Hanımefendi

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Hanımefendi (Ottoman Turkish: خانم آفندی‎, also Hanım Efendi, Khanum Effendi, from Khanum + Effendi ) was the title given to the imperial consort of the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, who came below the rank of Kadınefendi.[1][2] The title was given to the İkbâls and Gözdes of the Sultan, which appeared for the first time in the reign of Sultan Mustafa II.[3] The title was also given to the official consorts of the Şehzades (Ottoman imperial princes), which was limited to only four, and were also called Gözde.[4] The Sultans usually had three, four[5] and six İkbâls, and four, five Gözdes[6] with the title of Hanımefendi.[7] The İkbâls were the women singled out as favorite companions of the Sultan who were in line for promotion to the rank of Kadınefendi, on the death or divorce of one of the latter. The Hanımefendis sometime became the mothers of the Sultans children and after their death their children were given to Kadınefendis to raise.[8]

In modern Turkish, hanımefendi is a spoken form of address for a woman whose name is not known, much like madam in English. The male equivalent in this context is beyefendi.

Ranks and styles

İkbâls

The İkbâls of Sultans were ranked and styled as:

  • Baş İkbâl,[9] Başhanımefendi or Devletlu Baş-İkbâl (given name) Hanımefendi Hazretleri - senior or first Honoured Lady Consort;[10]
  • İkinci İkbâl,[11] İkinci Hanımefendi or Devletlu İkinci İkbâl (given name) Hanımefendi Hazretleri - second Honoured Lady Consort;[10]
  • Üçüncü İkbâl,[12] Üçüncü Hanımefendi or Devletlu Üçüncü İkbâl (given name) Hanımefendi Hazretleri — third Honoured Lady Consort;[10]
  • Dördüncü İkbâl,[13] Dördüncü Hanımefendi or Devletlu Dördüncü İkbâl (given name) Hanımefendi Hazretleri — fourth Honoured Lady Consort;[10]
  • Beşinci İkbâl,[14] Beşinci Hanımefendi or Devletlu Beşinci İkbâl (given name) Hanımefendi Hazretleri — fifth Honoured Lady Consort;[10]
  • Altıncı İkbâl,[15] Altıncı Hanımefendi or Devletlu Altıncı İkbâl (given name) Hanımefendi Hazretleri — sixth Honoured Lady Consort.[16][17][10]

Gözdes

The Gözdes of Sultans and consorts of the şehzades were ranked and styled as:

  • Baş Gözde, Başhanım or (given name) Başhanımefendi Hazretleri - senior or first Favour Lady Consort;[10]
  • İkinci Gözde, İkinci Hanım or (given name) İkinci Hanımefendi Hazretleri - second Favour Lady Consort;[10]
  • Üçüncü Gözde, Üçüncü Hanım or (given name) Üçüncü Hanımefendi Hazretleri — third Favour Lady Consort;[10]
  • Dördüncü Gözde, Dördüncü Hanım or (given name) Dördüncü Hanımefendi Hazretleri — fourth Favour Lady Consort;[10]
  • Beşinci Gözde, Beşinci Hanım or (given name) Beşinci Hanımefendi Hazretleri — fifth Favour Lady Consort;[10]

Honorific

Imperial consorts who were traditionally addressed as Hanımefendi include:

See also

References

  1. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924, by Harun Açba
  2. Öztuna, Yilmaz, "Deletler ve Hanedanler", Vol: 2, Ministry of Culture Publications, London (1996), s.924
  3. Saray hatıralarım, by Safiye Ünüvar
  4. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  5. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  6. The Ottoman Lady: A Social History from 1718 to 1918 by Fanny Davis
  7. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  8. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  9. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 "Turkey: The Imperial House of Osman". web.archive.org. Archived from the original on May 2, 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  12. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  13. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  14. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  15. Kadın efendiler: 1839-1924
  16. Fanny Davis (1986). The Ottoman Lady: A Social History from 1718 to 1918. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-24811-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. The Concubine, the Princess, and the Teacher: Voices from the Ottoman Harem. University of Texas Press. 2010. ISBN 978-0-292-78335-5.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. The Imperial House of Osman - 8
  19. Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları (Ottoman History with Illustrations, Nesil Publications), 15th Ed., 2009, page 395, ISBN 978-975-269-299-2