimon Peres has criticized the Norwegian government’s refusal to classify Hamas as a terrorist organization.'
  27. Daniel Möckli, 'Switzerland’s Controversial Middle East Policy,' Center for Security Studies, Zurich Vol.3, No. 35, June 2008
  28. Juliana Barbassa, 'Brazil Terrorism Laws: No One Is A Terrorist,' Huffington Post 3 September 2015.
  29. "Gaza flotilla: Turkey threat to Israel ties over raid" at the Wayback Machine (archived June 4, 2012) BBC News. June 4, 2010
  30. 32.0 32.1 "Bank of China may have helped Hamas kill Jews". Free Zionism. Retrieved March 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. 33.0 33.1 Abha Shankar (September 19, 2013). "Bank of China Terror Financing Case Moves Forward". Investigative Project on Terrorism. Retrieved March 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Joshua Davidovich (December 18, 2013). "The China bank is not the issue here, dude". The Times of Israel. Retrieved March 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. 35.0 35.1 Zambelis, Chris. "China's Palestine Policy". Jamestown.org. Retrieved August 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  34. Mirren Gidda,'Hamas Still Has Some Friends Left,' Time 25 July 2014.
  35. Fatah agrees to celebrate Hamas anniversary in Gaza. JTA, 7 December 2012
  36. Amal Jamal,The Palestinian National Movement: Politics of Contention, 1967-2005, Indiana University Press, 2005 p.197 n.21.Dates differ, between December 1987-January 1988, and August 1988
  37. Helena Lindholm Schulz The Reconstruction of Palestinian Nationalism: Between Revolution and Statehood, Manchester University Press, 1999 p.76
  38. Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement), http://www.ict.org.il
  39. "Israeli Official Says Hamas Has Made Abbas Irrelevant" The New York Times, February 27, 2006
  40. Efraim Inbar. Israel's National Security: Issues and Challenges Since the Yom Kippur War. Routledge, Dec 21, 2007. p. 193
  41. "Hamas". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  42. Solomon, Jay (July 31, 2009). "Hamas Chief Outlines Terms for Talks on Arab-Israeli Peace". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  43. Amer, Adnan Abu (May 5, 2014). "Hamas' Abu Marzouk says recognizing Israel a 'red line'". Al-Monitor.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. 46.0 46.1 "Hamas's Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades". Australian Government.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. al-Mughrabi, Nidal; Ori Lewis (April 19, 2008). "Hamas bomber killed in attack at Gaza-Israel border". Reuters. Retrieved April 28, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Jamie Chosak; Julie Sawyer (October 19, 2005). "Hamas's Tactics: Lessons from Recent Attacks". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. 49.0 49.1 McCarthy, Rory (February 5, 2008). "Hamas says it was behind suicide blast in Israel". The Guardian. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "Israel army says Gaza truce over after soldier snatched". AFP/Yahoo! News. August 1, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Lerner said the soldier went missing during a fight with militants who emerged from a concealed tunnel, one of whom blew himself up with an explosives belt.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Hamas Detonates Suicide Bomb, Kidnaps IDF Soldier Just 90 Mins Into Ceasefire". CNN/Youtube. August 1, 2014. Retrieved September 22, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. Mark Perry, ‘Gaza’s Bottle Rockets,’ in Gideon Rose (ed) https://books.google.it/books?id=GuWwBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT110 Clueless in Gaza, Foreign Affairs, 2014 p.110:’most of Hamas’ arsenal is comprised of homemade rockets that are decidedly incapable of inflicting mass civilian casualties, flattening apartment blocks, or causing conflagrations that consume entire cities. “Hamas’ rockets can kill people and they have,” a counter-intelligence veteran of the U.S., CIA who spent his career monitoring Israeli and Palestinian military capabilities, told me recently, “but compared to what the Israelis are using, the Palestinians are firing bottle rockets.”
  51. The Growing Reach of Hamas’s Rockets. The New York Times. July 2014
  52. "Hamas Rockets from Gaza Target Haifa, Reach Far into Northern Israel". Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Gaza: Palestinian Rockets Unlawfully Targeted Israeli Civilians". hrw.org/news/. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved July 11, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. Israel/PA: Suicide Bombers Commit Crimes Against Humanity. Human Rights Watch
  55. 57.0 57.1 57.2 "Who are Hamas?". London: BBC News. January 26, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. Erlanger, Steven (February 18, 2006). "Hamas Leader Faults Israeli Sanction Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/68794.pdf
  58. 60.0 60.1 60.2
    • Hamas New York Times, June 18, 2010 "The pact did not succeed in restoring the flow of aid and did not last. Clashes between the two groups steadily escalated until gunmen loyal to Hamas took control of Gaza in June, ousting the remnants of Fatah."
    • Backgrounder: Hamas. Council of Foreign Relations. August 27, 2009, "In the summer of 2007, Hamas tensions with the Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, a Fatah man, came to a head and Hamas routed Fatah supporters, killing many and sending others fleeing to the West Bank. The result was a de facto geographic division of Palestinian-held territory, with Hamas holding sway in Gaza and Fatah maintaining the internationally recognized Palestinian Authority government in the West Bank town of Ramallah."
  59. "Gaza may face economic disaster if blockade continues". USA Today. Associated Press. March 29, 2009. Retrieved October 9, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "Palestinian rivals Hamas and Fatah sign reconciliation deal" The Guardian (UK), May 4, 2011
  61. 63.0 63.1 Keinon, Herb. "Politics: Fatah-Hamas unity talks breed Likud harmony". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 21, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. CNN Library (August 8, 2014). "Gilad Shalit Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. Inside the tunnels Hamas built: Israel's struggle against new tactic in Gaza war. The Guardian
  64. Rudoren, Jodi (July 28, 2014). "Tunnels Lead Right to the Heart of Israeli Fear". New York Times. Retrieved August 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. "Palestinian government criticises UN position on Gaza tunnel". Middle East Monitor. October 23, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "معنى كلمة حماس في معجم المعاني الجامع والمعجم الوسيط - معجم عربي عربي - صفحة 1". Almaany.com. Retrieved August 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "معاجم اللغة العربية : معنى و شرح كلمة حماس : قاموس عربي عربي". Maajim.com. Retrieved August 14, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. 70.0 70.1 "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)". MidEast Web. August 18, 1988.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. 71.0 71.1 Matthew Levitt (January 6, 2009). "Political Hardball Within Hamas: Hardline Militants Calling Shots in Gaza". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved October 9, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. Kushner, Harvey W. (2002). Encyclopedia of Terrorism, p.160 Sage Publications, ISBN 0-7619-2408-6
  71. "Hamas's Tactics: Lessons from Recent Attacks", By Jamie Chosak and Julie Sawyer. The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. October 19, 2005
  72. "Hamas's Izz al-Din al-Qassam Brigades". Government of Australoia. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. The HAMAS Terror Organization – 2007 update Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  74. al-Qassam Brigades: Details of the organisation Australian Government National Security September 15, 2009
  75. "Who controls Hamas – Haniya or Mashaal?", The Sunday Times, by Stephen Farrell in Gaza and Nicholas Blanford, July 10, 2006
  76. 78.0 78.1 The dDadly Embrace: The Impact of Israeli and Palestinian Rejectionism on the Peace Process University Press of America, Ilana Kass & Bard E. O'Neill, 1997, p. 267
  77. Matthew Levitt (Winter 2004). "Hamas from Cradle to Grave". Middle East Forum. 11 (1). Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • "Hamas: Background Q&A". Council on Foreign Relations. August 1, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
    • "Hamas" – Council on Foreign Relations. Updated January 7, 2009
    • Books: Kingdom of God The New Statesman May 7, 2007; "Using Israeli estimates, [Matthew Levitt, senior fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy] reckons Hamas probably has an annual budget of between $70m and $90m, 80 to 85 per cent of which it spends on its political work and its extensive networks of schools, clinics and welfare organisations, while 15 to 20 per cent goes on military operations."
