Help:IPA for Danish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of this language.

Consonants
IPA Examples Closest equivalent
bog [ˈb̥ɔʊ̯ˀ] 'book' spare
dåb [ˈd̥ɔːˀb̥] 'christening' start
ð øde [ˈøːðə] 'deserted' bathe
ð̩ skinnede [ˈsɡ̊enð̩ðə] 'shone'[1] the book (pronounced quickly)
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] 'foot' foot
ɡ̊ god [ˈɡ̊oðˀ] 'good' scan
h hat [ˈhad̥] 'hat' hat
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ] 'earth' you
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' cone
l lov [ˈlɒʊ̯] 'law' louver
solen [ˈsoːˀl̩n] 'the sun'[1] bottle
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] 'courage' mood
København [kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn] 'Copenhagen'[1] rhythm
n node [ˈnoːðə] 'note' noon
vinden [ˈʋenˀn̩] 'the wind'[1] suddenly
ŋ lang [ˈlɑŋˀ] 'long' long
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœɡ̊ŋ̍] 'the spine'[1] take an interest
pol [ˈpʰoːˀl] 'pole' pole
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] 'red' guttural R
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] 'soot' soon
ɕ Sjælland [ˈɕɛˌlanˀ] 'Zealand'[2] sheep
tak [ˈtˢɑɡ̊] 'thank you' too
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ] 'servant'[2] cheer
ʋ våd [ˈʋɔðˀ] 'wet' vote
Vowels
IPA Examples Closest equivalent
monophthongs
a kat [ˈkʰad̥] 'cat' hat
ɑ tak [ˈtˢɑɡ̊] 'thank you' art
ɑː barn [ˈbɑːˀn] 'child' father
ɒ og [ˈɒʊ̯] 'and' RP/Australian hot
ɒː i går [iˈɡ̊ɒːˀ] 'yesterday' RP/Australian nod
ʌ ånd [ˈʌnˀ] 'spirit' but
æ frisk [ˈfʁæsɡ̊] 'fresh' bet
æː gade [ˈɡ̊æːðə] 'street' bed
e fed [ˈfeð] 'fat' kit
hel [ˈheːˀl] 'whole' kid
ɛ ven [ˈʋɛn] 'friend' Scottish late
ɛː hæl [ˈhɛːˀl] 'heel' Scottish day
i tisse [ˈtˢisə] 'pee' leaf
si [ˈsiːˀ] 'sieve' leave
o flod [ˈfloðˀ] 'river' Scottish oak
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' Scottish stove
ɔ ost [ˈɔsd̥] 'cheese' RP/Australian thought
ɔː måle [ˈmɔːlə] 'to measure' RP/Australian law
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] 'nut' Somewhat like nurse
œ bønne [ˈb̥œnə]) 'bean'
øː løber [ˈløːb̥ɐ] 'runner' Somewhat like fur
œː afgrøde [ˈaʊ̯ɡ̊ʁœːðə] 'crop'
ɶ tør [ˈtˢɶɐ̯ˀ]) 'dry' cat (rounded)
ɶː fyrre [ˈfɶːɐ] 'forty' lad (rounded)
u ud [ˈuðˀ] 'out' boot
hule [ˈhuːlə] 'cave' food
y tyk [ˈtˢyɡ̊] 'thick' Somewhat like cute
synlig [ˈsyːnli] 'visible' Somewhat like feud
diphthongs[3]
æɐ̯ er [æɐ̯] 'am, are, is' Traditional RP there
eɐ̯ Per [ˈpʰeɐ̯] 'Per (a male given name)' Somewhat like near in traditional RP
iɐ̯ birk [ˈb̥iɐ̯ɡ̊] 'birch'
yɐ̯ styrke [ˈsd̥yɐ̯ɡ̊ə] 'force'
oɐ̯ sort [ˈsoɐ̯d̥] 'black (adj.)' Somewhat like cure in traditional RP
uɐ̯ ur [uɐ̯ˀ] 'watch'
øɐ̯ mørne [ˈmøɐ̯nə] 'tenderize' Somewhat like fur
œɐ̯ mørk [ˈmœɐ̯ɡ̊] 'dark'
ɑɪ̯ mig [ˈmɑɪ̯] 'me' price
æɪ̯ lag [ˈlæɪ̯ˀ] 'layer' face
ɛɪ̯ hæg! [ˈhɛɪ̯ˀ] 'harbour!'
eɪ̯ sneg [ˈsneɪ̯ˀ] 'sneaked'
uɪ̯ huje [ˈhuɪ̯ə] 'to whoop' Somewhat like to eat
øɪ̯ søg! [ˈsøɪ̯ˀ] 'seek!' Somewhat like choice
ʌɪ̯ møg [ˈmʌɪ̯] 'crap'
ɑʊ̯ hav [ˈhɑʊ̯] 'sea' mouth
æʊ̯ hæv! [ˈhæʊ̯ˀ] 'raise!' Australian/New Zealand mouth
ɛʊ̯ evne [ˈɛʊ̯nə] 'ability' Somewhat like new
eʊ̯ lev [ˈleʊ̯ˀ] 'live!'
iʊ̯ ivrig [ˈiʊ̯ʁi] 'eager'
yʊ̯ tyv [ˈtˢyʊ̯ˀ] 'thief'
oʊ̯ slog [ˈsloʊ̯ˀ] 'slain' go
ɔʊ̯ låg [ˈlɔʊ̯ˀ] 'cover'
ɒʊ̯ lov [ˈlɒʊ̯] 'law'
øʊ̯ øvrig [ˈøʊ̯ʁi] 'additional' Somewhat like go
œʊ̯ støvle [ˈsd̥œʊ̯lə] 'to boot'
stød
ˀ ti [ˈtˢiːˀ] 'ten' button
unstressed only
ɐ løber [ˈløːb̥ɐ] 'runner' but
ə hoppe [ˈhʌb̥ə] 'jump' about
ɪ kage [ˈkʰæːɪ] 'cake'[4] hit
ʊ mave [ˈmæːʊ] 'stomach'[4] foot

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 The syllabic consonants [m̩, n̩, ŋ̍, ð̩, l̩] do not occur in names.[in which circumstances?]
  2. 2.0 2.1 [tɕ] is phonemically /tj/, whereas [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
  3. Diphthongs with an underlying long vowel always have stød, whereas the ones with an underlying short vowel do not. [eɪ̯, ɛɪ̯, æɪ̯, øɪ̯, æʊ̯, oʊ̯, ɔʊ̯] all have an underlying long vowel, and thus always have stød. Conversely, [ɑɪ̯, ʌɪ̯, uɪ̯, ɑʊ̯, ɒʊ̯] have an underlying short vowel, and thus never have stød. The other diphthongs (including all of the diphthongs ending with [ɐ̯]) appear both with and without stød (Grønnum (2005:294)).
  4. 4.0 4.1 [ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of, respectively, [ɪ̯ə] and [ʊ̯ə].

Bibliography