The Harlem Renaissance was a movement that spanned the 1920s. The Harlem Renaissance was the name given to the cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York. During the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement," named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke. The Movement also included the new African-American cultural expressions across the urban areas in the Northeast and Midwest United States affected by the Great Migration (African American), of which Harlem was the largest. The Harlem Renaissance was considered to be a rebirth of African American arts. Though it was centered in the Harlem neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, in addition, many francophone black writers from African and Caribbean colonies who lived in Paris were also influenced by the Harlem Renaissance.
The Harlem Renaissance is generally considered to have spanned from about 1918 until the mid-1930s. Many of its ideas lived on much longer. The zenith of this "flowering of Negro literature", as James Weldon Johnson preferred to call the Harlem Renaissance, took place between 1924 (when Opportunity: A Journal of Negro Life hosted a party for black writers where many white publishers were in attendance) and 1929 (the year of the stock market crash and the beginning of the Great Depression).
- 1 Background
- 2 Development
- 3 Characteristics and themes
- 4 Influence
- 5 Notable figures and their works
- 6 Popular entertainment venues
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes and references
- 9 External links
Until the end of the Civil War, the majority of African Americans had been enslaved and lived in the South. After the end of slavery, the emancipated African Americans, freedmen, began to strive for civic participation, political equality and economic and cultural self-determination. Soon after the end of the Civil War the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 gave rise to speeches by African-American Congressmen addressing this Bill. By 1875 sixteen blacks had been elected and served in Congress and gave numerous speeches with their newfound civil empowerment. The Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 was renounced by black Congressmen and resulted in the passage of Civil Rights Act of 1875, part of Reconstruction legislation by Republicans. By the late 1870s, Democratic whites managed to regain power in the South. From 1890 to 1908 they proceeded to pass legislation that disenfranchised most Negros and many poor whites, trapping them without representation. They established white supremacist regimes of Jim Crow segregation in the South and one-party block voting behind southern Democrats. The Democratic whites denied African Americans their exercise of civil and political rights by terrorizing black communities with lynch mobs and other forms of vigilante violence as well as by instituting a convict labor system that forced many thousands of African Americans back into unpaid labor in mines, on plantations, and on public works projects such as roads and levees. Convict laborers were typically subject to brutal forms of corporal punishment, overwork, and disease from unsanitary conditions. Death rates were extraordinarily high. While a small number of blacks were able to acquire land shortly after the Civil War, most were exploited as sharecroppers. As life in the South became increasingly difficult, African Americans began to migrate north in great numbers.
Most of the African-American literary movement arose from a generation that had lived through the gains and losses of Reconstruction after the American Civil War. Sometimes their parents or grandparents had been slaves. Their ancestors had sometimes benefited by paternal investment in cultural capital, including better-than-average education. Many in the Harlem Renaissance were part of the Great Migration out of the South into the Negro neighborhoods of the North and Midwest. African Americans sought a better standard of living and relief from the institutionalized racism in the South. Others were people of African descent from racially stratified communities in the Caribbean who came to the United States hoping for a better life. Uniting most of them was their convergence in Harlem.
During the early portion of the 20th century, Harlem was the destination for immigrants from around the country, attracting both people seeking work from the South, and an educated class who made the area a center of culture, as well as a growing "Negro" middle class. The district had originally been developed in the 19th century as an exclusive suburb for the white middle and upper middle classes; its affluent beginnings led to the development of stately houses, grand avenues, and world-class amenities such as the Polo Grounds and the Harlem Opera House. During the enormous influx of European immigrants in the late 19th century, the once exclusive district was abandoned by the white middle class, who moved further north.
Harlem became an African-American neighborhood in the early 1900s. In 1910, a large block along 135th Street and Fifth Avenue was bought by various African-American realtors and a church group. Many more African–Americans arrived during the First World War. Due to the war, the migration of laborers from Europe virtually ceased, while the war effort resulted in a massive demand for unskilled industrial labor. The Great Migration brought hundreds of thousands of African Americans to cities such as Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, and New York.