  78. Emerson, Steven. "Why Does The New York Times Love Hamas?" January 6, 2009. November 14, 2009.
  79. Levitt, Matthew (2007). Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad. Yale University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0-300-12258-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Peter Hilsenrath "Health policy as counter-terrorism: Health services and the Palestinians" (PDF). October 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  81. "Hamas thrives in Gaza's besieged economy". My sinchew. Agence France-Press. July 25, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. 85.0 85.1 85.2 85.3 85.4 "Hamas Covenant 1988: The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement". The Avalon Project: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy. Yale Law School. August 18, 1988. Retrieved February 15, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. 86.0 86.1 "Hamas leader urges int'l community to respect Palestinian people's choice". Xinhua. April 2, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  84. "Haniyeh calls for formation of Palestinian state on 1967 lines". Haaretz. Associated Press. December 19, 2006. Retrieved April 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Seth Ackerman (September–October 2006). "Nixed Signals". Extra!. Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting. Retrieved March 18, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Barak Ravid (August 14, 2008). "In 2006 letter to Bush, Haniyeh offered compromise with Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved March 18, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. Al Jazeera, "Hamas ready to accept 1967 borders". Apr 22, 2008.
  88. Amira Hass (November 9, 2008). "Hamas willing to accept Palestinian state with 1967 borders". Haaretz. Retrieved April 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. Yoav Segev (September 22, 2009). "Haniyeh to UN chief: Hamas accepts Palestinian state in '67 borders". Haaretz. Retrieved February 25, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. "Hamas Vows to Honor Palestinian Referendum on Peace with Israel: Islamist Leader Ismail Haniyeh Says He Would Accept a Deal with Israel Based on 1967 Borders and Denies that Gaza has Become a Stronghold for Al-Qaida". Haaretz. Reuters. December 1, 2010. Retrieved February 25, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Ilan Ben Zion (March 14, 2012). "The eye of the Islamic Jihad storm". The Times of Israel. Retrieved March 29, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. Marc Tracy (March 12, 2012). "Terrorist Killing Prompts Gaza Rocket Exchange". Tablet Magazine. Retrieved March 31, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. Israel rejects Gaza ceasefire The Guardian (UK), April 25, 2008
  94. 97.0 97.1 97.2 Erlanger, Steven (April 1, 2008). "In Gaza, Hamas's Insults to Jews Complicate Peace". The New York Times. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. "Nizar Rayyan of Hamas on God's Hatred of Jews", The Atlantic, (January 2, 2009).
  96. 99.0 99.1 99.2 99.3 Hamas Fights Over Gaza's Islamist Identity The New York Times, September 5, 2009
  97. "Covenant of Hamas". Retrieved February 24, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. The Palestinian Hamas By Shaul Mishal, Avraham Sela. Retrieved February 9, 2009.
  99. 102.0 102.1 102.2 Anti-Semitic Motifs in the Ideology of Hizballah and Hamas, Esther Webman, Project for the Study of Anti-Semitism, 1994. ISBN 978-965-222-592-4
  100. "Hamas Charter (1988)". Palestine Center. 1988. The time will not come until Muslims will fight the Jews (and kill them); until the Jews hide behind rocks and trees, which will cry: O Muslim! there is a Jew hiding behind me, come on and kill him! This will not apply to the Gharqad, which is a Jewish tree (cited by Bukhari and Muslim).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. Article 31 of the Hamas Charter (1988) Yale Law School: The Avalon Project
  102. 105.0 105.1 "Mazin Qumsiyeh on the History and Practice Of Nonviolent Palestinian Resistance" Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, May–June 2010, pp. 40–42
  103. Hamas drops call for destruction of Israel from manifesto The Guardian Retrieved May 28, 2011
  104. Hamas Official website Retrieved May 28, 2011
  105. "BBC Today Programme interview with Sir Jeremy Greenstock, January 12, 2009". BBC News. January 12, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. Prospects for Peace Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, July 2009, pp. 53–54
  107. Dr. Ahmed Yousef (2011). "Hamas Charter: Vision, Fact and Fiction". Palestine Chronicle. Retrieved January 1, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. Matthew Duss, 'Remember Gaza?,' Tablet Magazine 8 May 2015
  109. The Palestinian Hamas: vision, violence, and coexistence Shaul Mishal, Avraham Sela]
  110. Ayala H. Emmett, Our Sisters' Promised Land: Women, Politics, and Israeli-Palestinian Coexistence, University of Michigan Press, 2003 pp.100-102.
  111. Mark A. Tessler A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Indiana University Press, 1994 pp.546,696
  112. David Whitten, Smith, Elizabeth Geraldine Burr, Understanding World Religions: A Road Map for Justice and Peace, Rowman & Littlefield, 2014 p.250
  113. Peter Beinart, The Crisis of Zionism, Melbourne University Press 2012 p.231:’If Israel withdraws to the borders of 1967, it doesn’t mean that it gives us back all the land of the Palestinians. But we do consider this as an acceptable solution to have a Palestinian state on the borders of 1967’.
  114. Dr. Lorenzo Kamel, 'Why do Palestinians in Gaza support Hamas?,' Haaretz 5 August 2014
  115. 118.0 118.1 Matthew Levitt, Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad, Yale University Press, 2007, p. 24. "Scholars and historians on both sides ... agree that from the late 1960s to the mid-1980s the [Muslim] Brotherhood benefited from the Israeli government's support of non-violent Islamist Palestinian factions, believing these groups would function as a useful counterweight to the secular nationalist Palestinian groups ..."
  116. Jean-Pierre Filiu, Gaza: A History, Oxford University Press 2014 pp.159ff.171-174,184-187.
  117. Tabraz, S. S. (2006). "'Homecoming' of Hamas". Economic and Political Weekly. 41 (7): 566–568.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  118. Hitchens, Christopher (January 30, 2006). "Suicide Voters". Slate. Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  119. Shavit, Ari (February 6, 2006). "Watching Hamas". The New Yorker. Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  120. Ramzy Baroud, 'The Secret History of My Geography Teacher,' CounterPunch 13–15 March 2015.
  121. Martyrdom, Not Suicide: The Legality of Hamas' Bombings in the Mid-1990s in Modern Islamic Jurisprudence By M.A. Philipp Holtmann, p. 13
  122. For suicide attacks, sources include:
  123. 126.0 126.1 Martyrdom, Not Suicide: The Legality of Hamas' Bombings in the Mid-1990s in Modern Islamic Jurisprudence By M. A. Philipp Holtmann, p. 16
  124. "For Arabs in Israel, a house is not a home" by Edward Platt, New Statesman, August 30, 2010
  125. Inside Hamas: The Untold Story of Militants, Martyrs and Spies By Zaki Chehab, p. 115
  126. Chronology for Palestinians in Israel The UN Refugee Agency, 2004
  127. 130.0 130.1 The Palestinian People: A History By Baruch Kimmerling & Joel S. Migdal, pp. 372–373
  128. Karsh, Efraim. Arafat's War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest. New York: Grove Press, 2003. p. 216.
