Haplogroup I (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup I
Possible time of origin 20,857 ± 3,594 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin West Asia (Terreros 2011 and Fernandes 2012)
Ancestor N1e'I
Descendants I1, I2'3, I4, I5, I6
Defining mutations T10034C, G16129A!, G16391A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)

In human population genetics, mitochondrial (mtDNA) haplogroups define the major lineages of direct maternal (female) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup I is largely found in Europe and West Asia, where it is believed to have originated.


Haplogroup I is a descendant (subclade) of haplogroup N1e'I (Behar 2012b) and sibling of haplogroup N1e (Behar 2012b). It is believed to have arisen somewhere in Eurasia between 17,263 and 24,451 years before present (Behar 2012b). It has been suggested that its origin may be in Iran or more generally the Near East (Terreros 2011).

It is noteworthy that, with the exception of its northern neighbor Azerbaijan, Iran is the only population in which haplogroup I exhibits polymorphic levels. Also, a contour plot based on the regional phylogeographic distribution of the I haplogroup exhibits frequency clines consistent with an Iranian cradle... Moreover, when compared with other populations in the region, those from the Levant (Iraq, Syria and Palestine) and the Arabian Peninsula (Oman and UAE) exhibit significantly lower proportions of I individuals... It should be noted that this haplogroup has been detected in European groups (Krk, a tiny island off the coast of Croatia (11.3%), and Lemko, an isolate from the Carpathian Highlands (11.3%)) at comparable frequencies to those observed in the North Iranian population. However, the higher frequencies of the haplogroup within Europe are found in geographical isolates and are likely the result of founder effects and/or drift... it is plausible that the high levels of haplogroup I present in Iran may be the result of a localized enrichment through the action of genetic drift or may signal geographical proximity to the location of origin.

Terreros 2011

A similar view puts more emphasis on the Persian Gulf region of the Near East (Fernandes 2012).

Haplogroup I ... dates to ∼25 ka ago and is overall most frequent in Europe..., but the facts that it has a frequency peak in the Gulf region and that its highest diversity values are in the Gulf, Anatolia, and southeast Europe suggest that its origin is most likely in the Near East and/or Arabia...

Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I is found at moderate to low frequencies in East Africa, Europe, West Asia and South Asia (Fernandes 2012). The rare basal/paraphyletic clade I* has been observed in three individuals; two from Somalia and one from Iran (Olivieri 2013).


Outside of Europe, the highest frequencies of mitochondrial haplogroup I observed so far appear in the Cushitic-speaking El Molo (23%) and Rendille (>17%) in northern Kenya (Castrì 2008).

Population Location Language Family N Frequency Source
Amhara Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 1/120 0.83% Kivisild 2004
Beta Israel Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/29 0.00% Behar 2008a
Dawro Konta Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Omotic 0/137 0.00% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Ethiopia Ethiopia Undetermined 0/77 0.00% Soares 2011
Ethiopian Jews Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/41 0.00% Non 2011
Gurage Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 1/21 4.76% Kivisild 2004
Hamer Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Omotic 0/11 0.00% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Ongota Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/19 0.00% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Oromo Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/33 0.00% Kivisild 2004
Tigrai Ethiopia Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 0/44 0.00% Kivisild 2004
Daasanach Kenya Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/49 0.00% Poloni 2009
Elmolo Kenya Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 12/52 23.08% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Kikuyu Kenya Niger-Congo 0/25 0.00% Watson 1997
Luo Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/49 0.00% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Maasai Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/81 0.00% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Nairobi Kenya Niger-Congo 0/100 0.00% Brandstatter 2004
Nyangatom Kenya Nilo-Saharan 1/112 0.89% Poloni 2009
Rendille Kenya Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 3/17 17.65% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Samburu Kenya Nilo-Saharan 3/35 8.57% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Turkana Kenya Nilo-Saharan 0/51 0.00% Castrì 2008 and Boattini 2013
Turkana Kenya Nilo-Saharan 1/47 2.13% Poloni 2009 and Watson & 1997
Hutu Rwanda Niger-Congo 0/42 0.00% Castrì 2009
Somali Somalia Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 3/163 1.84% Soares 2011 and Watson 1997
Dinka Sudan Nilo-Saharan 0/46 0.00% Krings 1999
Sudan Sudan Undetermined 0/102 0.00% Soares 2011
Burunge Tanzania Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 1/38 2.63% Tishkoff 2007
Datoga Tanzania Nilo-Saharan 0/57 0.00% Tishkoff 2007 and Knight 2003
Iraqw Tanzania Afro-Asiatic > Cushitic 0/12 0.00% Knight 2003
Sukuma Tanzania Niger-Congo 0/32 0.00% Tishkoff 2007 and Knight 2003
Turu Tanzania Niger-Congo 0/29 0.00% Tishkoff 2007
Yemeni Yemen Afro-Asiatic > Semitic 0/114 0.00% Kivisild 2004


