Help:IPA for Hebrew
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Modern/Israeli Hebrew language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. Since Modern Hebrew has both non-Oriental and Oriental pronunciation, certain letters may be transcribed differently depending on the background of the speaker. See Hebrew phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Hebrew.
- Note: An image of the chart is also available.
|b||בּ (Bet Dgusha)||b||bet|
|dʒ||ג׳ (Gimel with geresh)||ǧ or j||joy|
|f||פ ף (Fei Rafa)||f or p̄||fool|
|ħ||ח (Chet)||ḥ or ch||no English equivalent; like hen but with the tongue against the pharynx|
|k||כּ (Kaph Dgusha)
|m||מ ם (Mem)||m||man|
|n||נ ן (Nun)||n||no|
|p||פּ (Pei dgusha)||p||spin|
|q||ק (Qoph)||q or k||no English equivalent; like cup but with the tongue further back|
|r||ר (Resh)||r||Somewhat like run|
שׂ (Sin Smalit)
|ʃ||שׁ (Shin Yemanit)||š or sh||she|
|ts||צ ץ (Tsadi)||ts (or tz)||cats|
|tʃ||צ׳ ץ׳ (Tsadi with geresh)||č or ch||chair|
|v||ב (Vet Rapha)
וו (double Vav)
|v or ḇ/w||voice|
|w||וו (double Vav)
כ ך (Chaph Rafa)
|ḥ/ḵ or ch/kh||Similar to Scottish loch|
|ʒ||ז׳ (Zayin with geresh)||ž||beige|
|ʾ or '||uh-(ʔ)oh|
|ʕ||ע (Ayin)||ʿ or '||no English equivalent|
|ð||ד׳ (Dalet with geresh)||th||this|
|θ||ת׳ (Tav with geresh)||th||thing|
|a||ָ (Kamatz), (Patach)||a||father|
|e||(Zeire), (Segol), (Shva)||e||bed|
|o||ֹ (Holam alone), וֹ (with any mater lectionis), ָ (Kamatz katan)||o||story|
|u||וּ (Vav with shuruk), (Kubutz)||u||boot|
|ei||י (Segol-Yud), (Zeire)||ei||day|
|ai||י (Patach-Yud), ָי (Kamatz-Yud)||ai||why|
|oi||וֹי (Vav with holam male-Yud)||oi||boy|
|ui||וּי (Vav with shuruq-Yud)||ui||we|
|ao (rare)||או (Alef-Vav)||ao||cow|
|ju (rare)||יוּ (Yud-Vav with shuruk)||yu||cute|
|ij (rare)||יְ(Hiriq-Yud with Shva Nach)
i.e. "נִיְלֵן" [nijˈlen]
|ˈ||Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable): אֹכֶל ('food') /ˈʔoχel/, אוֹכֵל ('eating' [participle]) /ʔoˈχel/|
|ˌ||Secondary stress, e.g. הֲאֻמְנָם? ('oh, really?') /ˌhaʔumˈnam/|
|ː||Long vowels (in Tiberian Hebrew) can be transcribed using the IPA gemination sign ː: the word for "hand" would be יָד /jaːd/ in absolute state and יַד־ /jad/ in construct state. Indicating normative consonant gemination uses a double consonant: גַּנָּב ('a thief') /ɡanˈnav/ not /ɡaˈnːav/|
- /dʒ, ts, tʃ/ are officially written with a tie-bar in the IPA /d͡ʒ, t͡s, t͡ʃ/ respectively, but the tie-bar is omitted for simplification.
- In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /ħ, ʕ, q/ have merged with /χ, ʔ, k/ respectively, but /ħ, ʕ/ are still distinguished by Oriental Hebrew speakers.
- /ʁ/ is uvular for most speakers, but a few speakers, mostly Orientals, retain an alveolar pronunciation: [r]~[ɾ].
- In Modern Israeli Hebrew, /w/ appears in a few words, mostly loanwords: וואו (wow) /waw/. In some words that originally had /w/, it is approximated to [v].
- Vowel length and quality in Tiberian Hebrew is a matter of debate, and that is just one possible example.