Despite the increasing popularity of Negro culture, virulent white racism, often by more recent ethnic immigrants, continued to affect African-American communities, even in the North. After the end of World War I, many African-American soldiers—who fought in segregated units such as the Harlem Hellfighters—came home to a nation whose citizens often did not respect their accomplishments. Race riots and other civil uprisings occurred throughout the US during the Red Summer of 1919, reflecting economic competition over jobs and housing in many cities, as well as tensions over social territories.
Mainstream recognition of Harlem culture
The first stage of the Harlem Renaissance started in the late 1910s. In 1917, the premiere of Three Plays for a Negro Theatre took place. These plays, written by white playwright Ridgely Torrence, featured African-American actors conveying complex human emotions and yearnings. They rejected the stereotypes of the blackface and minstrel show traditions. James Weldon Johnson in 1917 called the premieres of these plays "the most important single event in the entire history of the Negro in the American Theater". Another landmark came in 1919, when the poet Claude McKay published his militant sonnet, "If We Must Die," which introduced a dramatically political dimension to the themes of African cultural inheritance and modern urban experience featured in his 1917 poems "Invocation" and "Harlem Dancer" (published under the pseudonym Eli Edwards, these were his first appearance in print in the United States after immigrating from Jamaica). Although "If We Must Die" never alluded to race, African-American readers heard its note of defiance in the face of racism and the nationwide race riots and lynchings then taking place. By the end of the First World War, the fiction of James Weldon Johnson and the poetry of Claude McKay were describing the reality of contemporary African-American life in America.
In 1917 Hubert Harrison, "The Father of Harlem Radicalism", founded the Liberty League and The Voice, the first organization and the first newspaper, respectively, of the "New Negro Movement". Harrison's organization and newspaper were political, but also emphasized the arts (his newspaper had "Poetry for the People" and book review sections). In 1927, in the Pittsburgh Courier, Harrison challenged the notion of the renaissance. He argued that the "Negro Literary Renaissance" notion overlooked "the stream of literary and artistic products which had flowed uninterruptedly from Negro writers from 1850 to the present", and said the so-called "renaissance" was largely a white invention.
The Harlem Renaissance grew out of the changes that had taken place in the African-American community since the abolition of slavery, as the expansion of communities in the North. These accelerated as a consequence of World War I and the great social and cultural changes in early 20th-century United States. Industrialization was attracting people to cities from rural areas and gave rise to a new mass culture. Contributing factors leading to the Harlem Renaissance were the Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities, which concentrated ambitious people in places where they could encourage each other, and the First World War, which had created new industrial work opportunities for tens of thousands of people. Factors leading to the decline of this era include the Great Depression.
Christianity played a major role in the Harlem Renaissance. Many of the writers and social critics discussed the role of Christianity in African–American lives. For example, a famous poem by Langston Hughes, "Madam and the Minister", reflects the temperature and mood towards religion in the Harlem Renaissance. The cover story for the Crisis Magazine′s publication in May 1936 explains how important Christianity was regarding the proposed union of the three largest Methodist churches of 1936. This article shows the controversial question about the formation of a Union for these churches. The article "The Catholic Church and the Negro Priest", also published in the Crisis Magazine, January 1920, demonstrates the obstacles African–American priests faced in the Catholic Church. The article confronts what it saw as policies based on race that excluded African–Americans from higher positions in the church.
Various forms of religious worship existed during this time of African–American intellectual reawakening. Although there were racist attitudes within the current Abrahamic religious arenas many African–Americans continued to push towards the practice of a more inclusive doctrine. For example, George Joseph MacWilliam presents various experiences, during his pursuit towards priesthood, of rejection on the basis of his color and race yet he shares his frustration in attempts to incite action on part of The Crisis Magazine community.
There were other forms of spiritualism practiced among African–Americans during the Harlem Renaissance. Some of these religions and philosophies were inherited from African ancestry.
