Help:IPA for Swedish

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The chart below shows how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology for details about pronunciation.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b About this sound bok book
ɕ About this sound kjol sheep
d About this sound dop dad
ɖ About this sound nord[1] order
f About this sound fot foot
ɡ About this sound god good
h About this sound hot hat
ɧ About this sound sjok[2] somewhat like shoe (varies regionally)
j About this sound jord, About this sound Sverige yoyo
k About this sound kon cone
l About this sound lov lack
ɭ About this sound rl[1] somewhat like carl
m About this sound mod mode
n About this sound nod node
ɳ About this sound barn[1] turner
ŋ About this sound ng long
p About this sound pol pole
r About this sound rov[3] a trilled r when articulated clearly, or in slow or
formal speech; in normal speech, it is usually
a tapped r, or an alveolar approximant
s About this sound sot soot
ʂ About this sound torsdag[1] marshal (in some dialects)
t About this sound tok tea
ʈ About this sound parti[1] cartel
v About this sound våt vote
Rare sounds
IPA Examples English approximation
w About this sound webb web
IPA Examples English approximation
About this sound Zlatan, About this sound Bratislava other
œɪ About this sound Creutz, About this sound Reuter void
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a About this sound matt RP hat
ɑː About this sound mat bra
ɛ About this sound häll[4] sell
ɛː About this sound häl[4] RP pair
About this sound hel hear
æ About this sound ärt[4] trap
æː About this sound ära[4] ham
ɪ About this sound sill hit
About this sound sil leave
ɔ About this sound moll[5] RP pot
About this sound mål[5] floor
œ About this sound nött[5] somewhat like RP nurse
œː About this sound öra[4][5] somewhat like RP burn
øː About this sound nöt[5]
ɵ About this sound full,
About this sound musik[5][6]
somewhat like put
ʉ About this sound duell,
About this sound känguru[5][6][7]
somewhat like put
ʉː About this sound ful[5][8] like Scottish do
ʊ About this sound bott[5] put
About this sound bot[5] boot
ʏ About this sound syll[5][7] somewhat like hit; Norwegian About this sound nytt
About this sound syl[5][8] somewhat like leave; Norwegian About this sound lys
Stress, tone and syllabification
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ About this sound anden
[ˈanːdɛn][9]
tone 1 / acute accent:
• single falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânːdɛn][10]
² About this sound anden
[²anːdɛn][9]
tone 2 / grave accent:
• double falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânːdɛ̂n][10]
ˌ Oxenstierna
[²ʊksɛnˌɧæːɳa]
secondary stress, as in intonation
. fria
[²friː.a]
syllable break: co-op, rower

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. Swedish /ɧ/ is a regionally variable sound, sometimes [], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ].
  3. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects. It is pronounced alveolar or similarly in virtually all dialects except South Swedish dialects where it is uvular, similar to the Parisian French "r". At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ʒ] as in English "genre" or "vision".
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [æ] and [æː]; whereas the mid /œ/ and /øː/ are lowered to open-mid [œ] and [œː]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [œ] and the open-mid [œ]; both are transcribed with ⟨œ⟩.
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 [ɔ, , œ, œː, øː, ʏ, ] are protruded vowels, whereas [ɵ, ʉ, ʉː, ʊ, ] are compressed; see roundedness for details.
  6. 6.0 6.1 [ɵ] and [ʉ] are unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [ɵ]):
    • [ɵ] is used mantatorily in closed syllables (as in kultur About this sound [kɵlˈtʉːr]), but it can also appear in open syllables (as in musikal About this sound [mɵsɪˈkɑːl]). This includes cases where resyllabification caused by retroflexion makes the syllable open, as in kurtisan About this sound [kɵʈɪˈsɑːn].
    • [ʉ] appears only in open syllables. In some cases, [ʉ] is the only possible realization, as in e.g. känguru About this sound [ˈɕɛŋːɡʉrʉ], as well as always when /ɵ/ appears in hiatus, e.g. duell About this sound [dʉˈɛlː].
    • In other cases [ɵ] is in free variation with [ʉ], so that e.g. musik can be pronounced as either About this sound [mɵˈsiːk] or [mʉˈsiːk] (Riad (2014:28-29)). For simplicity, in case of such variation we always use the symbol [ɵ].
  7. 7.0 7.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [ʏ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen About this sound [ˈmʏsn̩]).
    • Protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and is very close to Norwegian protruded [ʏ] (as in nytt About this sound [nʏtː]).
  8. 8.0 8.1 The distinction between compressed [ʉː] and protruded [] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [] (as in üben About this sound [ˈyːbn̩]).
    • Protruded [] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [], and is very close to Norwegian protruded [] (as in lys About this sound [lyːs]).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Placed before the stressed syllable. In case of words with the second toneme, ⟨²⟩ is used instead of the primary stress mark.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Unless needed, this narrow transcription of the Stockholm tonemes will not be used in articles.

Bibliography

  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Riad, Tomas (2014), The Phonology of Swedish, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1 

External links