Help:IPA for Ukrainian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ukrainian-language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Ukrainian makes contrasts between palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ‹j› / ʲ /, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in like the ‹y› sound in yes. The "hard" vs. "soft" distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs and may otherwise be ignored.

See Ukrainian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Ukrainian.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b бог boot
d дим do
дім, мідь dew
d͡z дзвін pads
d͡zʲ ґедзь, дзьоб
d͡ʒ джміль jump; ridge
f фарба fool
ɡ ґанок goo
ɦ газета behind
j війна[1] yes
k ключ cooper
l лось leg
лід, сіль least
m мир moot; mute
n небо noon
ніч, день new
p піч poo
r лікар trilled r, like in Spanish
ріка
s суп soup
сіно, вісь suit
ʃ шпарина shop
t тин tool
тінь, мить tune
t͡s цибуля cats
t͡sʲ ціна, вінець
t͡ʃ очерет choose
β віл

вчитель[2]

between baby and bevy
wine
x ховрах Bach; loch
z зуб zoo
зіллю, різьба azure
ʒ жито measure; garage
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed
ɑ ɐ гай, мрія

країна

father
ɛ мета, є met
i кіт, їжа key
ɪ миша six
ɔ o поле, льон

домівка

born
u дух, лють hook
Other symbols
IPA Explanation
ˈ Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ː Gemination[3] (doubled consonant)

Notes

  1. The "soft" vowel letters ‹є, ї, ю, я› represent a /j/ and a vowel when initial or following other vowels.
  2. The /w/ phoneme has two allophones:
    * Bilabial approximant [β̞] (transcribed here [β] for simplicity) before vowels;
    * Labialized velar semivowel [u̯] before a consonant at the start of word, after a vowel before aconsonant and after a vowel at the end of a word (Жовтобрюх & Кулик (1965:121–122)).
  3. In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття /bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ/ bonfire, подружжя /pɔˈdruʒːɑ/ married couple, обличчя face. Geminates also occur at the start of a few words: лляний /ˈlʲːɑnɪj/ flaxen, forms of the verb лити to pour (ллю /lʲːu/, ллєш /lʲːɛʃ/ etc.), ссати /ˈsːɑtɪ/ to suck and derivatives.[citation needed]

Bibliography

  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083 
  • Жовтобрюх, М.А.; Кулик, Б.М. (1965), Курс сучасної української літературної мови. Частина I., Kiev: Радянська школа