History of bitcoin

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
(Redirected from History of Bitcoin)
Jump to: navigation, search
Further information: Bitcoin
Number of bitcoin transactions per month (logarithmic scale)

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, a form of money that uses cryptography to control its creation and management, rather than relying on central authorities.[1] However, not all of the technologies and concepts that make up bitcoin are new; the presumed pseudonymous Satoshi Nakamoto (the creator of bitcoin, see below) integrated many existing ideas from the cypherpunk community when creating bitcoin.


Prior to the release of bitcoin there were a number of digital cash technologies starting with the issuer based ecash protocols of David Chaum [2] and Stefan Brands. Adam Back developed hashcash, a proof-of-work scheme for spam control. The first proposals for distributed digital scarcity based cryptocurrencies were Wei Dai's b-money and Nick Szabo's bit gold. Hal Finney developed RPOW. Bit gold, b-money and RPOW all used hashcash as their proof-of-work algorithm.

Independently and at around the same time, Wei Dai proposed b-money[3] and Nick Szabo proposed bit gold.[4][5] Subsequently, Hal Finney implemented and deployed RPOW a reusable form of hashcash based on IBM secure TPM hardware and remote attestation (centralized but with no issuer inflation risk).

In the bit gold proposal which proposed a collectible market based mechanism for inflation control, Nick Szabo also investigated some additional enabling aspects including a Byzantine fault-tolerant asset registry to store and transfer the chained proof-of-work solutions.[5]

There has been much speculation as to the identity of Satoshi Nakamoto with suspects including Wei Dai, Hal Finney and accompanying denials.[6][7] The possibility that Satoshi Nakamoto was a computer collective in the European financial sector has also been bruited.[8]


In November 2008, a paper was posted on the internet under the name Satoshi Nakamoto titled bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System. This paper detailed methods of using a peer-to-peer network to generate what was described as "a system for electronic transactions without relying on trust".[9][10][11][12] In January 2009, the bitcoin network came into existence with the release of the first open source bitcoin client and the issuance of the first bitcoins,[10][13][14][15] with Satoshi Nakamoto mining the first block of bitcoins ever (known as the "genesis block"), which had a reward of 50 bitcoins. The value of the first bitcoin transactions were negotiated by individuals on the bitcointalk forums with one notable transaction of 10,000 BTC used to indirectly purchase two pizzas delivered by Papa John’s.[10]

On 6 August 2010, a major vulnerability in the bitcoin protocol was spotted. Transactions weren't properly verified before they were included in the transaction log or "block chain" which let users bypass bitcoin's economic restrictions and create an indefinite number of bitcoins.[16][17] On 15 August, the vulnerability was exploited; over 184 billion bitcoins were generated in a transaction, and sent to two addresses on the network. Within hours, the transaction was spotted and erased from the transaction log after the bug was fixed and the network forked to an updated version of the bitcoin protocol.[18][19] This was the only major security flaw found and exploited in bitcoin's history.[16][17]


Wikileaks[20] and other organizations began to accept bitcoins for donations. The Electronic Frontier Foundation began, and then temporarily suspended, bitcoin acceptance, citing concerns about a lack of legal precedent about new currency systems, saying that they "generally don't endorse any type of product or service."[21] The EFF's decision was changed on 17 May 2013.[22]

On 22 March 2011 WeUseCoins published the first viral video [23] which has had over 6.4 million views. On 23 December 2011, Douglas Feigelson of BitBills filed a patent application for "Creating And Using Digital Currency" with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, an action which was contested based on prior art in June 2013.[24][25]

In January 2012, bitcoin was featured as the main subject within a fictionalized trial on the CBS legal drama The Good Wife in the third season episode "Bitcoin for Dummies". The host of CNBC's Mad Money, Jim Cramer, played himself in a courtroom scene where he testifies that he doesn't consider bitcoin a true currency, saying "There's no central bank to regulate it; it's digital and functions completely peer to peer".[26]

In October 2012, BitPay reported having over 1,000 merchants accepting bitcoin under its payment processing service.[27]

In February 2013 the bitcoin-based payment processor Coinbase reported selling US$1 million worth of bitcoins in a single month at over $22 per bitcoin.[28] The Internet Archive announced that it was ready to accept donations as bitcoins and that it intends to give employees the option to receive portions of their salaries in bitcoin currency.[29]

In March the bitcoin transaction log or "block chain" temporarily forked into two independent logs with differing rules on how transactions could be accepted. The Mt. Gox exchange briefly halted bitcoin deposits and the exchange rate briefly dipped by 23% to $37 as the event occurred[30][31] before recovering to previous level of approximately $48 in the following hours.[32] In the US, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) established regulatory guidelines for "decentralized virtual currencies" such as bitcoin, classifying American "bitcoin miners" who sell their generated bitcoins as Money Service Businesses (or MSBs), that may be subject to registration and other legal obligations.[33][34][35]

