Haplogroup R (mtDNA)

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Haplogroup R
Haplogroup R (mtDNA) & subclades.PNG
Possible time of origin 66,000 YBP [1]
Ancestor N
Descendants R0, R1, R2'JT, R3, R5, R6'7, R8, R9, R11'B, R12'21, R14, R22, R23, R30, R31, P, U
Defining mutations 12705, 16223[2]

In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup R is a very extended mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup and is the most common macro-haplogroup in West Eurasia.

Haplogroup R is a descendant of macro-haplogroup N. Among its descendant haplogroups are B, U (and thus K), F, R0 (and thus HV, H, and V), and the ancestral haplogroup of J and T.

Origin

As of June 2009, the most recent study dates the origin of haplogroup R to 66.8kya (thousand years ago) with a 95% confidence interval of 52.6-81kya.[1]

South Asia lies on the way of earliest dispersals from Africa and is therefore a valuable well of knowledge on early human migration.[3] The analysis of the indigenous haplogroup R lineages in India points to a common first spread of the root haplotypes of M, N, and R along the southern route some 60–70 kya.[4]

Haplogroup R has wide diversity and antiquity among varied ethnic status and different language families in South Asia. In Indian western region among the castes and southern region among the tribes show higher haplogroup diversity than the other regions, possibly suggesting their autochthonous status.[5]

Distribution

R and its descendants are spread all over Eurasia, Oceania and the Americas. These descendants are specially common in Western Eurasia.[citation needed]

Subclades

Tree

This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup R subclades is based on the paper by Mannis van Oven and Manfred Kayser Updated comprehensive phylogenetic tree of global human mitochondrial DNA variation[2] and subsequent published research.

  • R
    • R0 (formerly pre-HV)
      • R0a
        • R0a1
        • R0a2
      • HV
        • HV0 (formerly pre-V)
          • HV0a
        • H
    • R1
      • R1a
        • R1a1
          • R1a1a
    • R2'JT
    • R5
      • R5a
        • R5a1
          • R5a1a
        • R5a2
          • R5a2a
          • R5a2b
            • R5a2b1
            • R5a2b2
            • R5a2b3
            • R5a2b4
    • R6'7
      • R6
        • R6a
          • R6a1
            • R6a1a
      • R7
        • R7a
          • R7a1
            • R7a1a
            • R7a1b
              • R7a1b1
              • R7a1b2
        • R7b
          • R7b1
            • R7b1a
    • R8
      • R8a
        • R8a1
          • R8a1a
            • R8a1a1
            • R8a1a2
            • R8a1a3
          • R8a1b
        • R8a2
      • R8b
        • R8b1
        • R8b2
    • (16304)
      • R9
        • R9b
          • R9b1
          • R9b2
        • R9c
        • F
        • R22
    • R11'B (16189)
      • R11
        • R11a
      • B
      • R24
    • R12'21
      • R12
      • R21
    • R14
    • R23
    • R30
      • R30a
      • R30b
        • R30b1
    • R31
      • R31a
        • R31a1
      • R31b
    • P
    • U

References

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  16. Figure 4. Isofrequency map of mtDNA haplogroup R8 in Thangaraj, Kumarasamy; Nandan, Amrita; Sharma, Vishwas; Sharma, Varun Kumar; Eaaswarkhanth, Muthukrishnan; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Singh, Sandhya; Rekha, Sashi; Dua, Monika; et al. (2009). Ahmed, Niyaz (ed.). "Deep Rooting In-Situ Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup R8 in South Asia". PLoS ONE. 4 (8): e6545. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.6545T. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006545. PMC 2718812. PMID 19662095.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M   N  
CZ D E G Q   O A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T

External links