For example, the religion of Islam was present in Africa as early as the 8th century through the Trans-Saharan trade. Islam came to Harlem likely through the migration of members of the Moorish Science Temple of America, which was established in 1913 in New Jersey.
Various forms of Judaism were practiced, including Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism, but it was Black Hebrew Israelites that founded their religious belief system during the late 20th century in the Harlem Renaissance.
Religious critique during this era was found in literature, art, and poetry. The Harlem Renaissance encouraged analytic dialogue that included the open critique and the adjustment of current religious ideas.
One of the major contributors to the discussion of African–American renaissance culture was Aaron Douglas who, with his artwork, also reflected the revisions African Americans were making to the Christian dogma. Douglas uses biblical imagery as inspiration to various pieces of art work but with the rebellious twist of an African influence.
Countee Cullen’s poem "Heritage" expresses the inner struggle of an African American between his past African heritage and the new Christian culture. A more severe criticism of the Christian religion can be found in Langston Hughes’ poem "Merry Christmas", where he exposes the irony of religion as a symbol for good and yet a force for oppression and injustice. [check quotation syntax]
A new way of playing the piano called the Harlem Stride style was created during the Harlem Renaissance, and helped blur the lines between the poor Negroes and socially elite Negroes. The traditional jazz band was composed primarily of brass instruments and was considered a symbol of the south, but the piano was considered an instrument of the wealthy. With this instrumental modification to the existing genre, the wealthy blacks now had more access to jazz music. Its popularity soon spread throughout the country and was consequently at an all-time high. Innovation and liveliness were important characteristics of performers in the beginnings of jazz. Jazz musicians at the time such as Fats Waller, Duke Ellington, Jelly Roll Morton, and Willie "The Lion" Smith were very talented and competitive, and were considered to have laid the foundation for future musicians of their genre. Duke Ellington gained popularity during the Harlem Renaissance. According to Charles Garrett, "The resulting portrait of Ellington reveals him to be not only the gifted composer, bandleader, and musician we have come to know, but also an earthly person with basic desires, weaknesses, and eccentricities." Ellington didn't let his popularity get to him. He remained calm and focused on his music.
During this period, the musical style of blacks was becoming more and more attractive to whites. White novelists, dramatists and composers started to exploit the musical tendencies and themes of African–Americans in their works. Composers used poems written by African-American poets in their songs, and would implement the rhythms, harmonies and melodies of African-American music—such as blues, spirituals, and jazz—into their concert pieces. Negroes began to merge with Whites into the classical world of musical composition. The first Negro male to gain wide recognition as a concert artist in both his region and internationally was Roland Hayes. He trained with Arthur Calhoun in Chattanooga, and at Fisk University in Nashville. Later, he studied with Arthur Hubbard in Boston and with George Henschel and Amanda Ira Aldridge in London, England. He began singing in public as a student, and toured with the Fisk Jubilee Singers in 1911.
During the Harlem Renaissance, Black America’s clothing scene took a dramatic turn from the prim and proper. Many young women preferred extreme versions of current white fashions - from short skirts and silk stockings to drop-waisted dresses and cloche hats. The extraordinarily successful black dancer Josephine Baker, though performing in Paris during the height of the Renaissance, was a major fashion trendsetter for black and white women alike. Her gowns from the couturier Jean Patou were much copied, especially her stage costumes, which Vogue magazine called "startling." Popular by the 1930s was a trendy, egret-trimmed beret. Men wore loose suits that led to the later style known as the "Zoot," which consisted of wide-legged, high-waisted, peg-top trousers, and a long coat with padded shoulders and wide lapels. Men also wore wide-brimmed hats, colored socks, white gloves, and velvet-collared Chesterfield coats. During this period, African Americans expressed respect for their heritage through a fad for leopard-skin coats, indicating the power of the African animal.
Characteristics and themes
Characterizing the Harlem Renaissance was an overt racial pride that came to be represented in the idea of the New Negro, who through intellect and production of literature, art, and music could challenge the pervading racism and stereotypes to promote progressive or socialist politics, and racial and social integration. The creation of art and literature would serve to "uplift" the race.