In April, payment processors BitInstant and Mt. Gox experienced processing delays due to insufficient capacity[36] resulting in the bitcoin exchange rate dropping from $266 to $76 before returning to $160 within six hours.[37]

Bitcoin gained greater recognition when services such as OkCupid and Foodler began accepting it for payment.[38]

On 15 May 2013, the US authorities seized accounts associated with Mt. Gox after discovering that it had not registered as a money transmitter with FinCEN in the US.[39][40]

On 23 June 2013, it was reported that the US Drug Enforcement Administration listed 11.02 bitcoins as a seized asset in a United States Department of Justice seizure notice pursuant to 21 U.S.C. § 881.[41] It is the first time a government agency has claimed to have seized bitcoin.[42][43]

In July 2013 a project began in Kenya linking bitcoin with M-Pesa, a popular mobile payments system, in an experiment designed to spur innovative payments in Africa.[44] During the same month the Foreign Exchange Administration and Policy Department in Thailand stated that bitcoin lacks any legal framework and would therefore be illegal, which effectively banned trading on bitcoin exchanges in the country.[45][46] According to Vitalik Buterin, a writer for Bitcoin Magazine, "bitcoin's fate in Thailand may give the electronic currency more credibility in some circles", but he was concerned it didn't bode well for bitcoin in China.[47]

On 6 August 2013, Federal Judge Amos Mazzant of the Eastern District of Texas of the Fifth Circuit ruled that bitcoins are "a currency or a form of money" (specifically securities as defined by Federal Securities Laws), and as such were subject to the court's jurisdiction,[48][49] and Germany's Finance Ministry subsumed bitcoins under the term "unit of account"—a financial instrument—though not as e-money or a functional currency, a classification nonetheless having legal and tax implications.[50]

In October 2013, the FBI seized roughly 26,000 BTC from website Silk Road during the arrest of alleged owner Ross William Ulbricht.[51][52][53]

Two companies, Robocoin and Bitcoiniacs launched the world's first bitcoin ATM on 29 October 2013 in Vancouver, BC, Canada, allowing clients to sell or purchase bitcoin currency at a downtown coffee shop.[54][55][56]

In November 2013, the University of Nicosia announced that it would be accepting bitcoin as payment for tuition fees, with the university's chief financial officer calling it the "gold of tomorrow".[57] In December Overstock.com[58] announced plans to accept bitcoin in the second half of 2014. In January 2014, Zynga[59] announced it was testing bitcoin for purchasing in-game assets in seven of its games. That same month, The D Las Vegas Casino Hotel and Golden Gate Hotel & Casino properties in downtown Las Vegas announced they would also begin accepting bitcoin, according to an article by USA Today. The article also stated the currency would be accepted in five locations, including the front desk and certain restaurants.[60]

In September 2014 TeraExchange, LLC, received approval from the U.S.Commodity Futures Trading Commission "CFTC" to begin listing an over-the-counter swap product based on the price of a bitcoin. The CFTC swap product approval marks the first time a U.S. regulatory agency approved a bitcoin financial product.[61]

Prices and value history

The price of a bitcoin reached an all-time high of US$1124.76 on 29 November 2013, up from just US$13.36 on 5 January at the start of the year; the price subsequently dropped into the $200-$300 range. (semi logarithmic plot)

Among the factors which may have contributed to this rise were the European sovereign-debt crisis—particularly the 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis—statements by FinCEN improving the currency's legal standing and rising media and Internet interest.[62][63][64][65] The current all-time high was set on 17 November 2013 at US$1216.73 on the Mt. Gox exchange.[66]

As the market valuation of the total stock of bitcoins approached US$1 billion, some commentators called bitcoin prices a bubble.[67][68][69] In early April 2013, the price per bitcoin dropped from $266 to around $50 and then rose to around $100. Over two weeks starting late June 2013 the price dropped steadily to $70. The price began to recover, peaking once again on 1 October at $140. On 2 October, The Silk Road was seized by the FBI. This seizure caused a flash crash to $110. The price quickly rebounded, returning to $200 several weeks later.[70] The latest run went from $200 on 3 November to $900 on 18 November.[71] bitcoin passed a US$1000 all-time high on 28 November 2013 at Mt. Gox.

