Help:IPA for Swedish

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search

The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology for details about pronunciation.

IPA Examples English approximation
b <phonos file="Sv-bok.ogg">bok</phonos> book
ɕ <phonos file="Sv-kjol.ogg">kjol</phonos> sheep
d <phonos file="Sv-dop.ogg">dop</phonos> dad
ɖ <phonos file="Sv-nord.ogg">nord</phonos>[1] order
f <phonos file="Sv-fot.ogg">fot</phonos> foot
ɡ <phonos file="Sv-god.ogg">god</phonos> good
h <phonos file="Sv-hot.ogg">hot</phonos> hat
ɧ <phonos file="Sv-sjok.ogg">sjok</phonos>[2] somewhat like shoe (varies regionally)
j <phonos file="Sv-jord.ogg">jord</phonos>, <phonos file="Sv-Sverige.ogg">Sverige</phonos> yoyo
k <phonos file="Sv-kon.ogg">kon</phonos> cone
l <phonos file="Sv-lov.ogg">lov</phonos> lack
ɭ <phonos file="Sv-ett kärl.ogg">rl</phonos>[1] somewhat like carl
m <phonos file="Sv-mod.ogg">mod</phonos> mode
n <phonos file="Sv-nod.ogg">nod</phonos> node
ɳ <phonos file="Sv-barn.ogg">barn</phonos>[1] turner
ŋ <phonos file="Sv-lång.ogg">ng</phonos> long
p <phonos file="Sv-pol.ogg">pol</phonos> pole
r <phonos file="Sv-rov.ogg">rov</phonos>[3] a trilled r when articulated clearly, or in slow or
formal speech; in normal speech, it is usually
a tapped r, or an alveolar approximant
s <phonos file="Sv-sot.ogg">sot</phonos> soot
ʂ <phonos file="Sv-torsdag.ogg">torsdag</phonos>[1] marshal (in some dialects)
t <phonos file="Sv-tok.ogg">tok</phonos> tea
ʈ <phonos file="Sv-parti.ogg">parti</phonos>[1] cartel
v <phonos file="Sv-våt.ogg">våt</phonos> vote
Rare sounds
IPA Examples English approximation
w <phonos file="Sv-webb.ogg">webb</phonos> web
IPA Examples English approximation
<phonos file="Sv-Zlatan.ogg">Zlatan</phonos>, <phonos file="Sv-Bratislava.ogg">Bratislava</phonos> other
œɪ <phonos file="Sv-Creutz.ogg">Creutz</phonos>, <phonos file="Sv-Reuter.ogg">Reuter</phonos> void
IPA Examples English approximation
a <phonos file="Sv-matt.ogg">matt</phonos> RP hat
ɑː <phonos file="Sv-mat.ogg">mat</phonos> bra
ɛ <phonos file="Sv-häll.ogg">häll</phonos>[4] sell
ɛː <phonos file="Sv-häl.ogg">häl</phonos>[4] RP pair
<phonos file="Sv-hel.ogg">hel</phonos> hear
æ <phonos file="Sv-ärt.ogg">ärt</phonos>[4] trap
æː <phonos file="Sv-ära.ogg">ära</phonos>[4] ham
ɪ <phonos file="Sv-sill.ogg">sill</phonos> hit
<phonos file="Sv-sil.ogg">sil</phonos> leave
ɔ <phonos file="Sv-moll.ogg">moll</phonos>[5] RP pot
<phonos file="Sv-mål.ogg">mål</phonos>[5] floor
œ <phonos file="Sv-nött.ogg">nött</phonos>[5] somewhat like RP nurse
œː Audio file "Sv-öra.ogg" not found[4][5] somewhat like RP burn
øː <phonos file="Sv-nöt.ogg">nöt</phonos>[5]
ɵ <phonos file="Sv-full.ogg">full</phonos>,
<phonos file="Sv-musik.ogg">musik</phonos>[5][6]
somewhat like put
ʉ <phonos file="Sv-duell.ogg">duell</phonos>,
<phonos file="Sv-känguru.ogg">känguru</phonos>[5][6][7]
somewhat like put
ʉː <phonos file="Sv-ful.ogg">ful</phonos>[5][8] like Scottish do
ʊ <phonos file="Sv-bott.ogg">bott</phonos>[5] put
<phonos file="Sv-bot.ogg">bot</phonos>[5] boot
ʏ <phonos file="Sv-syll.ogg">syll</phonos>[5][7] somewhat like hit; Norwegian <phonos file="No-nytt.ogg">nytt</phonos>
<phonos file="Sv-syl.ogg">syl</phonos>[5][8] somewhat like leave; Norwegian <phonos file="No-lys.ogg">lys</phonos>
Stress, tone and syllabification
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ <phonos file="Sv-anden (wild duck).ogg">anden</phonos>
tone 1 / acute accent:
• single falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânːdɛn][10]
² <phonos file="Sv-anden (spirit, genie).ogg">anden</phonos>
tone 2 / grave accent:
• double falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânːdɛ̂n][10]
ˌ Oxenstierna
secondary stress, as in intonation
. fria
syllable break: co-op, rower