Haplogroup I is present across West Asia, Central Asia, and at trace frequencies in South Asia. Its highest frequency is perhaps in northern Iran (9.7%). Terreros 2011 notes that it also has high diversity there and reiterates past studies that have suggested that this may be its place of origin. Found in Svan population from Georgia(Caucasus) I* 4.2%."Sequence polymorphisms of the mtDNA control region in a human isolate: the Georgians from Swanetia."Alfonso-Sánchez MA1, Martínez-Bouzas C, Castro A, Peña JA, Fernández-Fernández I, Herrera RJ, de Pancorbo MM.[citation needed] The table below shows some of the populations where it has been detected.

Population Language Family N Frequency Source
Baluch Indo-European 0/39 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Brahui Dravidian 0/38 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Caucasus (Georgia)* Caucasian 1/58 1.80% Quintana-Murci 2004
Druze - 11/311 3.54% Shlush 2008
Gilaki Indo-European 0/37 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Gujarati Indo-European 0/34 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Hazara Indo-European 0/23 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Hunza Burusho Isolate 2/44 4.50% Quintana-Murci 2004
India - 8/2544 0.30% Metspalu 2004
Iran (North) - 3/31 9.70% Terreros 2011
Iran (South) - 2/117 1.70% Terreros 2011
Kalash Indo-European 0/44 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Kurdish (Western Iran) Indo-European 1/20 5.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Kurdish (Turkmenistan) Indo-European 1/32 3.10% Quintana-Murci 2004
Lur Indo-European 0/17 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Makrani Indo-European 0/33 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Mazandarian Indo-European 1/21 4.80% Quintana-Murci 2004
Pakistani Indo-European 0/100 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Pakistan - 1/145 0.69% Metspalu 2004
Parsi Indo-European 0/44 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Pathan Indo-European 1/44 2.30% Quintana-Murci 2004
Persian Indo-European 1/42 2.40% Quintana-Murci 2004
Shugnan Indo-European 1/44 2.30% Quintana-Murci 2004
Sindhi Indo-European 1/23 8.70% Quintana-Murci 2004
Turkish (Azerbaijan) Altaic 2/40 5.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Turkish (Anatolia)* Altaic 1/50 2.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Turkmen Altaic 0/41 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004
Uzbek Altaic 0/42 0.00% Quintana-Murci 2004


Western Europe

In Western Europe, haplogroup I is most common in Northwestern Europe (Norway,[citation needed] the Isle of Skye, and the British Isles). The frequency in these areas is between 2 and 5 percent. Its highest frequency in Brittany, France where it is over 9 percent of the population in Finistere. It is uncommon and sometimes absent in other parts of Western Europe (Iberia, South-West France, and parts of Italy).

Population Language N Frequency Source
Austria/Switzerland - 4/187 2.14% Helgason 2001
Basque (Admix Zone) Basque/Labourdin côtier-haut navarrais 0/56 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (Araba) Basque/Occidental 0/55 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (Bizkaia) Basque/Biscayen 1/59 1.69% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (Central/Western Navarre ) Basque/Haut-navarrais méridional 2/63 3.17% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (Gipuskoa) Basque/Gipuzkoan 0/57 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (Navarre Labourdin) Basque/Bas-navarrais 0/68 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (North/Western Navarre) Basque/Haut-navarrais septentrional 0/51 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (Roncal) Basque/Roncalais-salazarais 0/55 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (Soule) Basque/Souletin 0/62 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Basque (South/Western Gipuskoa) Basque/Biscayen 0/64 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Béarn French 0/51 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Bigorre French 0/44 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Burgos Spanish 0/25 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Cantabria Spanish 0/18 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Chalosse French 0/58 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Denmark - 6/105 5.71% Mikkelsen 2010
England/Wales - 12/429 3.03% Helgason 2001
Finland - 1/49 2.04% Torroni 1996
Finland/Estonia - 5/202 2.48% Helgason 2001
France (Finistere) - 2/22 9.10% Dubut 2003
France (Morbihan) - 0/40 0.00% Dubut 2003
France (Normandy) - 0/39 0.00% Dubut 2003
France (Périgord-Limousin) - 2/72 2.80% Dubut 2003
France (Var) - 2/37 5.40% Dubut 2003
France/Italy - 2/248 0.81% Helgason 2001
Germany - 12/527 2.28% Helgason 2001
Iceland - 21/467 4.71% Helgason 2001
Ireland - 3/128 2.34% Helgason 2001
Italy (Tuscany) - 2/48 4.20% Torroni 1996
La Rioja Spanish 1/51 1.96% Martınez-Cruz 2012
North Aragon Spanish 0/26 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Orkney - 5/152 3.29% Helgason 2001
Saami - 0/176 0.00% Helgason 2001
Scandinavia - 12/645 1.86% Helgason 2001
Scotland - 39/891 4.38% Helgason 2001
Spain/Portugal - 2/352 0.57% Helgason 2001
Sweden - 0/37 0.00% Torroni 1996
Western Bizkaia Spanish 0/18 0.00% Martınez-Cruz 2012
Western Isles/Isle of Skye - 15/246 6.50% Helgason 2001