Prices fell to around $400 in April 2014, before rallying in the middle of the year. They then declined to not much more than $200 in early 2015.[72]

Until 2013 almost all market with bitcoins were in US $.[73][74][75]

Bitcoin value history (comparison to US$)
Date Price for 1 BTC Notes
Jan 2009 – Jan 2010 basically none No exchanges or market, users were mainly cryptography fans who were sending bitcoins for low or no value.
Feb 2010 – May 2010 less than $0.01 On 22 May 2010,[76] user "laszlo" made the first real-world transaction by buying two pizzas in Jacksonville, Florida for 10,000 BTC.[77][78] User "SmokeTooMuch" auctioned 10,000 BTC for $50 (cumulatively), but no buyer was found.[79][80]
July 2010 $0.08 In five days, the price grew 1000%, rising from $0.008 to $0.08 for 1 bitcoin.
Feb 2011 – April 2011 $1 bitcoin takes parity with US dollar.[81]
8 July 2011 $31 top of first "bubble", followed by the first price drop
Dec 2011 $2 minimum after few months
Dec 2012 $13 slowly rising for a year
April 11, 2013 $266 top of a price rally, during which the value was growing by 5-10% daily.
May 2013 $130 basically stable, again slowly rising.
June 2013 $100 in June slowly dropping to $70, but rising in July to $110
Nov 2013 $350 – $1250 from October $150–$200 in November, rising to $400, then $600, eventually reaching $900 on 11/19/2013 and breaking $1000 threshold on 27 November 2013.
Dec 2013 $600 – $1000 Price crashed to $600, rebounded to $1,000, crashed again to the $500 range. Stabilized to the ~$650–$800 range.
Jan 2014 $750 – $1000 Price spiked to $1000 briefly, then settled in the $800–$900 range for the rest of the month.[82]
Feb 2014 $550 – $750 Price fell following the shutdown of Mt. Gox before recovering to the $600–$700 range.
Mar 2014 $450 – $700 Price continued to fall due to a false report regarding bitcoin ban in China [83] and uncertainty over whether the Chinese government would seek to prohibit banks from working with digital currency exchanges.[84]
Apr 2014 $340 – $530 The lowest price since the 2012–2013 Cypriot financial crisis had been reached at 3:25 AM on April 11[85]
May 2014 $440 – $630 The downtrend first slow down and then reverse, increasing over 30% in the last days of May.
Mar 2015 $200 – $300 Price fell through to early 2015.
Early Nov 2015 $395 – $504 Large spike in value from 225-250 at the start of October to the 2015 record high of $504
May 2016 $450 Holding value.

Satoshi Nakamoto

Main article: Satoshi Nakamoto

"Satoshi Nakamoto" is presumed to be a pseudonym for the person or people who designed the original bitcoin protocol in 2008 and launched the network in 2009. Nakamoto was responsible for creating the majority of the official bitcoin software and was active in making modifications and posting technical information on the BitcoinTalk Forum.[86]

Investigations into the real identity of Satoshi Nakamoto were attempted by The New Yorker and Fast Company. The New Yorker's investigation brought up at least two possible candidates: Michael Clear and Vili Lehdonvirta. Fast Company's investigation brought up circumstantial evidence linking an encryption patent application filed by Neal King, Vladimir Oksman and Charles Bry on 15 August 2008, and the bitcoin.org domain name which was registered 72 hours later. The patent application (#20100042841) contained networking and encryption technologies similar to bitcoin's, and textual analysis revealed that the phrase "... computationally impractical to reverse" appeared in both the patent application and bitcoin's whitepaper.[9] All three inventors explicitly denied being Satoshi Nakamoto.[87][88] In May 2013, Ted Nelson speculated that Japanese mathematician Shinichi Mochizuki is Satoshi Nakamoto.[89] Later in 2013 the Israeli researchers Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir pointed to Silk Road-linked Ross William Ulbricht as the possible person behind the cover. The two researchers based their suspicion on an analysis of the network of bitcoin transactions.[90] These allegations were contested.[91] Ron and Shamir later retracted their claim.[92]

Nakamoto's involvement with bitcoin does not appear to extend past mid-2010.[93] In April 2011, Nakamoto communicated with a bitcoin contributor, saying that he had "moved on to other things".[94]

Stefan Thomas, a Swiss coder and active community member, graphed the time stamps for each of Nakamoto's 500-plus bitcoin forum posts; the resulting chart showed a steep decline to almost no posts between the hours of 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. Greenwich Mean Time. Because this pattern held true even on Saturdays and Sundays, it suggested that Nakamoto was asleep at this time, and the hours of 5 a.m. to 11 a.m. GMT are midnight to 6 a.m. Eastern Standard Time (North American Eastern Standard Time). Other clues suggested that Nakamoto was British: A newspaper headline he had encoded in the genesis block came from the UK-published newspaper The Times, and both his forum posts and his comments in the bitcoin source code used British English spellings, such as "optimise" and "colour".[95]

An Internet search by an anonymous blogger of texts similar in writing to the bitcoin whitepaper suggests Nick Szabo's "bit gold" articles as having a similar author.[6] Nick denied being Satoshi, and stated his official opinion on Satoshi and bitcoin in a May 2011 article.[96]

