Help:IPA for Galician

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Galician pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Galician phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Galician.

IPA Consonants
Examples English approximation
b baixo, viver best
β abaixo, viver[1] between baby and bevy
d dedo dice
ð dedo[1] other
f faro, nafta face
ɡ galego ago
ɣ galego[1] between ago and ahold
k cor, quen, kelvin scan
l labial[2] luck
ʎ vello[3] billiards
m ama, lamber mate
n urna, pensa not
ŋ unha, longo, can, ítem singer
ɲ uña onion
p pau spouse
θ zeta, cea[4] thing
r ría, parra trilled r
ɾ fría, para, ar US ladder
s seu, casa, este sun
ʃ xente shop
t tipo stand
chave chip
v afgano[5] of
z mesmo[5] quiz
IPA Marginal consonants
ħ ghato, trigho[6] hook
x kharxa[7] loch
IPA Vowels
Examples English approximation
a ácida father
ɛ sete, café set
e entre they
i limbo, dial, trío ski
ɔ ovo, abiótico US ball / UK lot
o avoa, avó US sole / UK sore
u mula, dual, rúa ruler
 
IPA Semivowels
Examples English approximation
j saia, canción, pai yet / boy
w acuario, fatuo, causa switch / cow
 
IPA Suprasegmentals
Examples Explanation
ˈ Arousa [aˈɾowsa] lexical stress
. as [ˈri.as] syllable break

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Voiced stops /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞] (frequently represented without the undertacks) of the same place of articulation in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g.
  2. Older and rural speakers velarize the phoneme /l/, which is then produced [ɫ], in final position or before a velar consonant.
  3. Most speakers pronounce this phoneme as [ʝ].
  4. There's no /s///θ/ opposition in western varieties.
  5. 5.0 5.1 [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
  6. In some Galician dialects /ɡ/ is spirantized to [ħ] or [h] in a phonological process known as gheada.
  7. /x/ may be used in loanwords, foreign names and hispanicized names; like kharxa, Araújo (instead of Araúxo, pron. with [ʃ]) and Fagilde or Fajilde (instead of Faxilde, pron. with [ʃ]).

References

  • Freixeiro Mato, Xosé Ramón (2006). Gramática da lingua galega (2 ed.). Vigo: Edicións A Nosa Terra. ISBN 9788483410608. 

External links