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. Swedish /ɧ/ is a regionally variable sound, sometimes [], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ].
  3. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects. It is pronounced alveolar or similarly in virtually all dialects except South Swedish dialects where it is uvular, similar to the Parisian French "r". At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ʒ] as in English "genre" or "vision".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [æ] and [æː]; whereas the mid /œ/ and /øː/ are lowered to open-mid [œ] and [œː]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [œ] and the open-mid [œ]; both are transcribed with ⟨œ⟩.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 [ɔ, , œ, œː, øː, ʏ, ] are protruded vowels, whereas [ɵ, ʉ, ʉː, ʊ, ] are compressed; see roundedness for details.
  6. 6.0 6.1 [ɵ] and [ʉ] are unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [ɵ]):
    • [ɵ] is used mantatorily in closed syllables (as in kultur <phonos file="Sv-kultur.ogg">[kɵlˈtʉːr]</phonos>), but it can also appear in open syllables (as in musikal <phonos file="Sv-musikal.ogg">[mɵsɪˈkɑːl]</phonos>). This includes cases where resyllabification caused by retroflexion makes the syllable open, as in kurtisan <phonos file="Sv-kurtisan.ogg">[kɵʈɪˈsɑːn]</phonos>.
    • [ʉ] appears only in open syllables. In some cases, [ʉ] is the only possible realization, as in e.g. känguru <phonos file="Sv-känguru.ogg">[ˈɕɛŋːɡʉrʉ]</phonos>, as well as always when /ɵ/ appears in hiatus, e.g. duell <phonos file="Sv-duell.ogg">[dʉˈɛlː]</phonos>.
    • In other cases [ɵ] is in free variation with [ʉ], so that e.g. musik can be pronounced as either <phonos file="Sv-musik.ogg">[mɵˈsiːk]</phonos> or [mʉˈsiːk] (Riad (2014:28-29)). For simplicity, in case of such variation we always use the symbol [ɵ].
  7. 7.0 7.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [ʏ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen <phonos file="De-müssen.ogg">[ˈmʏsn̩]</phonos>).
    • Protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and is very close to Norwegian protruded [ʏ] (as in nytt <phonos file="No-nytt.ogg">[nʏtː]</phonos>).
  8. 8.0 8.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉː] and protruded [] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [] (as in üben <phonos file="De-üben.ogg">[ˈyːbn̩]</phonos>).
    • Protruded [] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [], and is very close to Norwegian protruded [] (as in lys <phonos file="No-lys.ogg">[lyːs]</phonos>).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Placed before the stressed syllable. In case of words with the second toneme, ⟨²⟩ is used instead of the primary stress mark.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Unless needed, this narrow transcription of the Stockholm tonemes will not be used in articles.


  • Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.
  • Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.

External links