Hayabusa 2

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Hayabusa 2
Hayabusa probe
Computer model of Hayabusa 2 rendezvous with asteroid Ryugu
Mission type Asteroid sample return
Operator JAXA
COSPAR ID 2014-076A
SATCAT № 40319
Website Hayabusa 2 on jaxa.jp
Spacecraft properties
Manufacturer NEC[1]
Launch mass Total: 590 kg (1,300 lb)
MASCOT: 10 kg (22 lb)
MINERVA: 0.5 kg (1.1 lb)
Dimensions 2 × 1.6 × 1.25 m (6.6 × 5.2 × 4.1 ft)
Start of mission
Launch date 3 December 2014, 04:22 UTC (2014-12-03UTC04:22Z)[2]
Rocket H-IIA 202
Launch site LA-Y, Tanegashima Space Center
End of mission
Landing date December 2020 (planned)
Flyby of Earth
Closest approach 3 December 2015
Distance 3,090 km (1,920 mi)[3]
(162173) Ryugu orbiter
Orbital insertion June 2018 (planned)
Departed orbit December 2019 (planned)
← Hayabusa

Hayabusa 2 is an asteroid sample return mission operated by the Japanese space agency, JAXA. It follows on from Hayabusa and addresses weak points learned from that mission.[4]

Mission overview

Initially, launch was planned for 30 November 2014 (13:23 local time),[5][6][7] but was delayed to 3 December 2014 04:22 UTC (4 December 2014 13:22:04 local time).[8]

The target is asteroid 162173 Ryugu (formerly designated 1999 JU3). Hayabusa 2 is expected to arrive at the target in July 2018, survey the asteroid for a year and a half, depart in December 2019, and return to Earth in December 2020.[7]

The spacecraft features ion engines, upgraded guidance and navigation technology, antennas and attitude control systems.[9] Operations at the asteroid will be similar[clarification needed] to those of the previous Hayabusa, but with an explosive device to dig the asteroid surface for fresh sample material.[7]

Funding and international cooperation

Hayabusa 2 was approved by the Space Activities Commission, a board governing funding for the Japanese space program, during 2006 and was announced in a new year interview with JAXA president Keji Tachikawa.[10]

In July 2009, at the 27th ISTS (International Symposium on Space Technology and Science) conference in Japan, presentations were given that elaborated upon the most recent Hayabusa 2 mission concept. Makoto Yoshikawa of JAXA presented a paper entitled "Hayabusa Follow-on Asteroid Sample Return Missions." Dr. Yoshikawa stated that JAXA has a new proposal for Hayabusa 2, namely that the mission have two spacecraft with one specifically being an impactor.[citation needed]

In August 2010, JAXA got the go-ahead from the Japanese government to begin development of Hayabusa 2. The estimated cost of the project is 16.4 billion yen.[11][12]

NEC Corp. of Tokyo announced in January 2012 that it was beginning system design of the 590 kg (1,300-pound) spacecraft, its Ka-band communications system and an intermediate infrared camera. NEC was the builder of the Hayabusa probe.[13]


The German Aerospace Center built a small lander called MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout) for the mission in a cooperation with the French space agency CNES.[14] The MASCOT carries an infrared spectrometer, a magnetometer, a radiometer and a camera, and is capable of lifting off of the asteroid to reposition itself for further measurements.[15]

The Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI) is a small drop-off explosively formed penetrator, consisting of a 2.5 kilogram (5.5 lb) copper projectile and a 4.5 kilogram (10 lb) shaped charge.[15] It will be dropped off Hayabusa 2; the low gravity leaves the spacecraft enough time to maneuver to the opposite side of the asteroid. A second instrument will then be deployed, the deployable camera (DCAM3). This camera will observe the explosion of the Small Carry-on Impactor instrument. The explosion will form a copper penetrator hitting the asteroid with a velocity of 2 km/s. The crater created by the impact will be the site of further observations by the onboard instruments.[16] The shaped charge will consist of 4.5 kg of plasticized HMX and a 2.5 kg copper liner.[17]


  1. JAXA Launches Hayabusa 2 Asteroid Probe: NEC conducts manufacturing and testing as probe system coordinator
  2. Launch of "Hayabusa2" by H-IIA Launch Vehicle No. 26
  3. http://global.jaxa.jp/press/2015/12/20151214_hayabusa2.html
  4. Wendy Zukerman (18 August 2010). "Hayabusa 2 will seek the origins of life in space". New Scientist. Retrieved 17 November 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. JAXA Report on Hayabusa-2, May 21st, 2014
  6. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Makoto Yoshikawa (6 January 2011). 小惑星探査ミッション「はやぶさ2」 (PDF). 11th Symposium on Space Science (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 February 2011. Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (help) <templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Clark, Stephen (2014-12-03). "Hayabusa 2 launches on audacious asteroid adventure". spaceflightnow. Retrieved 3 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. Japan's next asteroid probe approved for development
  10. Keiji Tachikawa. The President's New Year Interview, 2007
  11. Zukerman, Wendy (18 August 2010). "Hayabusa 2 will seek the origins of life in space". New Scientist. Retrieved 17 November 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Asteroid probe, rocket get nod from Japanese panel". Spaceflight Now. 11 August 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Japan's next asteroid probe approved for development". Spaceflight Now. 29 January 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. DLR Asteroid Lander MASCOT
  15. 15.0 15.1 Graham, William (December 2, 2014). "Japanese H-IIA kicks off Hayabusa 2's asteroid mission". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 4 December 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Small Carry-on Impactor (SCI): Its scientific purpose, operation, and observation plan in Hayabysa-2 mission
  17. Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).

See also

External links