In a March 2014 article in Newsweek, journalist Leah McGrath Goodman doxed Dorian S. Nakamoto of Temple City, California, saying that Satoshi Nakamoto is the man's birth name.[97][98]

The fork of March 2013

On 12 March 2013, a bitcoin miner running version 0.8.0 of the bitcoin software created a large block that was considered invalid in version 0.7 (due to an undiscovered inconsistency between the two versions). This created a split or "fork" in the block chain since computers with the recent version of the software accepted the invalid block and continued to build on the diverging chain, whereas older versions of the software rejected it and continued extending the block chain without the offending block. This split resulted in two separate transaction logs being formed without clear consensus, which allowed for the same funds to be spent differently on each chain. In response, the Mt. Gox exchange temporarily halted bitcoin deposits.[99] The exchange rate fell 23% to $37 on the Mt. Gox exchange but rose most of the way back to its prior level of $48.[30][31]

Miners resolved the split by downgrading to version 0.7, putting them back on track with the canonical blockchain. User funds largely remained unaffected and were available when network consensus was restored.[100] The network reached consensus and continued to operate as normal a few hours after the split.[101]

Regulatory issues

On 18 March 2013, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (or FinCEN), a bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury, issued a report regarding centralized and decentralized "virtual currencies" and their legal status within "money services business" (MSB) and Bank Secrecy Act regulations.[35][40] It classified digital currencies and other digital payment systems such as bitcoin as "virtual currencies" because they are not legal tender under any sovereign jurisdiction. FinCEN cleared American users of bitcoin of legal obligations[40] by saying, "A user of virtual currency is not an MSB under FinCEN's regulations and therefore is not subject to MSB registration, reporting, and recordkeeping regulations." However, it held that American entities who generate "virtual currency" such as bitcoins are money transmitters or MSBs if they sell their generated currency for national currency: "...a person that creates units of convertible virtual currency and sells those units to another person for real currency or its equivalent is engaged in transmission to another location and is a money transmitter." This specifically extends to "miners" of the bitcoin currency who may have to register as MSBs and abide by the legal requirements of being a money transmitter if they sell their generated bitcoins for national currency and are within the United States.[33] Since FinCEN issued this guidance, dozens of virtual currency exchangers and administrators have registered with FinCEN, and FinCEN is receiving an increasing number of suspicious activity reports (SARs) from these entities.[102]

Additionally, FinCEN claimed regulation over American entities that manage bitcoins in a payment processor setting or as an exchanger: "In addition, a person is an exchanger and a money transmitter if the person accepts such de-centralized convertible virtual currency from one person and transmits it to another person as part of the acceptance and transfer of currency, funds, or other value that substitutes for currency."[34][35]

In summary, FinCEN's decision would require bitcoin exchanges where bitcoins are traded for traditional currencies to disclose large transactions and suspicious activity, comply with money laundering regulations, and collect information about their customers as traditional financial institutions are required to do.[40][103][104]

Patrick Murck of the Bitcoin Foundation criticized FinCEN's report as an "overreach" and claimed that FinCEN "cannot rely on this guidance in any enforcement action".[105][non-primary source needed]

Jennifer Shasky Calvery, the director of FinCEN said, "Virtual currencies are subject to the same rules as other currencies. ... Basic money-services business rules apply here."[40]

In its October 2012 study, Virtual currency schemes, the European Central Bank concluded that the growth of virtual currencies will continue, and, given the currencies' inherent price instability, lack of close regulation, and risk of illegal uses by anonymous users, the Bank warned that periodic examination of developments would be necessary to reassess risks.[106]

In 2013, the U.S. Treasury extended its anti-money laundering regulations to processors of bitcoin transactions.[107][108]

In June 2013, Bitcoin Foundation board member Jon Matonis wrote in Forbes that he received a warning letter from the California Department of Financial Institutions accusing the foundation of unlicensed money transmission. Matonis denied that the foundation is engaged in money transmission and said he viewed the case as "an opportunity to educate state regulators."[109]

In late July 2013, the industry group Committee for the Establishment of the Digital Asset Transfer Authority began to form to set best practices and standards, to work with regulators and policymakers to adapt existing currency requirements to digital currency technology and business models and develop risk management standards.[110]

In 2014, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filed an administrative action against Erik T. Voorhees, for violating Securities Act Section 5 for publicly offering unregistered interests in two bitcoin websites in exchange for bitcoins.[111]

Theft and exchange shutdowns

Theft of bitcoin has been documented on numerous occasions. At other times, bitcoin exchanges have shut down, taking their clients' bitcoins with them. A Wired study published April 2013 showed that 45 percent of bitcoin exchanges end up closing.[112]

