Help:IPA for Basque

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Basque language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Basque phonology and Basque dialects for a more thorough look at the sounds of Basque.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b bat best
β alaba[1] between baby and bevy
c kuttun roughly like Tuesday in RP
d doa dead
ð adar[1] this
f foru face
ɡ gauak got
ɣ hego[1] between go and ahold
h hamar[2] hot
ɟ onddo roughly like due in RP
k ke scan
l lagun lean
ʎ zailenak roughly like million
m maixu mother
n naharo need
ɲ ikurrina roughly like canyon
p piztu spouse
r urre trilled r
ɾ zauri ladder in American English
uso sack[3]
zeru
ʃ xehe shine
t talde stand
ts̺ urretsu cats[3]
ts̻ aitzin
tximist choice
x jakintsu[4] you, just, loch, shine, roughly like due in RP, vision
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a gela father
e eder bed[5]
i nire see
o aho bore[6]
u hiru food
y hirü roughly like cute (Souletin)


Diphthongs
IPA Examples English approximation
ai bai eye
oi doinu boy
ei leiho ray
au hau house
eu euri eh-oo or ey-oo


Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples English approximant
. gauak [ɡau.ak] moai

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Lenition of /b d g/ occurs in regular speech in most Southern Basque dialects. Hualde (1991:99-100).
  2. Silent in Southern Basque dialects.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Basque contrasts two consonants that sound similar to the /s/ of Englishː /s̺/, which is apical, and /s̻/, which is laminal. Similarly, /ts̺/ and /ts̻/ are contrasted in the same way.
  4. /x/ is frequently heard due to its prevalence in Gipuzkoan but the realisation of the grapheme j varies depending on dialect and also includes [j, ʝ, ɟ, , ʒ, ʃ, χ]. The last, which resembles Scottish English loch, is typical of Gipuzkoan and the dialect of Gernika.
  5. The Basque /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Basque vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  6. The Basque /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Basque vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.

References