There would be no uniting form singularly characterizing the art that emerged from the Harlem Renaissance. Rather, it encompassed a wide variety of cultural elements and styles, including a Pan-African perspective, "high-culture" and "low-culture" or "low-life," from the traditional form of music to the blues and jazz, traditional and new experimental forms in literature such as modernism and the new form of jazz poetry. This duality meant that numerous African-American artists came into conflict with conservatives in the black intelligentsia, who took issue with certain depictions of black life.
Some common themes represented during the Harlem Renaissance were the influence of the experience of slavery and emerging African-American folk traditions on black identity, the effects of institutional racism, the dilemmas inherent in performing and writing for elite white audiences, and the question of how to convey the experience of modern black life in the urban North.
The Harlem Renaissance was one of primarily African-American involvement. It rested on a support system of black patrons, black-owned businesses and publications. However, it also depended on the patronage of white Americans, such as Carl Van Vechten and Charlotte Osgood Mason, who provided various forms of assistance, opening doors which otherwise would have remained closed to the publication of work outside the black American community. This support often took the form of patronage or publication. Carl Van Vechten was one of the most notorious white Americans involved with the Harlem Renaissance. He allowed for assistance to the black American community because he wanted racial sameness.
There were other whites interested in so-called "primitive" cultures, as many whites viewed black American culture at that time, and wanted to see such "primitivism" in the work coming out of the Harlem Renaissance. As with most fads, some people may have been exploited in the rush for publicity.
Interest in African-American lives also generated experimental but lasting collaborative work, such as the all-black productions of George Gershwin's opera Porgy and Bess, and Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein's Four Saints in Three Acts. In both productions the choral conductor Eva Jessye was part of the creative team. Her choir was featured in Four Saints. The music world also found white band leaders defying racist attitudes to include the best and the brightest African-American stars of music and song in their productions.
The African Americans used art to prove their humanity and demand for equality. The Harlem Renaissance led to more opportunities for blacks to be published by mainstream houses. Many authors began to publish novels, magazines and newspapers during this time. The new fiction attracted a great amount of attention from the nation at large. Among authors who became nationally known were Jean Toomer, Jessie Fauset, Claude McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, James Weldon Johnson, Alain Locke, Omar Al Amiri, Eric D. Walrond and Langston Hughes.
The Harlem Renaissance helped lay the foundation for the post-World War II phase of the Civil Rights Movement. Moreover, many black artists who rose to creative maturity afterward were inspired by this literary movement.
The Renaissance was more than a literary or artistic movement, as it possessed a certain sociological development—particularly through a new racial consciousness—through ethnic pride, as seen in the Back to Africa movement led by Marcus Garvey. At the same time, a different expression of ethnic pride, promoted by W. E. B. Du Bois, introduced the notion of the "talented tenth": those Negroes who were fortunate enough to inherit money or property or obtain a college degree during the transition from Reconstruction to the Jim Crow period of the early twentieth century. These "talented tenth" were considered the finest examples of the worth of black Americans as a response to the rampant racism of the period. (No particular leadership was assigned to the talented tenth, but they were to be emulated.) In both literature and popular discussion, complex ideas such as Du Bois's concept of "twoness" (dualism) were introduced (seeThe Souls of Black Folk; 1903). Du Bois explored a divided awareness of one's identity that was a unique critique of the social ramifications of racial consciousness. This exploration was later revived during the Black Pride movement of the early 1970s.
A New Black Identity
The Harlem Renaissance was successful in that it brought the Black experience clearly within the corpus of American cultural history. Not only through an explosion of culture, but on a sociological level, the legacy of the Harlem Renaissance redefined how America, and the world, viewed African–Americans. The migration of southern Blacks to the north changed the image of the African–American from rural, undereducated peasants to one of urban, cosmopolitan sophistication. This new identity led to a greater social consciousness, and African–Americans became players on the world stage, expanding intellectual and social contacts internationally.