On 19 June 2011, a security breach of the Mt. Gox bitcoin exchange caused the nominal price of a bitcoin to fraudulently drop to one cent on the Mt. Gox exchange, after a hacker used credentials from a Mt. Gox auditor's compromised computer illegally to transfer a large number of bitcoins to himself. They used the exchange's software to sell them all nominally, creating a massive "ask" order at any price. Within minutes, the price reverted to its correct user-traded value.[113][114][115][116][117][118] Accounts with the equivalent of more than US$8,750,000 were affected.[115]

In July 2011, the operator of Bitomat, the third-largest bitcoin exchange, announced that he lost access to his wallet.dat file with about 17,000 bitcoins (roughly equivalent to US$220,000 at that time). He announced that he would sell the service for the missing amount, aiming to use funds from the sale to refund his customers.[119]

In August 2011, MyBitcoin, a now defunct bitcoin transaction processor, declared that it was hacked, which caused it to be shut down, paying 49% on customer deposits, leaving more than 78,000 bitcoins (equivalent to roughly US$800,000 at that time) unaccounted for.[120][121]

In early August 2012, a lawsuit was filed in San Francisco court against Bitcoinica — a bitcoin trading venue — claiming about US$460,000 from the company. Bitcoinica was hacked twice in 2012, which led to allegations that the venue neglected the safety of customers' money and cheated them out of withdrawal requests.[122][123]

In late August 2012, an operation titled Bitcoin Savings and Trust was shut down by the owner, leaving around US$5.6 million in bitcoin-based debts; this led to allegations that the operation was a Ponzi scheme.[124][125][126][127] In September 2012, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission had reportedly started an investigation on the case.[128]

In September 2012, Bitfloor, a bitcoin exchange, also reported being hacked, with 24,000 bitcoins (worth about US$250,000) stolen. As a result, Bitfloor suspended operations.[129][130] The same month, Bitfloor resumed operations; its founder said that he reported the theft to FBI, and that he plans to repay the victims, though the time frame for repayment is unclear.[131]

On 3 April 2013, Instawallet, a web-based wallet provider, was hacked,[132] resulting in the theft of over 35,000 bitcoins[133] which were valued at US$129.90 per bitcoin at the time, or nearly $4.6 million in total. As a result, Instawallet suspended operations.[132]

On 11 August 2013, the Bitcoin Foundation announced that a bug in a pseudorandom number generator within the Android operating system had been exploited to steal from wallets generated by Android apps; fixes were provided 13 August 2013.[134]

In October 2013, Inputs.io, an Australian-based bitcoin wallet provider was hacked with a loss of 4100 bitcoins, worth over A$1 million at time of theft. The service was run by the operator TradeFortress. Coinchat, the associated bitcoin chat room, has been taken over by a new admin.[135]

On 26 October 2013, a Hong-Kong based bitcoin trading platform owned by Global Bond Limited (GBL) vanished with 30 million yuan (US$5 million) from 500 investors.[136]

On 3 March 2014, Flexcoin announced it was closing its doors because of a hack attack that took place the day before.[137][138][139] In a statement that now occupies their homepage, they announced on 3 March 2014 that "As Flexcoin does not have the resources, assets, or otherwise to come back from this loss [the hack], we are closing our doors immediately."[140] Users can no longer log in to the site.

Taxation and regulation

In 2012, the Cryptocurrency Legal Advocacy Group (CLAG) stressed the importance for taxpayers to determine whether taxes are due on a bitcoin-related transaction based on whether one has experienced a "realization event": when a taxpayer has provided a service in exchange for bitcoins, a realization event has probably occurred and any gain or loss would likely be calculated using fair market values for the service provided."[141]

In August 2013, the German Finance Ministry characterized bitcoin as a unit of account,[50][142] usable in multilateral clearing circles and subject to capital gains tax if held less than one year.[142]

On 5 December 2013, the People's Bank of China announced in a press release regarding bitcoin regulation that whilst individuals in China are permitted to freely trade and exchange bitcoins as a commodity, it is prohibited for Chinese financial banks to operate using bitcoins or for bitcoins to be used as legal tender currency, and that entities dealing with bitcoins must track and report suspicious activity to prevent money laundering.[143] The value of bitcoin dropped on various exchanges between 11 and 20 percent following the regulation announcement, before rebounding upward again.[144]

Sports sponsorship

On June 18, 2014, it was announced that bitcoin payment service provider BitPay would become the new sponsor of the St. Petersburg Bowl game under a two-year deal, renamed the Bitcoin St. Petersburg Bowl. Bitcoin will be accepted for ticket and concession sales as part of the sponsorship, and the sponsorship itself was also paid for using bitcoin.[145] On April 2, 2015, after one year of sponsorship, BitPay declined to renew sponsorship of the game.[146]


