Haplogroup L4 (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup L4
Possible place of origin East Africa
Ancestor L3'4
Descendants L4a, L4b
Defining mutations 5460, 16362[1]

In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

It is a small African haplogroup.[2]

Origin

Distribution

L4 is important in East Africa and Horn of Africa. The highest frequencies are in Tanzania among the Hadza at 60-83% and Sandawe at 48%.[3]

Subclades

Tree

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup L4 subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[1] and subsequent published research.

Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)

  • L1-6
    • L2-6
      • L2'3'4'6
        • L3'4'6
          • L3'4
            • L4
              • L4a (Formerly known as L7)
                • L4a1
                  • L4a1a
                • L4a2
              • L4b
                • L4b1
                • L4b2 (Formerly known as L3g or L4g)
                  • L4b2a
                    • L4b2a1
                    • L4b2a2
                      • L4b2a2a
                      • L4b2a2b
                  • L4b2b

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 van Oven, Mannis; Manfred Kayser (13 Oct 2008). "Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation". Human Mutation. 30 (2): E386–E394. doi:10.1002/humu.20921. PMID 18853457. Retrieved 2009-05-20.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. Haplogroups L4.
  3. Tishkoff, S. et al. 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2007 24(10):2180-2195

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

External links