Help:IPA for Franco-Provençal

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Franco-Provençal (also known as Arpitan) pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

English approximations are in some cases very loose, and only intended to give a general idea of the pronunciation. See Franco-Provençal language#phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds.

  IPA   Examples Nearest English equivalent
b bâs bow
c[1] roughly like RP Tuesday
d dinar doe
dz[2] goods
[2] jazz
ð then
f fèna foe
ɡ gran go
h[3] happy
ɥ (simultaneous y and w)
j vreyer yes
ɟ[2] roughly like RP due
k kilô sky
l lârro low
ʎ lyata roughly like million
m mira mow
n nâs no
ɲ roughly like canyon
ŋ parking
p pâre spy
ʁ[4] curâ roughly like loch (Scottish English)
s so
ʃ[1] chalor show
t tanta stow
ts[1] chalor hats
[1] chalor change
θ thin
v savuc vote
w woe
z zérô zoo
ʒ[2] measure
Oral Nasal
  IPA   Examples Nearest English equivalent   IPA   Examples Nearest English equivalent
a tina pasta ɑ̃ chançon Nasalized [ɑ]
ɑ pâta bra
e clay ɛ̃ vent Nasalized [ɛ] or [æ]
ɛ libertá festival
i see ĩ Nasalized [i]
ə again œ̃ Nasalized [œ]
œ roughly like shirt
ø roughly like nurse
o sole (GA) ~ sword (RP) ɔ̃ Nasalized [ɔ] or [ɒ]
ɔ ball (GA) ~ lot (RP)
u zoo ũ Nasalized [u]
y blu roughly like cute Nasalized [y]
Other symbols used for Franco-Provençal
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
Always falls on one of the final two syllables.


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 There appears to be considerable variation among [t͡s], [t͡ʃ], [ʃ], and [c], as a result of the palatalization of /t/.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 There appears to be considerable variation among [d͡z], [d͡ʒ], [ʒ], and [ɟ], as a result of the palatalization of /d/.
  3. Varies in realization. [h], [x] (roughly like in who) and [ç] (as in hue) all occur.
  4. The French rhotic varies from region to region, though it is often uvular (especially in Northern France); the more common pronunciations include a voiced uvular fricative ([ʁ]), a uvular trill ([ʀ]) and a voiceless uvular fricative ([χ]), albeit in many regions as well as in Switzerland and Italy the older alveolar trill ([r]) is still very common.