The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Persian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.
See Persian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Persian.
||beet - boy
||den - Daniel
||jazz - joy
||fast - festival
||gate - gooseberry
||No English equivalent; like gate but pronounced low in the throat - like regardez (French word) (Pronunciation: )
||No English equivalent; like gate but pronounced very far back - - like regardez (French word) (Pronunciation: )
||bitter in American English
||As in water, better, Let's go! in (Cockney) - department, not now! in RP - See T-glottalization
- ↑ Persian consonants can be geminated, especially in words from Arabic. This is represented in IPA by doubling the consonant: [sejjed].
- ↑ Also an allophone of /p/ before voiced consonants.
- ↑ Also an allophone of /k/ before voiced consonants.
- ↑ Also an allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.
- ↑ غ and ق denoted the original Arabic phonemes in Classical Persian, the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] and the voiceless uvular stop [q] (pronounced in Persian as voiced uvular stop [ɢ]), respectively. In modern Tehrani Persian (both colloquial and standard dialects), the phonemes of غ and ق are allophones; when /ɣ/ (spelled either غ or ق) occurs at the beginning and the end of a word, post-consonantal position, and syllable-final position, it is realized as a voiced uvular plosive [ɢ], when /ɢ/ (also spelled either غ or ق) occurs intervocalically, it is realized as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ]; the allophone is probably influenced by Turkic languages like Azeri and Turkmen. The sounds remain distinct in Persian dialects of southern Iran and Eastern Persian dialects (Dari and Tajik).
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 The unvoiced stops /p, t, tʃ, k/ are aspirated much like their English counterparts: they become aspirated when they begin a syllable, though aspiration is not contrastive.
- ↑ Also an allophone of /n/ before bilabial consonants.
- ↑ A trilled allophone [r] occurs word-initially (Spanish/Italian/Russian R; it can be a free variation between a trill [r] and a flap [ɾ]); trill [r] as a separate phoneme occurs word-medially especially in loanwords of Arabic origin as a result of gemination of [ɾ].
- ↑ While و is pronounced [v] in Iranian Persian, it is pronounced as [w] in Dari.
- ↑ [v] is also an allophone of [f] before voiced consonants.
- ↑ Also an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
- ↑ Also an allophone of /ʃ/ before voiced consonants.
- ↑ Velar nasal [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before [g], [k], [ɣ], [ɢ], and [x] in native vocabulary.
- ↑ Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words. For the various exception and other clarifications, see Persian phonology#Stress
- ↑ 15.0 15.1 15.2 The three short or unstable vowels are actually short only in open, non-final syllables. In other environments their length is equal to the long vowels (Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).).
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 16.2 In the modern Persian script, the "short" vowels /æ/, /e/, /o/ are usually not written as is done in the Arabic alphabet; only the long vowels /ɒː/, /iː/, /uː/ are represented in the text. This, of course, creates certain ambiguities.
- ↑ The level of roundedness may vary. Campbell (1995) writes simply /ɔː/, while Majidi & Ternes (1999) describe it as "underrounded" but write /ɒ/ anyway. The vowel may be written as /ɑ/ as well.
- ↑ [e] is also an allophone of /æ/ in word-final position in contemporary Iranian Persian.
- ↑ The Persian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of bate (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bet; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- ↑ The Persian /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of boat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
- ↑ The existence and the number of diphthongs in Perisan are disputed (Lua error in Module:Citation/CS1/Identifiers at line 47: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).).
- ↑ 22.0 22.1 /aj/ and /aw/ in Dari.
- ↑ /ou/ becomes [o] in colloquial Tehrani dialect but is preserved in other Western dialects and standard Eastern Persian.
- Campbell, George L. (1995). "Persian". Concise compendium of the world's languages (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 385. ISBN 0415160499.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Majidi, Mohammad-Reza; Ternes, Elmar (1999). "Persian (Farsi)". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 124–125.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>