  1. Jerry Brito; Andrea Castillo (2013). "Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers" (PDF). Mercatus Center. George Mason University. Retrieved 22 October 2013. 
  2. Dai, W (1998). "b-money". Archived from the original on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  3. Szabo, Nick. "Bit Gold". Unenumerated. Blogspot. Archived from the original on 2011-09-22. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  4. 5.0 5.1 Tsorsch, Florian; Scheuermann, Bjorn (15 May 2015). "Bitcoin and Beyond: A Technical Survey of Decentralized Digital Currencies" (PDF). Retrieved 24 June 2015. 
  5. 6.0 6.1 "Satoshi Nakamoto is (probably) Nick Szabo". LikeInAMirror. WordPress. Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 5 December 2013. 
  6. Weisenthal, Joe (19 May 2013). "Here's The Problem With The New Theory That A Japanese Math Professor Is The Inventor Of Bitcoin". Business Insider. Archived from the original on 2013-11-03. Retrieved 19 May 2013. 
  7. Bitcoin Inventor Satoshi Nakamoto is Anonymous-style Cell from Europe Archived December 17, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  8. 9.0 9.1 Nakamoto, Satoshi (1 Nov 2008). "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" (PDF). Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  9. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Wallace, Benjamin (23 November 2011). "The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin". Wired. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  10. "Bitcoin P2P e-cash paper". 31 October 2008. 
  11. "Satoshi's posts to Cryptography mailing list". Mail-archive.com. Retrieved 26 March 2013. 
  12. "Block 0 – Bitcoin Block Explorer". Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. 
  13. Nakamoto, Satoshi (9 January 2009). "Bitcoin v0.1 released". Archived from the original on 2014-03-26. 
  14. "SourceForge.net: Bitcoin". Archived from the original on 2013-03-16. 
  15. 16.0 16.1 Sawyer, Matt (26 February 2013). "The Beginners Guide To Bitcoin – Everything You Need To Know". Monetarism. Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. 
  16. 17.0 17.1 "Vulnerability Summary for CVE-2010-5139". National Vulnerability Database. 8 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. Retrieved 22 March 2013. 
  17. Nakamoto, Satoshi. "ALERT — we are investigating a problem". Archived from the original on 2013-10-15. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  18. Garzik, Jeff. "Strange block 74638". Archived from the original on 2013-10-16. Retrieved 15 October 2013. 
  19. Greenberg, Andy (14 June 2011). "WikiLeaks Asks For Anonymous Bitcoin Donations". logs.forbes.com. Archived from the original on 2011-06-27. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  20. "EFF and Bitcoin | Electronic Frontier Foundation". Eff.org. 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  21. "EFF and Bitcoin | Electronic Frontier Foundation". Eff.org. 17 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 21 May 2013. 
  22. "What Is Bitcoin?". WeUseCoins.com. Archived from the original on 2011-03-22. Retrieved 2015-07-05. 
  23. "BitBills Attempt to Patent Physical Bitcoins". Let's Talk Bitcoin!. 30 June 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-02-19. Retrieved 23 October 2013. 
  24. "301 Response to BitBills Patent By Crypto Coin Wallet Cards". Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. 
  25. Toepfer, Susan (16 January 2012). "'The Good Wife' Season 3, Episode 13, 'Bitcoin for Dummies': TV Recap". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 2014-01-12. 
  26. Browdie, Brian (11 September 2012). "BitPay Signs 1,000 Merchants to Accept Bitcoin Payments". American Banker. Archived from the original on 2014-04-12. 
  27. Ludwig, Sean (8 February 2013). "Y Combinator-backed Coinbase now selling over $1M Bitcoin per month". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. 
  28. Mandalia, Ravi (22 February 2013). "The Internet Archive Starts Accepting Bitcoin Donations". Parity News. Archived from the original on 2013-06-03. Retrieved 28 February 2013. 
  29. 30.0 30.1 Lee, Timothy (12 March 2013). "Major glitch in Bitcoin network sparks sell-off; price temporarily falls 23%". Arstechnica. Archived from the original on 2013-04-22. 
  30. 31.0 31.1 Blagdon, Jeff (12 March 2013). "Technical problems cause Bitcoin to plummet from record high, Mt. Gox suspends deposits". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2013-04-22. 
  31. "Bitcoin Charts". Archived from the original on 2014-05-09. 
  32. 33.0 33.1 Lee, Timothy (20 March 2013). "US regulator Bitcoin Exchanges Must Comply With Money Laundering Laws". Arstechnica. Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Bitcoin miners must also register if they trade in their earnings for dollars. 
  33. 34.0 34.1 "US govt clarifies virtual currency regulatory position". Finextra. 19 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-03-26. 
  34. 35.0 35.1 35.2 "Application of FinCEN's Regulations to Persons Administering, Exchanging, or Using Virtual Currencies" (PDF). Department of the Treasury Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  35. Roose, Kevin (8 April 2013) "Inside the Bitcoin Bubble: BitInstant's CEO – Daily Intelligencer". Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. . Nymag.com. Retrieved on 20 April 2013.