The progress—both symbolic and real—during this period became a point of reference from which the African-American community gained a spirit of self-determination that provided a growing sense of both Black urbanity and Black militancy, as well as a foundation for the community to build upon for the Civil Rights struggles in the 1950s and 1960s.
The urban setting of rapidly developing Harlem provided a venue for African Americans of all backgrounds to appreciate the variety of Black life and culture. Through this expression, the Harlem Renaissance encouraged the new appreciation of folk roots and culture. For instance, folk materials and spirituals provided a rich source for the artistic and intellectual imagination, which freed Blacks from the establishment of past condition. Through sharing in these cultural experiences, a consciousness sprung forth in the form of a united racial identity.
Criticism of the movement
Many critics point out that the Harlem Renaissance could not escape its history and culture in its attempt to create a new one, or sufficiently separate from the foundational elements of White, European culture. Often Harlem intellectuals, while proclaiming a new racial consciousness, resorted to mimicry of their white counterparts by adopting their clothing, sophisticated manners and etiquette. This "mimicry" may also be called assimilation, as that is typically what minority members of any social construct must do in order to fit social norms created by that construct's majority. This could be seen as a reason that the artistic and cultural products of the Harlem Renaissance did not overcome the presence of White-American values, and did not reject these values. In this regard, the creation of the "New Negro" as the Harlem intellectuals sought, was considered a success.
The Harlem Renaissance appealed to a mixed audience. The literature appealed to the African-American middle class and to whites. Magazines such as The Crisis, a monthly journal of the NAACP, and Opportunity, an official publication of the National Urban League, employed Harlem Renaissance writers on their editorial staffs; published poetry and short stories by black writers; and promoted African-American literature through articles, reviews, and annual literary prizes. As important as these literary outlets were, however, the Renaissance relied heavily on white publishing houses and white-owned magazines. A major accomplishment of the Renaissance was to open the door to mainstream white periodicals and publishing houses, although the relationship between the Renaissance writers and white publishers and audiences created some controversy. W. E. B. Du Bois did not oppose the relationship between black writers and white publishers, but he was critical of works such as Claude McKay's bestselling novel Home to Harlem (1928) for appealing to the "prurient demand[s]" of white readers and publishers for portrayals of black "licentiousness". Langston Hughes spoke for most of the writers and artists when he wrote in his essay "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (1926) that black artists intended to express themselves freely, no matter what the black public or white public thought. In Langston Hughes' writings, he also returned to the theme of racial passing, but during the Harlem Renaissance, he began to explore the topic of homosexuality and homophobia. He began to use disruptive language in his writings. He explored this topic because it was a theme that during this time period was not discussed.
African-American musicians and other performers also played to mixed audiences. Harlem's cabarets and clubs attracted both Harlem residents and white New Yorkers seeking out Harlem nightlife. Harlem's famous Cotton Club, where Duke Ellington performed, carried this to an extreme, by providing black entertainment for exclusively white audiences. Ultimately, the more successful black musicians and entertainers who appealed to a mainstream audience moved their performances downtown.
Certain aspects of the Harlem Renaissance were accepted without debate, and without scrutiny. One of these was the future of the "New Negro". Artists and intellectuals of the Harlem Renaissance echoed American progressivism in its faith in democratic reform, in its belief in art and literature as agents of change, and in its almost uncritical belief in itself and its future. This progressivist worldview rendered Black intellectuals—just like their White counterparts—unprepared for the rude shock of the Great Depression, and the Harlem Renaissance ended abruptly because of naive assumptions about the centrality of culture, unrelated to economic and social realities.