Eastern Europe

In Eastern Europe, the frequency of haplogroup I is generally lower than in Western Europe (1 to 3 percent), but its frequency is more consistent between populations with fewer places of extreme highs or lows. There are two notable exceptions. Nikitin 2009 found that Lemkos (a sub- or co-ethnic group of Rusyns) in the Carpathian mountains have the "highest frequency of haplogroup I (11.3%) in Europe, identical to that of the population of Krk Island (Croatia) in the Adriatic Sea".[Footnote 1][Footnote 2]

Population N Frequency Source
Boyko 0/20 0.00% Nikitin 2009
Hutsul 0/38 0.00% Nikitin 2009
Lemko 6/53 11.32% Nikitin 2009
Belorussians 2/92 2.17% Belyaeva 2003
Russia (European) 3/215 1.40% Helgason 2001
Romanians (Constanta) 59 0.00% Bosch 2006
Romanians (Ploiesti) 46 2.17% Bosch 2006
Russia 1/50 2.0% Malyarchuk 2001
Ukraine 0/18 0.00% Malyarchuk 2001
Croatia (Mainland) 4/277 1.44% Pericic 2005
Croatia (Krk) 15/133 11.28% Cvjetan 2004
Croatia (Brac) 1/105 0.95% Cvjetan 2004
Croatia (Hvar) 2/108 1.9% Cvjetan 2004
Croatia (Korcula) 1/98 1% Cvjetan 2004
Herzegovinians 1/130 0.8% Cvjetan 2004
Bosnians 6/247 2.4% Cvjetan 2004
Serbians 4/117 3.4% Cvjetan 2004
Macedonians 2/146 1.4% Cvjetan 2004
Macedonian Romani 7/153 4.6% Cvjetan 2004
Slovenians 2/104 1.92% Malyarchuk 2003
Bosnians 4/144 2.78% Malyarchuk 2003
Poles 8/436 1.83% Malyarchuk 2003
Caucasus (Georgia)* 1/58 1.80% Quintana-Murci 2004
Russians 5/201 2.49% Malyarchuk 2003
Bulgaria/Turkey 2/102 1.96% Helgason 2001

Historic and Pre-Historic Samples

Haplogroup I has so far been absent from ancient European samples found in Paleolithic and Mesolithic grave sites. One early example has been found in Neolithic Spain (c. 5000 cal BC in Paternanbidea) but its subclade was not determined. Haplogroup I displays a strong connection with the Indo-European migrations especially for its subclades I1, I1a1 and I3a which have been found in Poltavka and Srubnaya cultures in Russia (Mathieson 2015), among ancient Scythians (Der Sarkissian 2011), and in Corded Ware and Unetice Culture burials in Saxony (Brandt 2013). Haplogroup I (with undetermined subclades) has been noted at significant frequencies in more recent historic grave sites (Melchior 2008 and Hofreiter 2010).