  129. Katz, Samuel. The Hunt for the Engineer. Lyons Press, 2002. ISBN 1-58574-749-1, p. 256
  130. 133.0 133.1 "Jordan curbs Hamas", The Guardian, November 22, 1999
  131. 134.0 134.1 "Hamas Leader Khaled Mashaal" Time, January 4, 2009
  132. 135.0 135.1 Jordan: Whether Hamas persecute, kidnap, torture or abuse with impunity Jordanian citizens who disagree with its methods, policies and ideology Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, October 25, 2000, JOR35666.E, accessed September 28, 2010
  133. Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad, by Matthew Levitt. Yale University Press, 2007. p. 45
  134. Who carried out suicide bombing? The Guardian, August 10, 2001
  135. B'Tselem – Statistics – Fatalities, B'Tselem.
  136. "Human Capital and the Productivity of Suicide Bombers" Journal of Economic Perspectives Volume 21, Number 3, Summer 2007. Pages 223–238
  137. "The Second Intifada: Background and Causes of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict" Jeremy Pressman, Fall 2003 (pdf)
  138. 141.0 141.1 141.2 Running out of time Al-Ahram Weekly January 29 – February 4, 2004
  139. 142.0 142.1 "Israel rejects 'insincere' Hamas offer of 10-year truce" The Independent January 27, 2004
  140. Fury as Gaza buries Hamas leader BBC News April 19, 2004
  141. Hamas chief killed in air strike BBC News March 22, 2004
  142. Price, Matthew (May 13, 2005). "Hamas success in Fatah heartland". BBC News. Retrieved January 5, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  143. McGreal, Chris (January 12, 2006). "Hamas drops call for destruction of Israel from manifesto". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  144. "Hamas: Ceasefire for return to 1967 border". Ynetnews. January 30, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  145. 148.0 148.1 Hamas Routs Ruling Faction, Casting Pall on Peace Process, The New York Times, January 27, 2006
  146. Kristen Ess. "Why Hamas Won" ZNet. Palestine, January 31, 2006.
  147. Peace with Israel for withdrawal to '67 borders, Ynetnews March 3, 2006
  148. Butcher, Tim (February 9, 2006). "Hamas offers deal if Israel pulls out". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved May 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  149. John Pike. "Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement)". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  150. Palestinian sanctions to remain BBC, March 20, 2007
  151. Ravid, Barak (June 6, 2006). "In 2006 letter to Bush, Haniyeh offered compromise with Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  152. 155.0 155.1 155.2 "A 'New Hamas' through Its New Documents". Journal of Palestine Studies. 35 (4). Summer 2006. doi:10.1525/jps.2006.35.4.6. Retrieved May 30, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  153. "The Proof Is in the Paper Trail". Vanity Fair. March 5, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  154. Mahnaimi, Uzi. "Israel foils plot to kill Palestinian president", The Sunday Times, May 7, 2006
  155. McGreal, Chris (June 10, 2006). "Death on the Beach: Seven Palestinians killed as Israeli shells hit family picnic". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  156. "Palestinian Child Buries Slain Family". IslamOnline.net. June 11, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  157. Katz, Yaakov (June 20, 2006). "HRW says it can't refute IDF Gaza beach findings blast". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  158. Katz, Yaakov (June 22, 2006). "IDF: Second piece of shrapnel not ours". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  159. "Militants Fire Rockets Into South Israel". San Francisco Chronicle. March 5, 2010. Archived from the original on January 25, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  160. "Operation Summer Rains", GlobalSecurity.org
  161. "PM: We will not recapture Gaza". Ynetnews. July 2, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  162. 165.0 165.1 "Israelis, Palestinians urged to 'step back from the brink', avert full-scale conflict, as Security Council debates events in Gaza". United Nations. June 30, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  163. "Fatah and Hamas no nearer to unity as Palestinian parliament's term ends". Haaretz. January 25, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  164. "Israel releases jailed Hamas parliament speaker". Haaretz. June 23, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  165. "The Palestinian National Unity Government". February 24, 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  166. Rose, David (October 20, 2009). "The Gaza Bombshell". Vanity Fair. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  167. The "Gaza War". (PDF) . Retrieved on 2010-08-21.
  168. McGirk, Tim (June 13, 2007). "What Happens After Hamas Wins?". Time. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  169. Daraghmeh, M. (June 17, 2007). "Abbas forms cabinet, outlaws Hamas militias". The Star. Retrieved June 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  170. "Over 600 Palestinians killed in internal clashes since 2006". Ynetnews. June 6, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  171. "Fatah supporters surrender to Hamas" The Guardian (UK), June 13, 2007
  172. 175.0 175.1 175.2 175.3 175.4 Under Cover of War|Human Rights Watch. Human Rights Watch (2009-04-20). Retrieved on 2010-08-21.
  173. 176.0 176.1 B'Tselem – Violations of the human rights of Palestinians by Palestinians – Severe human rights violations in inter-Palestinian clashes. Btselem.org (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 2010-08-21.
  174. Abu Toameh, Khaled (March 5, 2012). "'No political differences between Fatah, Hamas'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved February 14, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  175. Ben Zion, Ilan (March 3, 2012). "Abbas: 'Hamas wants Palestinian state with '67 borders'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved February 14, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  176. "Israel-Hamas truce announced". Al Jazeera English. June 17, 2008. Retrieved June 17, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  177. Witte, Griff; Knickmeyer, Ellen (June 18, 2008). "Israel, Hamas Agree on Gaza Strip Truce". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  178. "Israel agrees to Gaza ceasefire". BBC News. June 18, 2008. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  179. 182.0 182.1 182.2 "The Six Months of the Lull Arrangement" (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Israel Intelligence Heritage & Commemoration Center. December 2008. Retrieved October 9, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  180. "US embassy cables: US talks to Israeli security chief about Arabs and Gaza" The Guardian (UK), April 7, 2011 'Diskin said that Israel does not like the tahdiya—seeing it as a means whereby Hamas and other groups can regroup and re-arm—but also dislikes the current situation. The ISA, he said, believes that the best option now is a large-scale ground incursion into the Gaza Strip that allows the IDF to take over the southern part of the Gaza Strip and to stop smuggling and increase pressure on Hamas. "If you do this, it will cause big problems for Hamas' survival in the Gaza Strip," he said.'
  181. Avi Isacharoff; Yuval Azoulay (June 29, 2008). "Hamas: Continued rocket fire by Fatah armed group harms Palestinian interests". Haaretz. Retrieved April 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  182. "Hamas arrests militants after rocket fire" Reuters. July 10, 2008
  183. "Israel closes Gaza after rockets" BBC, June 25, 2008
  184. "Gaza truce broken as Israeli raid kills six Hamas gunmen", The Guardian, November 5, 2008.
  185. Why Israel went to war in Gaza, The Guardian, January 4, 2008.
  186. Robin Lustig (January 6, 2009). "Gaza: the numbers". BBC News. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  187. "Rockets from Gaza bombard Israeli area". UPI. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  188. 191.0 191.1 "Hamas 'might renew truce' in Gaza". London: BBC News. December 23, 2008. Retrieved December 27, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  189. "Why Israel Attacked" Time magazine – December 27, 2008
  190. 193.0 193.1 Civilian death toll rises after second day of air strikes The Guardian (UK), December 29, 2008
  191. 194.0 194.1 194.2 Israeli airstrikes in Gaza kill more than 200 msnbc.com, December 28, 2008
  192. IAF kills Hamas strongman Siam – Confronting Hamas, The Jerusalem Post Archived October 2, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  193. "Obituary: Nizar Rayyan". London: BBC News. January 1, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  194. "Key Hamas Leader Killed". London: BBC News. January 15, 2009. Retrieved January 15, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  195. "Warnings Not Enough for Gaza Families" The New York Times, January 5, 2009
  196. "Israel Deepens Gaza Incursion as Toll Mounts" The New York Times, January 5, 2009
  197. "Strike at Gaza school 'kills 40'". London: BBC News. January 7, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  198. "Israel 'shelled civilian shelter'". London: BBC News. January 9, 2009. Retrieved January 9, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  199. "Israel accused of war crimes over 12-hour assault on Gaza village" The Guardian January 18, 2009
  200. "Israel declares ceasefire in Gaza". London: BBC News. January 18, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  201. "Hamas announces ceasefire in Gaza". London: BBC News. January 18, 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  202. Agence France-Presse (September 21, 2010). "Israel, Hamas probes on Gaza violations inadequate". Daily Nation. Retrieved June 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  203. Hamas releases second response to Goldstone Report Palestine Note, July 28, 2010 "... approximately 1,400 Palestinians were killed according to the Hamas government and the Palestinian Center for Human Rights. The Israeli army puts the number at 1,166."