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Notable figures and their works
Dancers, choreographers, entertainers
- Josephine Baker
- Buddy Bradley (choreographer)
- Billy Pierce (choreographer)
- Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson
- The Nicholas Brothers
- Leonard Harper (producer)
- William Stanley Braithwaite
- Cyril Briggs
- Marion Vera Cuthbert
- Hubert Thomas Delany
- W. E. B. Du Bois
- Marcus Garvey
- L.S. Alexander Gumby, archivist and salon host
- Hubert Harrison
- Leslie Pinckney Hill
- Langston Hughes
- James Weldon Johnson
- Charles Spurgeon Johnson
- Alain Locke
- Mary White Ovington
- Chandler Owen
- A. Philip Randolph
- Joel Augustus Rogers
- Arthur Schomburg
- Carl Van Vechten
- Walter Francis White
- Lewis Grandison Alexander
- Gwendolyn Bennett
- Arna Bontemps
- Sterling A. Brown
- Joseph Seamon Cotter, Jr.
- Mae V. Cowdery
- Countee Cullen – The Black Christ and Other Poems (1929)
- Clarissa Scott Delany
- Alice Dunbar-Nelson
- Jessie Redmon Fauset
- Angelina Weld Grimke
- Robert Hayden
- Gladys May Casely Hayford
- Langston Hughes
- Georgia Douglas Johnson
- Helene Johnson
- James Weldon Johnson – God's Trombones
- Claude McKay
- May Miller
- Effie Lee Newsome
- Richard Bruce Nugent
- Esther Popel
- Anne Spencer
- Jean Toomer
- Lucy Ariel Williams
- Kathleen Tankersley Young
- Joseph Seamon Cotter, Jr., author of the play On the Fields of France.
- Charles Gilpin, actor
- Angelina Weld Grimke, author of the drama Rachel
- Langston Hughes, Mulatto, produced on Broadway. Hughes also helped to found the Harlem Suitcase Theater
- Zora Neale Hurston, author of the play Color Struck
- Georgia Douglas Johnson, author of the play, Plumes, A Tragedy.
- Richard Bruce Nugent, author of the play Sahdji, an African Ballet
- Paul Robeson, actor
- Eulalie Spence, author of the play Undertow
- Krigwa Players, popular Harlem theatre group.
- Thomas Montgomery Gregory, supporter of Negro Theatre Movement.
- Arna Bontemps — God Sends Sunday (1931), Black Thunder (1936)
- Countee Cullen — One Way to Heaven (1932)
- Jessie Redmon Fauset — There is Confusion (1924), Plum Bun (1928), The Chinaberry Tree (1931), Comedy, American Style (1933)
- Rudolph Fisher — The Walls of Jericho (1928), The Conjure-Man Dies (1932)
- Langston Hughes — Not Without Laughter (1930)
- Zora Neale Hurston — Jonah's Gourd Vine (1934), Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937)
- Nella Larsen — Quicksand (1928), Passing (1929)
- Claude McKay — Home to Harlem (1927), Banjo (1929), Gingertown (1931), Banana Bottom (1933)
- George Schuyler — Black No More (1931), Slaves Today (1931)
- Wallace Thurman — The Blacker the Berry (1929), Infants of the Spring (1932), Interne (1932)
- Jean Toomer — Cane (1923)
- Carl Van Vechten — Nigger Heaven (1926)
- Walter White — The Fire in the Flint (1924), Flight (1926)
Short story collections
- Eric Walrond — Tropic Death (1926)
Musicians and composers
- Marian Anderson
- Louis Armstrong
- Ivie Anderson
- Count Basie
- Gladys Bentley
- Eubie Blake
- Lucille Bogan
- Cab Calloway
- The King Cole Trio
- The Chocolate Dandies
- The Dandridge Sisters and Dorothy Dandridge
- Duke Ellington
- Ella Fitzgerald
- Dizzy Gillespie
- Adelaide Hall
- Roland Hayes
- Fletcher Henderson
- Earl "Fatha" Hines
- Billie Holiday
- Lena Horne
- James P. Johnson
- Lonnie Johnson
- Moms Mabley
- Pigmeat Markham
- The Will Mastin Trio
- McKinney's Cotton Pickers
- Nina Mae McKinney
- Florence Mills
- Thelonious Monk
- Mantan Moreland
- Jelly Roll Morton
- Ma Rainey
- Nora Douglas Holt Ray
- Cecil Scott
- Noble Sissle
- Bessie Smith
- Mamie Smith
- Victoria Spivey
- William Grant Still
- Billy Strayhorn
- Fats Waller
- Ethel Waters
- Chick Webb
- Bert Williams
- Fess Williams
Popular entertainment venues
- Apollo Theater
- Black Swan Records
- Connie's Inn
- Cotton Club
- Harlem Globetrotters
- Lafayette Theatre (Harlem)
- Lenox Lounge
- Rent parties
- Savoy Ballroom
- African American art
- Blackbirds of 1928
- List of African-American visual artists
- African American culture
- African American literature
- Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance (book)
- New Negro
- Roaring Twenties
- Shuffle Along
- William E. Harmon Foundation award
Notes and references
- "NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom", Library of Congress.
