Heinrich Pesch

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Heinrich Pesch
Heinrich Pesch.jpg
Heinrich Pesch, S. J.
Born (1854-09-17)17 September 1854
Cologne, German Confederation
Died 1 April 1926(1926-04-01) (aged 71)
Valkenburg, Netherlands
Influences Rerum novarum
Influenced Oswald von Nell-Breuning, Gustav Gundlach, Goetz Briefs, Franz Müller

Heinrich Pesch, S.J. (17 September 1854 – 1 April 1926) was a German Roman Catholic ethicist and economist of the Solidarist school.[1][2][3] His major work, Lehrbuch der Nationalökonomie,[nb 1] is generally regarded as a source for Pope Pius XI's social encyclical Quadragesimo anno.[4][5][6]


Pesch was born in Cologne in 1854. After studying law at Bonn under Erwin Nasse, Pesch entered the Society of Jesus in 1876. He made his novitiate with exiled German Jesuits in the Netherlands. For his studies of philosophy (1878-1881) Pesch was sent to Bleijenbeek, also in the Netherlands. He completed his theological studies at Ditton Hall (1884-1888). While in England Pesch lectured for a few years at the Stella Matutina school. He was ordained priest in 1888.

From 1892 until 1900 Pesch was spiritual director at the Mainz seminary, where he wrote his first book Liberalism, Socialism and Christian Order. Through lectures of the publicist Rudolf Meyer Pesch became acquainted with the teachings of Marx and Rodbertus. After a renewed study of economics under Schmoller, Sering and Wagner in Berlin (1900-1902), Pesch moved to Luxembourg and worked on his major opus Lehrbuch der Nationalökonomie.

He died in Valkenburg, Holland, in 1926.


Major publications

Works in English translation

See also



  1. Shields, Leo W. (1941). The History and Meaning of the Term Social Justice. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press. p. 37. The monumental work of the German Jesuit Heinrich Pesch, Lehrbuch der Nationalökonomie, created an economic and social doctrine called solidarism. Pesch based his economic analysis on the bond, factual and moral, which unites the members of society with one another and the social whole, and the whole with its members. Since man is a being not merely social by nature, but whose actual existence is always in a concrete social environment, the abstract theories of individualism can neither explain nor guide society; on the other hand the socialist theories which tend toward denial and destruction of individual life make an equally unreal abstraction. Solidarism, a mean between these extremes, bases social unity on human nature and the common good. Since solidarism is a directive or ethical principle as well as an explicative principle it must be based on moral reality. The moral principle of social life is the common good. The basis of solidarism is the principle of the mutual rights and duties of society and its members. Pesch called this principle social justice.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>