  204. "Hamas says 300 Fighters Killed in Gaza war". Agence France-Presse. November 1, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  205. Liel, Alon (November 1, 2010). "Hamas confirms losses in Cast Lead for first time". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  206. Abu Toameh, Khaled (August 16, 2009). "Mashaal: Hamas can speak with Obama". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 17, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  207. Speech of Khaled Meshaal August 30, 2009 (rough automated translation from Arabic)
  208. Pollock, David. "Rejectionists Readying to Counter U.S. Peace Push". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. September 1, 2009.
  209. Video interview of Khaled Meshal by Charlie Rose, May 28, 2010 Click on small "transcript" link at top of comments section to view transcript; scroll up to view video.
  210. Hamas renews offer to end fight if Israel withdraws Reuters, May 30, 2010.
  211. "Hamas Chief Outlines Terms for Talks on Arab-Israeli Peace". The Wall Street Journal. July 31, 2009. Retrieved June 21, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  212. Post-Assad Syria would drop special Iran ties| Reuters |December 3, 2011
  213. "Hamas ditches Assad, backs Syrian revolt". Reuters. 24 February 2012.
  214. "Syria Berates Hamas Chief, an Old Ally, on State TV". The New York Times, October 2, 2012.
  215. "Hamas and Fatah in unity talks, says Khaled Meshaal". BBC News, February 7, 2013.
  216. "2 Hamas leaders killed in Syria, sources say". Ma'an News Agency, October 29, 2012.
  217. "Syria Shuts Down Hamas Offices". Arutz Sheva, November 6, 2012.
  218. "NGO accuses Damascus of killing two Hamas members in Syria". Al-Ahram Online, January 9, 2013.
  219. "'Military wing of Hamas training Syrian rebels'". The Jerusalem Post. Reuters. April 5, 2013. Retrieved April 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  220. 223.0 223.1 Kotsev, Victor (March 26, 2013). "A Spring Revival for the Peace Process?". Sada. Retrieved March 29, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  221. "Hamas appoints first spokeswoman - Middle East". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved July 28, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  222. Palestinian Leader Assails Hamas, Calling Unity Pact Into Question. By JODI RUDORENSEPT. August 7, 2014. New York Times.
  223. Abbas blames Hamas for prolonged battle with Israel. AP AND AVI ISSACHAROFF August 29, 2014
  224. Abbas hints PA close to ending unity agreement with Hamas. By KHALED ABU TOAMEH. September 7, 2014
  225. "Hamas criticizes construction delays as Israeli plot". www.jpost.com. Jpost Inc. October 26, 2014. Retrieved October 26, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  226. "Hamas: Background Q&A". Council on Foreign Relations. March 16, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  227. Flow of Saudis' Cash to Hamas Is Scrutinized The New York Times
  228. "Saudi Arabia's denials of involvement in international terrorism". Jcpa.org. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  229. http://eufunding.org.uk/terror/FundingEvil.pdf
  230. IPR Strategic Business Information Database. Saudi Arabia: charity to support al Aqsa uprising. February 2, 2002
  231. Matthew A. Levitt, testimony before the Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee, "Role of Charities and NGOs in Terrorist Financing," August 1, 2002.
  232. The Financial Sources of the Hamas Terror Organization – July 2003 Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Israel)
  233. Hamas Funding GlobalSecurity.org
  234. "Past Hamas Activity in Saudi Arabia". Washingtoninstitute.org. September 26, 2008. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  235. Ian Black, Middle East editor (January 1, 2009). "Saudis blame Hamas amid calls for talks with Fatah". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  236. 239.0 239.1 239.2 239.3 239.4  This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document "Saudi Arabia: Terrorist Financing Issues".
  237. A Global Overview Of Narcotics-Funded Terrorist And Other Extremist Groups, May 2002, Library of Congress – Federal Research Division
  238. Testimony of Victor Comras to the U.S. House Subcommittee on Financial Oversight and Investigations, hearings on Current and Evolving Trends in Terrorism Financing. September 28, 2010.
  239.  This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document "Fatah and Hamas: the New Palestinian Factional Reality".
  240. The Iran-Hamas Alliance, In Focus Quarterly, by Meyrav Wurmser, Fall 2007
  241. Hamas receives blow to wallet, Intelligence Online, April 22, 2010.
  242. 245.0 245.1 245.2 245.3 Iran punishes Hamas for not backing Assad| August 23, 2011
  243. [5]"Hamas commercial ventures thrive in Gaza's besieged economy," Mai Yaghi, Agence France Presse (AFP), July 26, 2010, Daily Star.
  244. "As the Israeli blockade eases, Gaza goes shopping", Donald Macintyre, July 26, 2010, The Independent.
  245. "New Gaza Leisure Projects Focus on Fun Not Hardship" August 2, 2010, Reuters, The New York Times.
  246. Hamas imposes new Gaza taxes to pay for burgeoning bureaucracy, The Guardian, by Rory McCarthy.
  247. Eric Cunningham (August 17, 2009). "Hamas profits from Israel's Gaza blockade". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  248. Bronner, Ethan (August 11, 2011). "U.S. Threatens to Halt Gaza Aid Over Hamas Audits". The New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  249. Miller, David E. (August 11, 2011). "US may cut Gaza aid over Hamas probes". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  250. "US suspends work of aid groups in Gaza Strip". Ynetnews.com. June 20, 1995. Retrieved August 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  251. Nidal al-Mughrabi (August 13, 2011). "U.S. suspends work of aid groups in Gaza Strip". Reuters. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  252. "'Hamas, US reach compromise on Gaza aid'". The Jerusalem Post. August 13, 2011. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  253. Hass, Amira (August 30, 2011). "Gaza NGOs express 'horror' at new Hamas travel restrictions on Palestinians". Haaretz. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  254. "Hamas and Fatah Already Fighting Over Gaza Funds". Gatestone Institute. September 20, 2014. Retrieved October 12, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  255. "Anti-Semitic Hate Speech in the Name of Islam". Spiegel Online International. May 16, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  256. 259.0 259.1 Hamas Condemns the Holocaust The Guardian May 12, 2008
  257. "New propaganda song from Hamas". Haaretz. November 11, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  258. Rubenberg, C., Palestinian Women: Patriarchy and Resistance in the West Bank (USA, 2001) pp. 230–231
  259. "Hamas encourages Gaza women to follow Islamic code _English_Xinhua". News.xinhuanet.com. January 3, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  260. 263.0 263.1 Hamas Bans Women Dancers, Scooter Riders in Gaza Push By Daniel Williams, Bloomberg, November 30, 2009
  261. Hamas patrols beaches in Gaza to enforce conservative dress code The Guardian (UK), October 18, 2009
  262. "Women in Gaza: Life Under Hamas". BBC News. March 20, 2010. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  263. Rettig, Haviv (March 5, 2013). "UN Cancels Gaza Marathon". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved March 27, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  264. 267.0 267.1 "Palestine: Taliban-like attempts to censor music". Freemuse.org. August 17, 2006. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  265. 268.0 268.1 268.2 268.3 Afghanistan in Palestine, by Zvi Bar'el, Haaretz, July 26, 2005
  266. "Battling over the public sphere: Islamic reactions to the music of today". Jonas Otterbeck. Contemporary Islam. Volume 2, Number 3, 211–228, doi:10.1007/s11562-008-0062-y. "... the over-all argument was that the event was haram"
  267. "Palestinians Debate Whether Future State Will be Theocracy or Democracy". Associated Press, July 13, 2005.