Samples with determined subclades

Culture Country Site Date Haplogroup Source
Unetice Germany Esperstedt 2050-1800 BC I1 Adler 2012; Brandt 2013
Srubnaya Russia Rozhdestveno I, Samara Steppes, Samara 1850-1600 BC I1a1 Mathieson 2015
Unetice Germany Eulau 1979-1921 BC I1a1 Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Plotzkau 3 2200-1550 BC I1a1 Brandt 2013
Scythian Russia Rostov-on-Don 500-200 BC I3 Der Sarkissian 2011
Unetice Germany Benzingerode-Heimburg 1653-1627 BC I3a Brandt 2013
Unetice Germany Esperstedt 2131-1979 BC I3a Adler 2012; Brandt 2013; Haak 2015; Mathieson 2015
Unetice Germany Esperstedt 2199-2064 BC I3a Adler 2012; Brandt 2013; Haak 2015
Poltavka Russia Lopatino II, Sok River, Samara 2885-2665 BC I3a Mathieson 2015
Karasuk Russia Sabinka 2 1416-1268 BC I4a1 Allentoft 2015
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos 2400-1700 BC I5 Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos 2400-1700 BC I5 Hughey 2013
Minoan Greece Ayios Charalambos 2400-1700 BC I5 Hughey 2013
Late Bronze Age Armenia Norabak 1209-1009 BC I5c Allentoft 2015
Mezhovskava Russia Kapova cave 1598-1398 BC I5c Allentoft 2015

Samples with unknown subclades

Populations N Frequency Source
Roman Iron Age sites
Bøgebjerggård (AD 1–400)
Simonsborg (AD 1–200)
Skovgaarde (AD 200–400)
3/24 12.5% Melchior 2008a, Hofreiter 2010
Viking Age burial sites
Galgedil (AD 1000)
Christian cemetery Kongemarken (AD 1000–1250)
medieval cemetery Riisby (AD 1250–1450)
4/29 13.79% Melchior 2008, Hofreiter 2010
Anglo-Saxon burial sites
1/48 2.08% Töpf 2006

We have previously observed a high frequency of Hg I's among Iron Age villagers (Bøgebjerggård) and individuals from the early Christian cemetery, Kongemarken [16], [17]. This trend was also found for the additional sites reported here, Simonsborg, Galgedil and Riisby. The overall frequency of Hg I among the individuals from the Iron Age to the Medieval Age is 13% (7/53) compared to 2.5% for modern Danes [35]. The higher frequencies of Hg I can not be ascribed to maternal kinship, since only two individuals share the same common motif (K2 and K7 at Kongemarken). Except for Skovgaarde (no Hg I's observed) frequencies range between 9% and 29% and there seems to be no trend in relation to time. No Hg I's were observed at the Neolithic Damsbo and the Bronze Age site Bredtoftegård, where all three individuals harboured Hg U4 or Hg U5a (Table 1).

Hofreiter 2010

The frequency of haplogroup I may have undergone a reduction in Europe following the Middle Ages. An overall frequency of 13% was found in ancient Danish samples from the Iron Age to the Medieval Age (including Vikings) from Denmark and Scandinavia compared to only 2.5% in modern samples. As haplogroup I is not observed in any ancient Italian, Spanish [contradicted by the above, "early examples have been found in Neolithic Spain (c. 5000 cal BC in Paternanbidea)"], British, central European populations, early central European farmers and Neolithic samples, according to the authors "Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type “diluted” by later immigration events" (Hofreiter 2010).



This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup I subclades with time estimates is based on the paper (van Oven 2008) and subsequent published research (Behar 2012b).

Hg (April 2012) Time estimate (years) SD (years)
N1eI 28'881 6'095
I 20'857 3'594
I1 15'231 3'402
I1a 11'726 3'306
I1a1 5'294 2'134
I1a1a 3'327 2'720
I1a1b 2'608 2'973
I1a1c 1'523 3'384
I1a1d 1'892 1'863
I1b 11'135 4'818
I1c 8'216 3'787
I2-3 11'308 4'154
I2 6'387 2'449
I2a 3'771 2'143
I2a1 2'986 1'968
I2b 1'267 4'539
I2c 2'268 2'693
I2d 3'828 3'795
I2e 2'936 3'454
I3 8'679 3'410
I3a 6'091 3'262
I3a1 5'070 3'017
I3b 5'596 3'629
I4 14'913 5'955
I4a 2'124 6'113
I5 18'806 4'005
I5a 15'116 4'128
I5a1 11'062 4'661
I6 - -
I6a - -