- Project MUSE - Modernism, Mass Culture, and the Harlem Renaissance: The Case of Countee Cullen." Project MUSE - Modernism, Mass Culture, and the Harlem Renaissance: The Case of Countee Cullen. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2015.
- "Harlem in the Jazz Age", New York Times, February 8, 1987.
- Holland Cotter, "ART; A 1920's Flowering That Didn't Disappear", New York Times, May 24, 1998.
- Danica Kirka, Jcu.edu
- "Los Angeles Times Interview : Dorothy West : A Voice of Harlem Renaissance Talks of Past--But Values the Now", Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1995.
- George Hutchinson, "Harlem Renaissance", Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Woods, Clyde (1998). Development Arrested. New York and London: Verso.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Blackmon, Douglas A. (2009). Slavery By Another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. Anchor.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Foner, Eric (1988). Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. Harper Collins.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- The Norton Anthology of African American Literature, New York: Norton, 1997, p. 931.
- McKay, Claude. "Invocation" and "Harlem Dancer," in The Seven Arts 2.6 (October 1917): 741-742. Original page scan available in public domain through The Modernist Journals Project.
- Hughes, Langston (1994). The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Vintage Classics. p. 307.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Williams, Robert; Carrington, Charles (May 1936). "Methodist Union and The Negro". Crisis. 43 (5): 134–135.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mac Williams, George (January 1920). "The Catholic Church and the Negro Priest". Crisis Magazine. 19 (3): 122.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- George Joseph, MacWilliam. "The Catholic Church and the Negro Priest". Crisis. Retrieved 21 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Rampersad, Arnold (Introduction) (1997). Alain Locke, ed. The New Negro: Voices of the Harlem Renaissance (1st Touchstone ed.). New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684838311.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Cullen, Countee. "Heritage". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 19 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Hughes, Langston. "Merry Christmas". Humanities and Social Sciences Net. New Masses. Retrieved 19 December 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Boland, Jesse. "Harlem Renaissance Music." 1920s Fashion and Music. Web. 23 November 2009.
- "Project MUSE - Modernism, Mass Culture, and the Harlem Renaissance: The Case of Countee Cullen." Project MUSE - Modernism, Mass Culture, and the Harlem Renaissance: The Case of Countee Cullen. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2015.
- Southern, Eileen, Music of Negro Americans: a history. New York: Norton, 1997. Print, pp. 404, 405 and 409.
- West, Aberjhani and Sandra L. (2003). Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. pp. 105-106; Vogue, 15 February 1926, p. 76
- Etherington-Smith, Meredith (1983), Patou, p. 83; Vogue, 1 June 1927, p. 51.
- White, Shane and Graham (1998). Stylin’: African American Expressive Culture from Its Beginnings to the Zoot Suit, pp. 248-251.
- "Eva Jessye", University of Michigan, accessed 4 December 2008
- It was possible for blacks to have intellectual discussions on whether black people had a future in America, and the Harlem Renaissance reflected such sociopolitical concerns.