  268. Gaza Taliban? by Editorial Staff, The New Humanist, Volume 121 Issue 1, January/February 2006
  269. 272.0 272.1 Hamas Rule in Gaza: Three Years On, Yezid Sayigh, Crown Center for Middle East studies, March 2010
  270. See also: Letter from Gaza, Hamas's tunnel diplomacy, By Thanassis Cambanis, June 18, 2010. Foreign Affairs. "They want to know if we are more like the Taliban or Erdogan. They will see that we are closer to Erdogan."
  271. Hamas: 'We want Erdoğan's model, not Taliban's'. Cansu Çamlibel, The Daily Hurriyet. June 10, 2010
  272. A Leader of Hamas Warns of West Bank Peril for Fatah The New York Times. June 21, 2006. "Mr. Sawaf's West Bank office in Ramallah has been destroyed, and the Palestinian paper Al Ayyam has refused to continue printing his paper in the West Bank."
  273. Hamas-Gaza-extremism, The Weekly Middle East Reporter (Beirut, Lebanon), August 8, 2009
  274. Webman, Esther. Anti-semitic Motifs in the Ideology of Hizballah and Hamas, Project for the study of Anti-semitism, Tel Aviv University, 1994, p. 22. ISBN 965-222-592-4
  275. "Anti-Zionist Jews meet with Hamas leader in Gaza". Haaretz. Associated Press. July 16, 2009. Retrieved April 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  276. "Hamas's "Hitler Youth" style movement prepares for jihad". The Commentator. February 6, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  277. "War is war: Why I stand with Israel". The Independent. July 11, 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  278. "Hamas: We'll recognize Israel within '67 borders (Ynetnews, 05.11.06)". Ynetnews.com. June 20, 1995. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  279. "Hamas: No recognition of Israel". BBC News. November 14, 2006. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  280. "Hamas Covenant 1988". Yale. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  281. 284.0 284.1 "Hamas ratchets up its rhetoric against Jews". Herald Tribune. Retrieved November 21, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  282. Lyons, John (March 17, 2010). "Israel defies the US over East Jerusalem buildings". The Australian.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  283. Waked, Ali. "Hamas' al-Zahar: Israel made deal with the devil". Ynetnews.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  284. Hamas Official Ahmad Bahr Preaches for the Annihilation of Jews and Americans, MEMRI, Clip No. 3538, August 10, 2012.
  285. Hamas leader prays for annihilation of Jews, Americans by Greg Tepper, The Times of Israel, August 20, 2012.
  286. Video: Hamas MP: 'Annihilate Jews and Americans' by Tzvi Ben Gedalyahu, Israel National News, August 26, 2012.
  287. Hamas top official: Kill every last Jew and American (VIDEO), Jewish Journal, August 24, 2012.
  288. Hamas MP Marwan Abu Ras: The Jews Are Behind Every Catastrophe on Earth, MEMRITV, Clip No. 3598 (transcript), September 12, 2012.
  289. Friedman, Matti (December 26, 2012). "Hamas official calls for suicide bombings in response to East Jerusalem construction plans". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  290. Blood Libel, the Short History of a Dangerous Myth, CNN, August 6, 2014.
  291. Will Hamas recognize Israel as a Jewish state?, CBS News, July 27, 2014.
  292. "Tunisian Islamists slam anti-Semitic chants". Ynetnews. Associated Press. January 10, 2012. Retrieved January 10, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  293. Miller, Elhanan (July 8, 2012). "Contradicting Abbas, Hamas says it still believes in 'armed resistance' against Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved July 10, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  294. David Cronin (May 15, 2009). "Hamas against Zionism, not Judaism". Arab American News. Retrieved January 10, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  295. Basim Naim (January 13, 2009). "Basim Naim: Hamas has no quarrel with Jews, only with the actions of Israel". The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 10, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  296. Israel Cracks Down on Islamic Group. Oct. 24, 1994, Pg. 1.
  297. "Palestinian Holocaust Denial". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. April 21, 2000. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  298. http://www.ajn.com.au/pages/archives/feature/feature-03a.html[dead link]
  299. Iran leader's Holocaust remarks condemned MSNBC, December 14, 2005
  300. "Hamas springs to Iran's defense" Al Jazeera, December 15, 2005
  301. "Hamas condemns the Holocaust" The Guardian, May 12, 2008
  302. Hamas rips UN over Holocaust lessons, The Jerusalem Post September 30, 2009
  303. Hadid, Diaa (August 31, 2009). "Hamas leader denies Nazi genocide of Jews". The New York Times. Associated Press. Retrieved August 31, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  304. "Hamas rips U.N. for teaching the Holocaust". JTA. August 31, 2009. August 31, 2009.
  305. Sherwood, Harriet (February 28, 2011). "Hamas fights UN's 'poisonous' Holocaust lessons in Gazan schools". The Guardian. Retrieved July 10, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  306. "Hamas to U.N.: Don't Teach Holocaust". The Jewish Week. March 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  307. "Hamas: PA official's Auschwitz visit served Zionists". The Jerusalem Post. August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  308. Miller, Elhanan (August 2, 2012). "PA official's visit to Auschwitz sparks widening condemnation". The Times of Israel. Retrieved August 2, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  309. "Hamas 'blasts Palestinian official's Auschwitz visit'". BBC. August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  310. "Hamas blasts Palestinian official's Auschwitz trip". Ynetnews. Associated Press. August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  311. Abu, Khaled (October 17, 2012). "Hamas opposes Holocaust study at UNRWA schools". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  312. 315.0 315.1 "HRW: Hamas rockets from Gaza violated laws of war". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved December 24, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  313. "Gaza: Palestinian Rockets Unlawfully Targeted Israeli Civilians". HRW. Retrieved December 24, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  314. 317.0 317.1 Steven Erlanger (January 10, 2009). "A Gaza War Full of Traps and Trickery". The New York Times. Israel;Gaza Strip. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  315. Hamas used almost 100 mosques for military purposes. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved on 2010-08-21.
  316. "Ground war in Gaza drives up civilian casualties". MLive. Associated Press. January 7, 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  317. "Video: Hamas uses civilians as a means to achieving military goals". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. January 11, 2009. January 13, 2009.
  318. "Video: Hamas uses civilians as a means to achieving military goals". 2009. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. See 4:00 in the video.
  319. "Hamas's human shields". The Jerusalem Post. March 4, 2008. January 13, 2009.
  320. "Weapons Hidden in Mosque Neutralized by Israel Air Force Dec 31, 2008". on YouTube December 31, 2008. January 13, 2009.
  321. Barzak, Ibrahim and Matti Friedman. "Israel Destroys Hamas Homes, Gaza Mosque". Time. January 2, 2009. January 13, 2009.
  322. Mizroch, Amir. "Dichter: Hamas salaries paid at Shifa Hospital". The Jerusalem Post. January 12, 2009. January 13, 2009.
