Help:IPA for Persian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Persian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Persian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Persian.

Consonants[1]
IPA Letter Examples English approximation
b ب برادر beet[2] - boy
d د د‫وست‬ den - Daniel
ج جوان jazz - joy
f ف فشار fast - festival
ɡ گ گروه gate[3] - gooseberry
ɣ[4] غ
[5] ق
باغ No English equivalent; like gate but pronounced low in the throat - like regardez (French word) (Pronunciation: [3])
ɢ قلم No English equivalent; like gate but pronounced very far back - - like regardez (French word) (Pronunciation: [4])
h ه
ح
هفت hat
j ی یا yard
k ک کشور cat[6]
l ل لب land
m م مادر man[7]
n ن نان neck
p ‫پ‬ ‫پدر‬ pen[6]
ɾ ر ایران bitter in American English[8]
s س
ص
ث
سایه sock
ʃ ‫ش‬ ‫شاه‬ shah
t ت
ط
تا tall[6]
چ چوب chip[6]
v و ویژه oven[9][10]
x خ خانه loch (Scottish)
z ز
ذ
ض
ظ
آزاد jazz[11]
ʒ ژ ژاله vision[12]
ʔ ع
ء
معنا As in water, better, Let's go! in (Cockney) - department, not now! in RP - See T-glottalization
Marginal consonants
ŋ نگ رنگ sing[13]
Stress
ˈ [14] ایران
[iˈɾɒːn]
again
/əˈɡeɪn/
Vowels
IPA Letter Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
æ[15] َ   ا[16] نه bat
ɒː[17] ﺁ ,ا تا Like the o of not in Received Pronunciation
e[15][18] ِ   ا[16] که between bate and bet[19]
ی کی beat
o[15] ا   ُ   و[16] تو boat (but shorter)[20]
و رو boot
Diphthongs[21]
ej[22] ی کی bay, they
ow[22][23] و نو flow; in early New Persian as well as in modern eastern dialects pronounced as in flower or loud

Notes

  1. Persian consonants can be geminated, especially in words from Arabic. This is represented in IPA by doubling the consonant: [sejjed].
  2. Also an allophone of /p/ before voiced consonants.
  3. Also an allophone of /k/ before voiced consonants.
  4. Also an allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.
  5. غ and ق denoted the original Arabic phonemes in Classical Persian, the voiced velar fricative [ɣ] and the voiceless uvular stop [q] (pronounced in Persian as voiced uvular stop [ɢ]), respectively. In modern Tehrani Persian (both colloquial and standard dialects), the phonemes of غ and ق are allophones; when /ɣ/ (spelled either غ or ق) occurs at the beginning and the end of a word, post-consonantal position, and syllable-final position, it is realized as a voiced uvular plosive [ɢ], when /ɢ/ (also spelled either غ or ق) occurs intervocalically, it is realized as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ]; the allophone is probably influenced by Turkic languages like Azeri and Turkmen. The sounds remain distinct in Persian dialects of southern Iran and Eastern Persian dialects (Dari and Tajik).
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 The unvoiced stops /p, t, tʃ, k/ are aspirated much like their English counterparts: they become aspirated when they begin a syllable, though aspiration is not contrastive.
  7. Also an allophone of /n/ before bilabial consonants.
  8. A trilled allophone [r] occurs word-initially (Spanish/Italian/Russian R; it can be a free variation between a trill [r] and a flap [ɾ]); trill [r] as a separate phoneme occurs word-medially especially in loanwords of Arabic origin as a result of gemination of [ɾ].
  9. While و is pronounced [v] in Iranian Persian, it is pronounced as [w] in Dari.
  10. [v] is also an allophone of [f] before voiced consonants.
  11. Also an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  12. Also an allophone of /ʃ/ before voiced consonants.
  13. Velar nasal [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before [g], [k], [ɣ], [ɢ], and [x] in native vocabulary.
  14. Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words. For the various exception and other clarifications, see Persian phonology#Stress
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 The three short or unstable vowels are actually short only in open, non-final syllables. In other environments their length is equal to the long vowels (Toosarvandani, Maziar Doustdar (9 November 2004). "Vowel Length in Modern Farsi" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 14 (03): 241–251. doi:10.1017/S1356186304004079. ).
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 In the modern Persian script, the "short" vowels /æ/, /e/, /o/ are usually not written as is done in the Arabic alphabet; only the long vowels /ɒː/, /iː/, /uː/ are represented in the text. This, of course, creates certain ambiguities.
  17. The level of roundedness may vary. Campbell (1995) writes simply /ɔː/, while Majidi & Ternes (1999) describe it as "underrounded" but write /ɒ/ anyway. The vowel may be written as /ɑ/ as well.[1][2]
  18. [e] is also an allophone of /æ/ in word-final position in contemporary Iranian Persian.
  19. The Persian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of bate (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bet; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  20. The Persian /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of boat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  21. The existence and the number of diphthongs in Perisan are disputed (Alamolhoda, Seyyed Morleza (2000). "Phonostatistics and Phonotactics of the Syllable in Modern Persian". Studia Orientalia. 89: 14–15. ISSN 0039-3282. ).
  22. 22.0 22.1 /aj/ and /aw/ in Dari.
  23. /ou/ becomes [o] in colloquial Tehrani dialect but is preserved in other Western dialects and standard Eastern Persian.

References

  • Campbell, George L. (1995). "Persian". Concise compendium of the world's languages (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 385. ISBN 0415160499. 
  • Majidi, Mohammad-Reza; Ternes, Elmar (1999). "Persian (Farsi)". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 124–125.