Haplogroup I1
Possible time of origin 15,231 ± 3,402 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I
Defining mutations 455.1T, G6734A, G9966A, T16311C! (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
JQ702472 Behar 2012b
JQ702567 Germany Behar 2012b
JQ704077 Germany Behar 2012b
JQ705190 Behar 2012b
JQ705840 Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I1a
Possible time of origin 11,726 ± 3,306 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1
Defining mutations T152C!, G207A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
EU694173 - FamilyTreeDNA
HM454265 Turkey (Armenian) FamilyTreeDNA
JQ245746 Chuvash Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I1a1
Possible time of origin 5,294 ± 2,134 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1a
Defining mutations G203A, C3990T, G9947A, A9966G!, T10915C! (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
EF177414 Portugal Pereira 2007
JQ701900 - Behar 2012b
JQ702519 - Behar 2012b
JQ702820 - Behar 2012b
JQ702882 - Behar 2012b
JQ703835 - Behar 2012b
JQ705025 - Behar 2012b
JQ705645 - Behar 2012b
FJ460562 Tunisia Costa 2009
JQ705889 - Behar 2012b
JQ245748 Czech Fernandes 2012
JQ245749 Czech Fernandes 2012
JQ245767 Turkey Fernandes 2012
JQ245802 Morocco Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I1a1a
Possible time of origin 3,327 ± 2,720 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1a1
Defining mutations G9053A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
AY339502 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339503 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339504 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339505 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339506 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339507 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339508 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339509 Finland Finnila 2001
JQ702939 - Behar 2012b
JQ703652 - Behar 2012b
JQ704013 - Behar 2012b
JQ705140 - Behar 2012b
JQ705378 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I1a1b
Possible time of origin 2,608 ± 2,973 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1a1
Defining mutations T14182C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
JQ702470 - Behar 2012b
JQ705595 - Behar 2012b
JQ704690 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I1a1c
Possible time of origin About 1,523 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1a1
Defining mutations T6620C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
JQ702023 - Behar 2012b
JQ702457 - Behar 2012b
GU123027 Russia Malyarchuk 2010b


Haplogroup I1a1d
Possible time of origin About 1,892 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1a1
Defining mutations A1836G, T4023C, T13488C, T16189C! (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
JQ702342 - Behar 2012b
JQ705189 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I1b
Possible time of origin 11,135 ± 4,818 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1
Defining mutations T6227C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
Genbank ID Population Source
AY195769 Caucasian Mishmar 2003
AY714041 India Palanichamy 2004
EF556153 Jewish Diaspora Behar 2008a
FJ234984 Armenian FamilyTreeDNA
FJ968796 - FamilyTreeDNA
JQ704018 - Behar 2012b
JQ705376 - Behar 2012b
KJ890387.1 Swedish FamilyTreeDNA


Haplogroup I1c
Possible time of origin 8,216 ± 3,787 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I1
Defining mutations G8573A, C16264T, G16319A, T16362C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
EU564849 - FamilyTreeDNA
JQ702655 - Behar 2012b
JQ705364 - Behar 2012b
JQ705932 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I2'3
Possible time of origin 11,308 ± 4,154 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I
Defining mutations T152C!, G207A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)

Examples of this ancestral branch have not been documented.


Haplogroup I2
Possible time of origin 6,387 ± 2,449 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2'3
Defining mutations A15758G (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
FJ911909 - FamilyTreeDNA
GU122984 Russia Malyarchuk 2010b
GU294854 - FamilyTreeDNA
HQ287882 - Pope 2011
JQ701942 - Behar 2012b
JQ702191 - Behar 2012b
JQ702284 - Behar 2012b
JQ703850 - Behar 2012b
JQ704705 - Behar 2012b
JQ704765 - Behar 2012b
JQ704936 - Behar 2012b
JQ705000 - Behar 2012b
JQ705304 - Behar 2012b
JQ705379 - Behar 2012b
EU570217 - FamilyTreeDNA
JQ245744 Chechnya Fernandes 2012
JQ245747 Czech Fernandes 2012
JQ245771 Turkey Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I2a
Possible time of origin 3,771 ± 2,143 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2
Defining mutations A11065G, G16145A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
HQ326985 - FamilyTreeDNA
HQ714959 Scotland FamilyTreeDNA
JQ703910 - Behar 2012b
JQ705175 - Behar 2012b
JQ705921 - Behar 2012b
HQ695930 - FamilyTreeDNA


Haplogroup I2a1
Possible time of origin 2,986 ± 1,968 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2a
Defining mutations T3398C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)

Current available data indicates that this may be a Northwestern European branch.