  323. IDF morality exemplified at mosque. The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved on 2010-08-21.
  324. "Gaza Operation Investigations: Second Update". Mfa.gov.il. Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  325. "Gaza Operations Investigations: Second Update July 2010" (PDF). Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  326. 329.0 329.1 329.2 "Hamas rocket attacks 'war crimes'". BBC News. August 6, 2009. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  327. Amos Harel (January 12, 2009). "IDF investigation shows errant mortar hit UN building in Gaza". Haaretz. Retrieved April 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  328. Turning a Blind Eye Human Rights Watch April 11, 2010
  329. Israel: Investigate 'White Flag' Shootings of Gaza Civilians Human Rights Watch August 13, 2009
  330. "Israeli 'human shield' claim is full of holes" The National (UAE) January 13, 2009.
  331. "Hamas Spokesman Sami Abu Zuhri: Human-Shield Policy Is Effecive". YouTube.com. July 9, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  332. Zahran, Mudar (September 19, 2014). "Gazans Speak Out: Hamas War Crimes". Gatestone Institute. Retrieved September 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  333. "A Soldier's Account from Gaza: How Hamas Used Human Shields". IDF Blog. August 25, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  334. "An IDF Soldier's Experiences in Gaza". IDF Blog. September 21, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  335. "First Hand Account of Gaza Operation by Wounded IDF Soldier". IDF Blog. August 5, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  336. Steven Lee Myers and Helene Cooper, Obama Defers to Bush, for Now, on Gaza Crisis, New York Times December 28, 2009
  337. U.S. Condemns Hamas in Midst of Israeli Strikes, Fox News December 28, 2008
  338. Clinton calls for 'durable' Gaza truce, condemns rockets, AFP March 2, 2009
  339. "IDF Video: Hamas uses civilians as a means to achieving military goals". 2009. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. See 4:25–4:29 in the video.
  340. http://www.terrorism-info.org.il/malam_multimedia/English/eng_n/pdf/g_report_e1.pdf Hamas and the Terrorist Threat from the Gaza Strip The Main Findings of the Goldstone ReportVersus the Factual Findings, Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center.
  341. 344.0 344.1 "Human Rights Watch Statement on our November 22 Press Release". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved November 20, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  342. Human shield deters Israel strike BBC News November 19, 2006
  343. "Hamas's human shields". The Jerusalem Post. March 4, 2008. November 15, 2009.
  344. OPT: Civilians Must Not Be Used to Shield Homes Against Military Attacks Human Rights Watch November 22, 2006
  345. Human Rights Council (September 15, 2009). "Human Rights in Palestine and Other Occupied Arab Territories: Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict" (PDF). unrol.org. United Nations. p. 147. Retrieved June 3, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  346. "Dealing with Hamas's human shield tactics". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved December 26, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  347. Goodenough, Patrick. (2009-10-16) Israelis Took Unprecedented Steps to Safeguard Civilians, Says British Officer. CNSnews.com. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
  348. U.K. Commander Challenges Goldstone Report. UN Watch. Retrieved on 2011-06-18.
  349. Professor David W Lovell; Professor Igor Primoratz (April 28, 2013). Protecting Civilians During Violent Conflict: Theoretical and Practical Issues for the 21st Century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 344. ISBN 978-1-4094-7685-6.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  350. "Video: Hamas uses civilians as a means to achieving military goals". 2009. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. See 06:46 through 08:00 in the video.
  351. Youths' Suicide Mission Stuns Palestinians ABC April 25, 2002
  352. Teenage Suicide Bombers MEF 2002
  353. Freimann, Myer (July 25, 2014). "Hamas Killed 160 Palestinian Children to Build Tunnels". Tablet. Retrieved August 7, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  354. "Online Terrorists Prey on the Vulnerable". Globalpolitician.com. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  355. "Hamas Children's Magazine Al-Fateh Encourages Terrorism, Glorifies Martyrdom". Memri.org. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  356. "Hamas Magazine for Kids Promotes Martyrdom and Hatred". Adl.org. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  357. "Hamas leader killed in air strike". London: BBC. January 1, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  358. Hamas TV station shut down at the Wayback Machine (archived October 9, 2007), news24.com, January 22, 2006
  359. 362.0 362.1 "Terrorism: Al Aqsa TV". ADL. Retrieved 2009. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  360. "Hamas Launches Television Network". NPR. Retrieved February 3, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  361. Johnson, Alan (May 15, 2008). "Hamas and antisemitism". London: The Guardian.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  362. "Hamas forces try to arrest prominent Gaza journalist –". International Herald Tribune. March 29, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  363. Spokesperson of Presidency Condemns Hamas Militias New Crimes against Citizens in Gaza Strip, WAFA, August 31, 2007.
  364. Hamas disbands journalists union amid continuing incidents, Reporters without borders, September 6, 2007
  365. "Hamas widens crackdown on journalists in Gaza". B92. November 15, 2007. Retrieved July 4, 2008. Gaza's Interior Ministry announced that journalists who do not hold official Hamas-issued press cards would not be allowed to work in Gaza.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  366. Martin, Paul (November 13, 2007). "On-the-spot: 'I was arrested by Hamas' – Times Online". London: Timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved December 29, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  367. Hamas de facto government bans distribution of Al-Ayyam newspaper in the Gaza Strip Ma'an News Agency, February 10, 2008
  368. "Hamas orders closure of newspaper over caricature –". International Herald Tribune. March 29, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  369. "Maan News Agency". Maannews.net. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  370. Levinson, Charles (August 26, 2007). "Hamas honeymoon ends with torture". London: The Telegraph. Retrieved May 17, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  371. al-Mughrabi, Nidal. "Gaza clinics closed, retaliation for doctor strikes". Reuters. August 28, 2007. November 14, 2009.
  372. Hamas blocks Fatah protests in Gaza, Ynetnews, September 7, 2007
  373. Hamas frees Fatah prisoners, Al-Jazeera, October 30, 2008.
  374. "IFJ Condemns Hamas Meddling in Gaza Journalists' Affairs". International Federation of Journalists. August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  375. "PCHR slams Hamas for preventing journalists from traveling". Maannews.net. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  376. Liel, Alon. "'PA bans journalists from reporting human rights abuses'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  377. "Rights group: Hamas abusing Palestinians in Gaza". Ynetnews.com. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  378. "World Report 2012: Israel/Occupied Palestinian Territories". Human Rights Watch. January 22, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  379. Nidal al-Mughrabi. "Hamas disputes HRW's charges of torture, detentions in Gaza | Reuters". Reuters. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  380. "Palestine (State of): 'Strangling Necks' Abductions, torture and summary killings of Palestinians by Hamas forces during the 2014 Gaza/Israel conflict" (pdf). amnesty.org. United Kingdom: Amnesty International. May 26, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  381. "Gaza Palestinians tortured, summarily killed by Hamas forces during 2014 conflict". Amnesty International. May 27, 2015. Retrieved May 27, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  382. Madelene Axelsson (January 27, 2006). "Islamistisk politik vinner mark" (in svenska). Stockholms Fria Tidning.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  383. Hamas in Politics, By Jeroen Gunning, pp. 128–129, search at Books.Google.com; see also The Rise of Hamas, by Paul W. Pope, at Dartmouth.edu[dead link]
  384. No End to War, by Walter Laqueur, p. 107. "[I]n 1993–1994 when Hamas ... enlisted experts for bomb making, and the first suicide bombers went into action. Some of the very early operations aborted. The first successful suicide bomb attack occurred in the Jordan Valley in October 1993. The first bus attack happened in Afula in northern Israel in April 1994 ..." Search at Books.Google.com
  385. Suicide car bomb kills two near West Bank restaurant Associated Press, April 17, 1993
  386. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | Erased In A Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians". UNHCR. Retrieved March 27, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  387. Saarnivaara, Minn (2008). "Suicide Campaigns as a Strategic Choice: The Case of Hamas". Policing. 2 (4): 423–433. doi:10.1093/police/pan061.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  388. Erased In A Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians V. Structures and Strategies of the Perpetrator Organizations, Human Rights Watch, October 2002. ISBN 1-56432-280-7
  389. "Indiscriminate Fire, Palestinian Rocket Attacks on Israel and Israeli Artillery Shelling in the Gaza Strip". Human Rights Watch. June 30, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  390. "Civilians under Assault, Hezbollah's Rocket Attacks on Israel in the 2006 War". Human Rights Watch. August 28, 2007. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  391. "Top Hamas fugitive nabbed". Ynetnews.com. May 23, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  392. Barak Ravid (March 17, 2009). "Who are the deadly terrorists Israel refuses to release for Shalit?". Haaretz. Retrieved April 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  393. News Agencies and Haaretz Service (July 27, 2008). "Israeli troops in Hebron kill Hamas man behind Dimona attack". Haaretz. Retrieved September 22, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  394. Anti-Israeli Terrorism in 2007 and its Trends in 2008 (PDF). Intelligence and Terrorism Information Cente (Report). Israel Intelligence Heritage and Commemoration Center. May 2008. pp. 11, 28. Retrieved June 5, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  395. "Victims of Palestinian Violence and Terrorism since September 2000". GxMSDev. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  396. BICOM Fact Sheet 2: Ashkelon – The Changing Scenario BICOM. 2008-05-03.