- Irving, Shae (2008), Nolo's Encyclopedia of Everyday Law: answers to your most frequently asked legal questions (7 ed.), Nolo, p. 68, ISBN 978-1-4133-0560-9<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Aptheker, H. ed. (1997), The Correspondence of WEB Dubois: Selections, 1877–1934, Vol. 1, pp. 374–5
- "Project MUSE - Multiple Passings and the Double Death of Langston Hughes." Project MUSE - Multiple Passings and the Double Death of Langston Hughes. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Apr. 2015.
- Amos, Shawn, compiler. Rhapsodies in Black: Words and Music of the Harlem Renaissance. Los Angeles: Rhino Records, 2000. 4 Compact Discs.
- Andrews, William L.; Frances S. Foster; Trudier Harris, eds. The Concise Oxford Companion To African American Literature. New York: Oxford Press, 2001. ISBN 1-4028-9296-9
- Bean, Annemarie. A Sourcebook on African-American Performance: Plays, People, Movements. London: Routledge, 1999; pp. vii + 360.
- Greaves, William documentary From These Roots.
- Hicklin, Fannie Ella Frazier. 'The American Negro Playwright, 1920–1964.' Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Speech, University of Wisconsin, 1965. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms 65-6217.
- Huggins, Nathan. Harlem Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. ISBN 0-19-501665-3
- Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea. New York: Knopf, 1940.
- Hutchinson, George. The Harlem Renaissance in Black and White. New York: Belknap Press, 1997. ISBN 0-674-37263-8
- Lewis, David Levering, ed. The Portable Harlem Renaissance Reader. New York: Viking Penguin, 1995. ISBN 0-14-017036-7
- Lewis, David Levering. When Harlem Was in Vogue. New York: Penguin, 1997. ISBN 0-14-026334-9
- Ostrom, Hans. A Langston Hughes Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002.
- Ostrom, Hans and J. David Macey, eds. The Greenwood Encylclopedia of African American Literature. 5 volumes. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2005.
- Patton, Venetria K. and Maureen Honey, eds. Double-Take: A Revisionist Harlem Renaissance Anthology. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2006.
- Perry, Jeffrey B. A Hubert Harrison Reader. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
- Perry, Jeffrey B. Hubert Harrison: The Voice of Harlem Radicalism, 1883–1918. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.
- Powell, Richard, and David A. Bailey, eds. Rhapsodies in Black: Art of the Harlem Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997.
- Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2 volumes. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986 and 1988.
- Robertson, Stephen, et al., "Disorderly Houses: Residences, Privacy, and the Surveillance of Sexuality in 1920s Harlem," Journal of the History of Sexuality, 21 (September 2012), 443–66.
- Soto, Michael, ed. Teaching The Harlem Renaissance. New York: Peter Lang, 2008.
- Tracy, Steven C. Langston Hughes and the Blues. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988.
- Watson, Steven. The Harlem Renaissance: Hub of African-American Culture, 1920–1930. New York: Pantheon Books, 1995. ISBN 0-679-75889-5
- Williams, Iain Cameron. "Underneath a Harlem Moon ... The Harlem to Paris Years of Adelaide Hall". Continuum Int. Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0826458939
- Wintz, Cary D. Black Culture and the Harlem Renaissance. Houston: Rice University Press, 1988.
- Wintz, Cary D. Harlem Speaks: A Living History of the Harlem Renaissance. Naperville, Illinois: Sourcebooks, Inc., 2007
- Padva, Gilad. "Black Nostalgia: Poetry, Ethnicity, and Homoeroticism in Looking for Langston and Brother to Brother". In Padva, Gilad, Queer Nostalgia in Cinema and Pop Culture, pp. 199–226. Basingstock, UK, and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, ISBN 978-1-137-26633-0.
- "A Guide to Harlem Renaissance Materials", from the Library of Congress
- Bryan Carter (ed.). "Virtual Harlem". University of Illinois at Chicago, Electronic Visualization Laboratory.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "The Approaching 100th Anniversary of the Harlem Renaissance", by HR historian Aberjhani