  36. "Bitcoin Exchange Rate". Bitcoinscharts.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-24. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  37. Van Sack, Jessica (27 May 2013). "Why Bitcoin makes cents". Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  38. Dillet, Romain. "Feds Seize Assets From Mt. Gox's Dwolla Account, Accuse It Of Violating Money Transfer Regulations". Archived from the original on 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2013-05-15. 
  39. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 Berson, Susan A. (2013). "Some basic rules for using 'bitcoin' as virtual money". American Bar Association. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  40. Cohen, Brian. "Users Bitcoins Seized by DEA". Archived from the original on 2013-10-09. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  41. "The National Police completes the second phase of the operation "Ransomware"". El Cuerpo Nacional de Policía. Retrieved 2013-10-14. 
  42. Sampson, Tim (2013). "U.S. government makes its first-ever Bitcoin seizure". The Daily Dot. Archived from the original on 2013-06-30. Retrieved 2013-10-15. 
  43. Jeremy Kirk (July 11, 2013). "In Kenya, Bitcoin linked to popular mobile payment system". Cio.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  44. Andrew Trotman (30 July 2013). "Virtual currency Bitcoin not welcome in Thailand in possible setback to mainstream ambitions". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  45. Maierbrugger, Arno (30 July 2013). "Thailand first country to ban digital currency Bitcoin". Inside Investor. Archived from the original on 2014-02-04. Retrieved 3 August 2013. 
  46. "Virtual currency Bitcoin not welcome in Thailand in possible setback to mainstream ambitions". bitcoinsalvation. 4 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015. 
  47. Farivar, Cyrus (2013-08-07). "Federal judge: Bitcoin, "a currency," can be regulated under American law". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 2013-08-15. 
  48. "Securities and Exchange Commission v. Shavers et al, 4:13-cv-00416 (E.D.Tex.)". Docket Alarm, Inc. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved 14 August 2013. 
  49. 50.0 50.1 Vaishampayan, Saumya (19 August 2013). "Bitcoins are private money in Germany". Marketwatch. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. 
  50. "After Silk Road seizure, FBI Bitcoin wallet identified and pranked". Archived from the original on 2014-04-05. 
  51. "Silkroad Seized Coins". Archived from the original on 2014-01-09. 
  52. Hill, Kashmir. "The FBI's Plan For The Millions Worth Of Bitcoins Seized From Silk Road". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2014-05-02. 
  53. "World's first Bitcoin ATM goes live in Vancouver Tuesday". CBC. Archived from the original on 2013-10-28. 
  54. "Vancouver to host world's first Bitcoin ATM". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. 
  55. "The world's first Bitcoin ATM is coming to Canada next week". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. Retrieved October 29, 2013. 
  56. "Cypriot University to Accept Bitcoin Payments". abc News. 21 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 24 November 2013. 
  57. Dante D'Orazio (21 December 2013). "Online retailer Overstock.com plans to accept Bitcoin payments next year". Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  58. Carl Franzen (4 January 2014). "Zynga tests Bitcoin payments for seven online games". Archived from the original on 2014-01-06. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  59. Trejos, Nancy. "Las Vegas casinos adopt new form of currency: Bitcoins". USA Today. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  60. Callaway, Claudia; Greebel, Evan; Moriarity, Kathleen; Xethalis, Gregory; Kim, Diana. "First Bitcoin Swap Proposed". The National Law Review. Katten Muchin Rosenman LLP. Retrieved 15 September 2014. 
  61. Traverse, Nick (3 April 2013). "Bitcoin's Meteoric Rise". Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. 
  62. Bustillos, Maria (2 April 2013). "The Bitcoin Boom". Archived from the original on 2014-03-13. 
  63. Seward, Zachary (28 March 2013). "Bitcoin, up 152% this month, soaring 57% this week". Archived from the original on 2014-04-18. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 
  64. "A Bit expensive". The Economist. 1 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-04-05. 
  65. "BTC ticker". Bitcointicker.co. Archived from the original on 2014-04-06. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  66. Estes, Adam (28 March 2013). "Bitcoin Is Now A Billion Dollar Industry". Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. 
  67. Salmon, Felix. "The Bitcoin Bubble and the Future of Currency". Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 9 April 2013. 
  68. Ro, Sam (3 April 2013). "Art Cashin: The Bitcoin Bubble". Archived from the original on 2014-04-09. 
  69. "BBC News — Bitcoin value drops after FBI shuts Silk Road drugs site". Bbc.co.uk. 2013-10-03. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  70. "Mt. Gox graph". Bitcoinity.org. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  71. http://www.coindesk.com/markets-weekly-bitcoin-price-drops-coinbase-euphoria-wanes/
  72. (English) Bitcoin Charts (price) Archived 28 March 2011 at WebCite
  73. (English) History of Bitcoin (Bitcoin wiki) Archived February 13, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  74. "History — Bitcoin". En.bitcoin.it. Archived from the original on 2014-02-13. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  75. "Why Bitcoin Matters". Retrieved 2016-01-04. 