  397. Mashaal offers to cease civilian attacks at the Wayback Machine (archived April 3, 2008) March 31, 2008, The Jerusalem Post
  398. Qassam lands in western Negev, no injuries Ynetnews November 20, 2008
  399. "Netanyahu blames Hamas for the kidnapping of the three Israeli teens". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved July 19, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  400. "Hamas genocidal terrorists says Netanyahu". Israel News.Net. Retrieved July 19, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  401. "Kidnap and murder of Israeli teens: Palestinian suspect held, police say". The Times of India. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  402. "Palestinian suspect held over kidnap murders of 3 Israelis". The Rakyat Post. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  403. "Israel arrests suspected ringleader of cell that killed teens". The Times of Israel. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  404. Jack Khoury, Hamas claims responsibility for three Israeli teens' kidnapping and murder,' Haaretz 21 August 2014.
  405. http://memritv.org. "MEMRI: Hamas Leadership Acknowledges Responsibility for Kidnapping Three Israeli Teens". Memritv.org. Retrieved August 22, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  406. 'Mashal: Hamas was behind murder of three Israeli teens,' Ynet22 August 2014.
  407. Isikoff, Michael (August 25, 2014). "In personal plea, top Hamas leader calls on Obama to stop 'holocaust' in Gaza". Yahoo! News. Retrieved September 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  408. HRW report April 11, 2010
  409. Al-Mughrabi, Nidal (February 5, 2010). "Hamas "regrets" civilian deaths, Israel unmoved". Reuters.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  410. Baker, Luke (August 24, 2014). "Israel says it found Hamas training manual in Gaza". Reuters. Retrieved August 25, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  411. Halevi, Jonathan D. (August 4, 2014). "The Hamas Threat to the West Is No Different from ISIS". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved August 25, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  412. "IDF general lays out plan for reviving Gaza economy". Haaretz. The Associated Press. October 26, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  413. Weiss, Mark (September 4, 2010). "Islamist groups attempt to derail Middle East talks". Irish Times.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  414. "Hamas targets Israeli-Palestinian talks by killing four Israelis; Hamas took responsibility for the fatal shooting of four Israeli settlers outside Hebron today, on the eve of Israeli-Palestinian talks in Washington," Joshua Mitnick, August 31, 2010, Christian Science Monitor.
  415. "Hamas to launch 'more effective attacks' on Israel". The Jerusalem Post. September 3, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  416. "The Shadow of Hamas". The Washington Post. September 8, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  417. Gaza militants vow wave of attacks against Israel, Reuters September 2, 2010
  418. Kershner, Isabel; Landler, Mark (August 31, 2010). "Israeli Settlers Killed in West Bank". New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  419. Liel, Alon. "Abbas condemns Hamas attack; 4 Israelis shot dead". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  420. "US says Hebron attack must not derail Middle East talks". BBC News. September 1, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  421. "4 Israelis killed by Hamas". News.xinhuanet.com. September 1, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  422. "Hamas official: Israeli settlers are a legitimate military target". Haaretz. September 1, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  423. "Hamas explains using civilians as human shields", Palestinian Media Watch, (December 28, 2008).
  424. "Hamas PLC Speaker Ahmad Bahr: 2.5 Million Virgins Await the Prophets, the Righteous, and the Martyrs in a Single Palace in the Garden of Eden". The Middle East Research Institute,. September 13, 2010. Retrieved September 7, 2013.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  425. 428.0 428.1 "Report: Hamas weighing large-scale conflict with Israel". Ynetnews. October 3, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  426. Issam Aburaiya (October 3, 2006). "Hamas and Palestinian Nationalism" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 5, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  427. "Fatah, Hamas gunbattles kill 7". Toronto Star. October 1, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  428. Yosif Mahmoud Haj-Yahis; et al. (2009). "Alleged Palestinian Collaborators with Israel and Their Families: A Study of Victims of Internal Political Violence". Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Hebrew University of Jerusalem. pp. 18–19. Missing or empty |url= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  429. Kalman, Matthew (January 22, 2009). "Hamas executes suspected Fatah traitors in Gaza". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved September 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  430. The Associated Press (November 20, 2012). "Hamas militants kill 6 suspected informers, witnesses say – World – CBC News". Cbc.ca. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  431. "Rights group pans Hamas for not probing executions". The Times of Israel.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  432. "Large number of alleged Israeli informers killed in Gaza". Palestinian News.Net. August 22, 2014. Retrieved August 23, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  433. 436.0 436.1 Klein, Aaron J.; Ginsburg, Mitch (September 3, 2014). "None of alleged Gaza collaborators were Israeli assets, intel official says". The Times of Israel. Retrieved September 23, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  434. "Middle East | Unrest erupts in Gaza Strip". BBC News. July 3, 2002. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  435. Levinson, Charles (June 10, 2007). "Shot by their own side, healed by the enemy – Telegraph". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  436. "Gaza: Armed Palestinian Groups Commit Grave Crimes". Human Rights Watch. June 13, 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  437. "Mosque gun battle rages in Gaza". London: BBC News. August 14, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  438. "Gaza Islamist leader dies in raid". London: BBC News. August 15, 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  439. "More than 120 youths were killed by Hamas because they did not abide by the house arrest imposed on them. This is in addition to the extrajudicial execution of 30-40 people during the Israeli assault."http://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/Abbas-hints-PA-close-to-ending-unity-deal-with-Hamas-374626
  440. 443.0 443.1 Ben, Ariel. "Hamas denies 32 of its operatives killed in Sinai | JPost | Israel News". JPost. Retrieved August 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  441. Ben, Ricky (August 28, 2013). "Five Hamas members arrested over Egyptian police massacre". The Times of Israel. Retrieved August 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  442. 445.0 445.1 "Top News, Latest headlines, Latest News, World News & U.S News - UPI.com". Onswipe.upi.com. July 29, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  443. 446.0 446.1 446.2 Issacharoff, Avi (August 22, 2013). "Egypt's ire raised as Hamas harbors Sinai jihadists". The Times of Israel. Retrieved September 30, 2014. Their leader, Mohammed Dormosh, is well known for his ties to the Hamas leadership. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  444. Egypt Opens Murder, Conspiracy Investigation Against Morsi. NPR. 2013-07-26.
