Help:IPA for Greek

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The Ancient Greek pronunciation shown here is a reconstruction of the Attic dialect in the 5th century BC.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

IPA AG MG Example English approximation
c κ κιόλας[2] skew
k κ, ξ κατά, ξένος[3][2] scar
χ χάρτης[2] car
x χ similar to hat,
Scottish English loch
ç χέρι[2] hue
j ι εη[4] toy yacht
ʝ γ γη[2] yes
ɣ γάλα[2] similar to woman,
but with spread lips
ɡ γ again
ɟ άγγελος[2][5] argue
p π, ψ πέτρα, ψυχή[3] spy
φ φως paint
f φ four
v β, υ[6] βέλος vet
b β about
μπ μπάρμπας[5]
w υ παύω[4] well
t τ τάφος stay
θ θεός take
θ θ thought
ð δ δούλη the
d δ today
ντ εντάξει[5]
h ρως[7] hat
l λ λόγος look
ʎ λ ελιά million
m μ μοίρα mole
n ν ναι no
ɲ ν νιότη onion
ŋ γ άγχος sing
r ρ ώρα trilled r like in Spanish
ίζα similar to train
s σ, ς
ξ, ψ
σοφός, ψυχή, ξένος[3] sow, retracted in most cases.
z ζ, σ κόσμος, ζωή[3] zoo, retracted in most cases.
t͡s τσ τσάι cats, retracted in most cases.
d͡z τζ τζάκι pads, retracted in most cases.
Dialectal segments
IPA English approximation
ʃ shame
ʒ vision
t͡ʃ check
d͡ʒ jam
æ cat
IPA Explanation
◌ː marks a consonant produced twice as long[1]
IPA AG MG Example English approximation
a α άρτος cut
χώρ father
ɛː η ψυχή[8] heir
e ε[9] θεός met
ει εἰμί[8] similar to kid
i ι[8] ίδιος like neat
πίνω[8] like need
ɔː ω ἐγώ[9] nose
o ω similar to note (American English)
ο[9] οδός
ου μου similar to mood
u ου pool
y φύσις[8] similar to cute
ψυχή[8] similar to cue
IPA AG MG Example English approximation
ai̯ αι αἴτιος, πάλαι, ψῡχαί[9] tie
au̯ αυ αὐτός[6] how
ei̯ ει εἴη[8] hey
eu̯ ευ εὖ[6]
oi̯ οι οἶδα, λόγοι[8] toy
yi̯ υι υἱός[8]
aːi̯ δω, χώρ[13]
ɛːi̯ ς, ψυχ[8][13]
ɔːi̯ δή, λόγ[13]
IPA[14] AG MG Example Explanation
◌́ ´ γάλα ála] high tone
◌̌ ´ ἐγώ [eɡɔ̌ː] rising tone
` μν [men] mid tone
◌̂ γ ɛ̂ː] falling tone
ˈ ΄ άλλος [ˈa.los] stress
. syllable break


  1. 1.0 1.1 Ancient Greek had geminate consonants, pronounced longer than single ones, which may be transcribed as a double consonant letter ⟨ss⟩ or with the length symbol ⟨⟩. Modern Standard Greek does not have geminate consonants, but nonstandard dialects do.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 In Modern Greek, ⟨κ; γκ, γγ; γ; χ⟩ are pronounced as palatal [c, ɟ, ʝ, ç] before the front vowels [e i], and velar [k, g, ɣ, x] in other cases.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 ζ⟩ represented the cluster [zd] in Classical Attic, but represents [z] in Modern Greek. In both Ancient and Modern Greek, ⟨σ⟩ is pronounced as voiced [z] before a voiced consonant, and ⟨ξ, ψ⟩ represent the clusters [ks ps].
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 In Ancient Greek, a diphthong before a vowel was realized as a vowel and a double semivowel sequence: [jj, ww].
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 In Modern Greek, ⟨μπ, ντ, γκ, γγ⟩ are either pronounced as prenasalized voiced stops [mb, nd, ɲɟ, ŋɡ] or as voiced stops without nasalization [b, d, ɟ, ɡ].
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 In Modern Greek, ⟨υ⟩ in the combinations ⟨αυ ευ ηυ⟩ is pronounced as [f] before a voiceless consonant and [v] in other places. In Ancient Greek, ⟨αυ ευ ηυ⟩ were the diphthongs [au̯ eu̯ ɛːu̯].
  7. The rough breathing ⟨⟩ represented [h] before a vowel, and the smooth breathing ⟨᾿⟩ represented the absence of [h].
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 In Modern Greek, ⟨η, ῃ, ει, ι, οι, υ, υι⟩ all represent [i]. These were pronounced [ɛː, ɛːi̯, eː, ei̯, i(ː) oi̯, y(ː), yi̯] in Ancient Greek. The large number of vowel mergers into [i] is called iotacism.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 In Modern Greek, ⟨ε, αι⟩ both represent [e], and ⟨ο, ω⟩ both represent [o]. In Ancient Greek, ⟨ε, ο⟩ represented [e, o], ⟨ω⟩ represented [ɔː], and ⟨αι⟩ represented the diphthong [ai̯].
  10. Also ⟨άι⟩ and sometimes ⟨άϊ⟩.
  11. Also ⟨εϊ⟩ and sometimes ⟨έϊ⟩.
  12. Also ⟨οϊ⟩ and sometimes ⟨όϊ⟩.
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 In early Ancient Greek, ⟨ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ⟩ were diphthongs, but the second element [i̯] was lost soon after the Classical period, and they merged in pronunciation with ⟨ᾱ, η, ω⟩.
  14. The symbols used here for Ancient Greek pitch accent must be added as combining characters in some cases. Place the numeric character reference after the letter that you wish to put the accent on, then press Show preview and copy the resulting accented character. ́ is the numeric character reference for combining acute tone mark (high tone), ̌ for combining caron (rising tone), ̂ for combining circumflex (falling tone).

External links