Barron, Randall (1982), "Solidarism and Heinrich Pesch", Forum for Social Economics, XII (1): 4–18, doi:10.1007/BF02761629<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Briefs, Goetz (1959), "Heinrich Pesch", Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, 12, New York: The Macmillan Company, pp. 91–92<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Briefs, Goetz (1983), "Pesch and his Comtemporaries: Nationalokonomie Vs. Contemporary Economic Theories", Review of Social Economy, XLI (3): 235–45, doi:10.1080/00346768300000031<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Ederer, Rupert J. (1981a), "Solidarity, From Dogma to Economic System: Juan Donoso Cortes and Heinrich Pesch, S. J.", International Journal of Social Economics, VIII (5): 40–49, doi:10.1108/eb013890<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Ederer, Rupert J. (1981b), "Heinrich Pesch's Solidarism and Boris Ischboldin's Scientific Reformism", International Journal of Social Economics, VIII (7): 73–86, doi:10.1108/eb013907<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Ederer, Rupert J. (1991), "Heinrich Pesch, Solidarity, And Social Encyclicals", Review of Social Economy, XLIX (4): 596–610, doi:10.1080/00346769100000050<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Flubacher, Joseph F. (1950), The Concept of Ethics in the History of Economics, New York: Vintage Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Grosschmid, Geza B. (1954), "Pesch's Concept of the Living Wage in Quadragesimo Anno", Review of Social Economy, XII (2): 147–55, doi:10.1080/00346765400000028<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Harris, Abram L. (1946), "The Scholastic Revival: The Economics of Heinrich Pesch", Journal of Political Economy, LIV (1): 38–59, doi:10.1086/256309<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Koslowski, Peter (2000), "Solidarism, Capitalism, and Economic Ethics in Heinrich Pesch", The Theory of Capitalism in the German Economic Tradition, Berlin: Springer, pp. 371–96, ISBN 9783540666745<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Krason, Stephen M. (2009), "Principles of Heinrich Pesch's Solidarism", The Catholic Social Science Review, XIV: 477–83, doi:10.5840/cssr20091435<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Messner, Johannes (1976), "Fifty Years After the Death of Heinrich Pesch", Review of Social Economy, XXXIV (2): 117–23<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Montes, Guillermo (1997), "The Scope of Economics and Related Questions: The Peschian View", Catholic Social Science Review, II: 199–214, doi:10.5840/cssr1997221<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mueller, Franz H. (1941), Heinrich Pesch and his Theory of Christian Solidarism, St. Paul, Minn.: The College of St. Thomas<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mueller, Franz H. (1946), "The Principle of Solidarity in the Teachings of Father Henry Pesch, S.J.", Review of Social Economy, IV (1): 31–39, doi:10.1080/00346764600000005<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mueller, Franz H. (1951), "Rejecting Right and Left: Heinrich Pesch and Solidarism", Thought, XXVI (4): 485–500, doi:10.5840/thought1951/195226463<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mueller, Franz H. (1952), "The Peschian Value Paradox", Review of Social Economy, X (1): 72–75, doi:10.1080/00346765200000010<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mueller, Franz H. (1977a), "Social Economics: The Perspective of Pesch and Solidarism", Review of Social Economy, XXXV (3): 293–97, doi:10.1080/00346767700000036<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mueller, Franz H. (1977b), "Heinrich Pesch (1854–1926). Social Philosopher and Economist. The Currency of the Idea of Solidarism", Jahrbuch für christliche Sozialwissenschaften, XVIII: 181–204<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mueller, Franz H. (1984), "Heinrich Pesch, SJ, 1854–1926: Social Economist in a Cassock", International Journal of Social Economics, XI (5): 62–65, doi:10.1108/eb013972<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mulcahy, Richard E. (1949), "The Welfare Economics of Heinrich Pesch", The Quarterly Journal of Economics, LXIII (3): 342–60, doi:10.2307/1882259<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mulcahy, Richard E. (1952a), "The Peschian Value Paradox: A Key to the Function of Vocational Groups", Review of Social Economy, X (1): 32–41<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Mulcahy, Richard E. (1952b), The Economics of Heinrich Pesch, New York: Henry Holt & Co<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
O'Boyle, Edward J. (2002), "Contributions of German and American Jesuits to Economics: The Last 100 Years", Forum for Social Economics, XXXI (2): 25–43, doi:10.1007/BF02779058<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Riha, Tomas J. F. (1985), German Political Economy: The History of an Alternative Economics, Bradford, West Yorkshire: MCB University Press, ISBN 086176241X<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Rugina, Anghel N. (1983), "About the Doctrine of 'Solidarism' in Social Economics", International Journal of Social Economics, X (2): 62–71, doi:10.1108/eb013934<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Schumpeter, Joseph A. (1954), History of Economic Analysis, New York: Oxford University Press<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Schuyler, Joseph B. (1953), "Heinrich Pesch, S.J., 1854-1926", in Mihanovich, Clement S. (ed.), Social Theorists, Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, pp. 216–43<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Solterer, Josef (1982), "More on Pesch and Solidarism", Forum for Social Economics, XII (1): 19–22, doi:10.1007/BF02761630<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.
Wishloff, Jim (2006), "Solidarist Economics: The Legacy of Heinrich Pesch", Review of Business, XXVII (2): 33–46<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>.

Further reading

External links