GenBank ID Population Source
AY339497 Finland Finnila 2001
HQ724528 Ireland FamilyTreeDNA
JN411083 Ireland FamilyTreeDNA


Haplogroup I2b
Possible time of origin About 1,267 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2
Defining mutations T6515C, 8281-8289d, A16166c (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
AY339498 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339499 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339500 Finland Finnila 2001
AY339501 Finland Finnila 2001


Haplogroup I2c
Possible time of origin About 2,268 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2
Defining mutations T460C, G9438A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
JQ702163 - Behar 2012b
JQ702253 - Behar 2012b
JQ703024 - Behar 2012b
JQ705187 - Behar 2012b
JQ705666 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I2d
Possible time of origin About 3,828 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2
Defining mutations G6480A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
JQ705244 - Behar 2012b
JQ703829 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I2e
Possible time of origin About 2,936 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2
Defining mutations G3591A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
JQ702578 - Behar 2012b
JQ703106 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I3
Possible time of origin 8,679 ± 3,410 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I2'3
Defining mutations T239C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
JQ702493 - Behar 2012b
JQ702647 - Behar 2012b
JQ703862 - Behar 2012b
JQ703883 - Behar 2012b
JQ245751 Greece Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I3a
Possible time of origin 6,091 ± 3,262 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Oldest sample from Poltavka culture (Russia-Lopatino II, Sok River, Samara, 2885-2665 BC) (Mathieson 2015)
Ancestor I3
Defining mutations T16086C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
EU746658 France FamilyTreeDNA
EU869314 - FamilyTreeDNA
JQ702062 - Behar 2012b
JQ702109 - Behar 2012b
JQ702413 - Behar 2012b
JQ702041 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I3a1
Possible time of origin 5,070 ± 3,017 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I3a
Defining mutations G2849A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
AY963586 Italy Bandelt 2005
HQ420832 France FamilyTreeDNA
JQ704837 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I3b
Possible time of origin 5,596 ± 3,629 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I3
Defining mutations C16494T (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
GU590993 Ireland FamilyTreeDNA
JQ705377 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I4
Possible time of origin 14,913 ± 5,955 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I
Defining mutations G8519A (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
JQ704976 - Behar 2012b
EF660987 Italy Gasparre 2007


Haplogroup I4a
Possible time of origin About 2,124 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I4
Defining mutations A10819G (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
EF153786 Siberia Derenko 2007
EU091245 - FamilyTreeDNA
HM804481 - FamilyTreeDNA
JN660158 Armenian FamilyTreeDNA
JQ701909 - Behar 2012b
JQ701957 - Behar 2012b
JQ705060 - Behar 2012b
JQ705191 - Behar 2012b
JQ705303 - Behar 2012b
JQ705514 - Behar 2012b
JQ705906 - Behar 2012b
JQ706017 - Behar 2012b
JQ702369 - Behar 2012b


Haplogroup I5
Possible time of origin 18,806 ± 4,005 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I
Defining mutations A14233G (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
HQ658465 German (north) FamilyTreeDNA
JQ245724 North Ossetia Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I5a
Possible time of origin 15,116 ± 4,128 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I5
Defining mutations T5074C, C16148T (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
FJ348190 Hutterite Pichler 2008
JQ701894 - Behar 2012b
JQ704768 - Behar 2012b
JQ245733 Dubai Fernandes 2012
JQ245772 Turkey Fernandes 2012
JQ245780 Yemen Fernandes 2012
JQ245781 Yemen Fernandes 2012
JQ245782 Yemen Fernandes 2012
JQ245783 Yemen Fernandes 2012
JQ245784 Yemen Fernandes 2012
JQ245785 Yemen Fernandes 2012
JQ245786 Yemen Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I5a1
Possible time of origin 11,062 ± 4,661 Before Present (Behar 2012b)
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I5a
Defining mutations 8281-8289d, A12961G (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
AF382007 Leon Maca-Meyer 2001
EU597573 Bedouin (Israel) Hartmann 2009
JQ704713 - Behar 2012b
JQ705096 - Behar 2012b
EF660917 Italy Gasparre 2007
JQ245807 Bulgaria Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I6
Possible time of origin Insufficient Data
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I
Defining mutations T3645C (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
JQ245773 Turkey Fernandes 2012


Haplogroup I6a
Possible time of origin Insufficient Data
Possible place of origin Insufficient Data
Ancestor I6
Defining mutations (G203A), G3915A, A6116G, A7804G, T15287C, (A16293c) (Behar & Family Tree DNA 2012)
GenBank ID Population Source
AY245555 - Janssen 2006
JQ705382 - Behar 2012b

See also


Backbone mtDNA Tree

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U



  1. Nikitin 2009: 6/53 in Lemkos
    "Lemkos shared the highest frequency of haplogroup I ever reported and the highest frequency of haplogroup M* in the region."
  2. Cvjetan 2004: 15/133

Works Cited


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Further reading

External links