  445. Morsi accused of plotting with Hamas. Al Jazeera English. 2013-07-26.
  446. "Egypt blames Gaza group for bombing". Al Jazeera. January 23, 2011. Retrieved September 30, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  447. Gold, Dore (April 27, 2014). "The Myth of the Moderate Hamas". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved September 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  448. "Army of Islam says Shalit now solely under control of Hamas". Haaretz. July 4, 2007. Retrieved September 30, 2014. We at Army of Islam made the preparations for operation 'Dissipating Illusion,' which was carried out in cooperation with the Al Aqsa Martyrs' Brigade and the Popular Resistance Committees Salah a-Din. We kidnapped Gilad Shalit and handed him over to Hamas. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  449. "Egyptian interior minister accuses Hamas of supporting Mansoura attackers". Al-Ahram. January 2, 2014. Retrieved September 30, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  450. Klein, Aaron. "Hamas threatens attacks on US: Terrorist warns 'Middle East is full of American targets'." Ynet News. December 24, 2006. Accessed July 20, 2014.
  451. Listing of Terrorist Organisations, Australian Government Attorney-General's Department, January 27, 2006. Retrieved July 31, 2006.
  452. "Lists associated with Resolution 1373". New Zealand Police. July 20, 2014. Retrieved August 16, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  453. "Currently listed entities". Public Safety Canada, Government of Canada. March 24, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  454. "About the Anti-terrorism Act". Department of Justice, Government of Canada. September 12, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  455. "EU court takes Hamas off terrorist organisations list". BBC. Retrieved January 6, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  456. "EU Court Strikes Down Inclusion of Hamas on Terror List". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 6, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  457. "EU court rules Hamas should be taken off terror list". USA Today. Retrieved January 6, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  458. Barak Ravid, 'EU court orders Hamas removed from terror list,' Haaretz 17 December 2014.
  459. 'Hamas removed from EU terrorist list on technicality,' Reuters 17 December 2014.
  460. 'EU court orders Hamas removal from terror blacklist,' Ma'an News Agency 17 December 2014.
  461. The Financial Sources of the Hamas Terror Organization, 2003-07-30
  462. "Japan's Diplomatic Bluebook 2005" (PDF). 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> "In accordance with the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law, it [Japan] has frozen the assets of a total of 472 terrorists and terrorist organizations, including ..., as well as those of Hamas ..."
  463. Michael Penn, Japan and the War on Terror: Military Force and Political Pressure in the US-Japanese Alliance, I.B.Tauris 2014 p.206
  464. Karmi, Omar. "What does the Hamas victory mean for nearby Jordan?", The Daily Star, February 18, 2006
  465. Eke, Steven (March 3, 2006). "Moscow risks anger over Hamas visit". BBC. Retrieved May 18, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  466. Naami, Saleh. "Moscow to distance itself from Hamas". ahramOnline, December 15, 2010.
  467. Lazaroff, T. (May 13, 2011). "Erdogan: 'Hamas is not a terrorist organization'". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 7, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  468. "Turkish FM Davutoğlu meets Hamas chief amid Israel row". Hurriyetdailynews.com. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  469. Proscribed Terrorist Organisations gov.uk
  470. Joshua Davidovich (December 18, 2013). "The China bank is not the issue here, dude". The Times of Israel. Retrieved March 30, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  471. "Country reports on terrorism". U.S. State Dept. May 27, 2005. Archived from the original on May 11, 2005. Retrieved January 26, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  472. "Hamas seeks to retain Saudi ties despite Brotherhood ban - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East". Al-Monitor. Retrieved July 17, 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  473. Buck, Tobias (November 22, 2012). "Five lessons from the Gaza conflict". Financial Times. Retrieved January 6, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  474. "Former U.S. President and ex-Human Rights Council chief call for ICC probe into Gaza war". Herald Globe. Retrieved August 7, 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  475. 479.0 479.1
  476. "US Department of State's Foreign Terrorist Organizations fact sheet, released July 7, 2009". State.gov. January 19, 2010. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  477. United States v. Abu Marzook. No. 03 CR 978 12. IL District Ct. 2005.
  478. Lake, Eli. "Hamas Agents Lurking in U.S., FBI Warns". New York Sun. April 29, 2004. December 10, 2006.
  479. Aaron Klein (December 24, 2006). "Hamas threatens attacks on US". Ynetnews.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  480. FBI Press Room: Testimony of Robert S. Mueller, III, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, before the Senate Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate. February 16, 2005 Archived August 11, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  481. Sawafta, Ali (May 2, 2011). "Abbas government welcomes bin Laden death, Hamas deplores". Reuters. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  482. Conal Urquhart in Ramallah (May 2, 2011). "Hamas praises Osama bin Laden as holy warrior". The Guardian. London. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  483. "US: Hamas Leader's bin Laden Remarks 'Outrageous'". Voice of America. May 3, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  484. Schanzer, Jonathan (May 2, 2011). "The Hamas-al Qaeda Alliance". The Weekly Standard '. Retrieved September 22, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  485. "Why Rising Popularity Poses a Dilemma for Hamas". Time. January 23, 2006.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  486. Danny Rubinstein (April 14, 2005). "Hamas leader: You can't get rid of us". Haaretz.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  487. 491.0 491.1 Concerns about Islamic Extremism on the Rise in Middle East. Pew Research
  488. "Hamas popularity 'surges after Gaza war'". Al Jazeera English. September 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  489. "Poll: Hamas popularity surges after war with Israel". The Washington Post. September 2, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  490. "PO-837: Secretary O'Neill – Statement on the Blocking of Hamas Financiers' Assets". Ustreas.gov. December 4, 2001. Archived from the original on August 29, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  491. Kovach, Gretel C. (November 24, 2008). "Five Convicted in Terrorism Financing Trial". New York Times. Retrieved December 29, 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  492. Bush Freezes Financial Assets of Three Groups Linked to Hamas", White House News Conference, December 4, 2001. Transcript release by the U.S. Department of Justice.
  493. "Funding evil: how terrorism is financed-- and how to stop it" Ehrenfeld, Rachel. pg 100
  494. Bombardieri, Marcella (January 29, 2004). "$116m awarded in terrorism suit". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 1, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  495. Rich, Markon, Eric, Jerry (August 25, 2004). "Va. Man Tied to Hamas Held as Witness". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved September 18, 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  496. Eggen, Dan (February 2, 2007). "Two Men Acquitted of Conspiracy To Fund Hamas Activities in Israel". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  497. "FBI Cuts Ties With CAIR Following Terror Financing Trial". Foxnews.com. January 30, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  498. Yager, Jordy (October 14, 2009). "House Republicans accuse Muslim group of trying to plant spies". Thehill.com. Retrieved May 27, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  499. "Court removes 'co-conspirator' tag from Muslim groups". Jewish Journal. October 22, 2010. Retrieved March 19, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  500. "Germany bans Hamas-linked donor group". Expatica.com. Retrieved August 24, 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  501. 505.0 505.1 "Germany bans group accused of Hamas links". Ynetnews.com. July 12, 2010. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  502. 506.0 506.1 DPA (December 7, 2010). "Germany outlaws IHH over claimed Hamas links". Haaretz. Retrieved August 2, 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  503. Germany IHH e.V. ban shameful, illegal, says group leader Today's Zaman, July 14, 2010
  504. Press Release: Germany – Banning of IHH stigmatises all Islamic humanitarian activism July 14, 2010


External links