  76. (English) Pizza for bitcoins? (diskusní vlákno) Archived February 13, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  77. (English) Laszlo's pizza for $76,880 Archived April 12, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  78. (English) Bitcoin Auction: 10,000.00 BTC --- Starting Bid 50.00 USD (discussion thread) Archived December 24, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  79. "2010". En.bitcoin.it. Archived from the original on 2014-02-13. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  80. Leos Literak. "Bitcoin dosáhl parity s dolarem". Abclinuxu.cz. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  81. (English) Coindesk Bitcoin Price Index Chart Archived May 12, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  82. "BTC Price Declines Following False Report of Bitcoin Ban in China". CoinDesk.com. 21 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-03-28. 
  83. "Price of Bitcoin Falls Under $500 Amid Uncertainty in China". CoinDesk.com. 28 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. 
  84. BitcoinWisdom - Live Bitcoin/Litecoin charts Archived May 11, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  85. "The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin". Wired. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  86. Penenberg, Adam. "The Bitcoin Crypto-Currency Mystery Reopened". FastCompany. Archived from the original on 2013-10-06. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  87. Greenfield, Rebecca (11 October 2011). "The Race to Unmask Bitcoin's Inventor(s)". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  88. "I Think I Know Who Satoshi Is". YouTube TheTedNelson Channel. 18 May 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. 
  89. John Markoff (23 November 2013). "Study Suggests Link Between Dread Pirate Roberts and Satoshi Nakamoto". New York Times. 
  90. Trammell, Dustin D. "I Am Not Satoshi". Archived from the original on 2013-12-05. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  91. Wile, Rob. "Researchers Retract Claim Of Link Between Alleged Silk Road Mastermind And Founder Of Bitcoin". Business Week. Archived from the original on 2014-03-26. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  92. "The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin". Wired. 23 November 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-10-31. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  93. Davis, Joshua (10 October 2011). "The Crypto-Currency". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 2013-08-23. Retrieved 16 February 2013. 
  94. Benjamin Wallace: The Rise and Fall of Bitcoin, Wired, November 23, 2011 Archived October 19, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  95. "Newsweek Thinks It Found the Real "Satoshi Nakamoto" ... and His Name Is Satoshi Nakamoto". slate.com. March 6, 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-04-29. 
  96. Leah McGrath Goodman (6 March 2014). "The Face Behind Bitcoin". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 6 March 2014. 
  97. Greenberg, Andy (6 March 2014). "Bitcoin Community Responds To Satoshi Nakamoto's 'Uncovering' With Disbelief, Anger, Fascination". Forbes.com. Forbes. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  98. Karpeles, Mark. "Bitcoin blockchain issue – bitcoin deposits temporarily suspended". Mt. Gox. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  99. "11/12 March 2013 Chain Fork Information". Bitcoin Project. Archived from the original on 2014-02-14. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  100. "Bitcoin software bug has been rapidly resolved". ecurrency. 12 March 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-03-31. 
  101. "Remarks From Under Secretary of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence David S. Cohen on 'Addressing the Illicit Finance Risks of Virtual Currency'". United States Department of the Treasury. March 18, 2014. 
  102. Lee, Timothy (19 March 2013). "New Money Laundering Guidelines Are A Positive Sign For Bitcoin". Forbes. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. 
  103. Faiola, Anthony; Farnam, T.W. (4 April 2013). "The rise of the bitcoin: Virtual gold or cyber-bubble?". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. 
  104. Murck, Patrick (19 March 2013). "Today, we are all money transmitters... (no, really!)". Bitcoin Foundation. 
  105. "Virtual Currency Schemes". European Central Bank. October 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 July 2013. 
  106. "Bitcoin, the nationless electronic cash beloved by hackers, bursts into financial mainstream". Fox News. 11 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-11-07. . Fox News (11 April 2013). Retrieved on 20 April 2013.
  107. "Bitcoin Currency, Hackers Make Money, Investing in Bitcoins, Scams – AARP". Archived from the original on 2014-03-22. . Blog.aarp.org (19 March 2013). Retrieved on 20 April 2013.
  108. Coldewey, Devin (24 June 2013). "Bitcoin losing shine after hitting the spotlight". NBC News. Archived from the original on 27 July 2013. 
  109. Tsukayama, Hayley (30 July 2013). "Bitcoin, others set up standards group". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 1, 2013. 
  110. Casey, Brian (23 July 2014). "Bitcoin – Is Anyone In Charge?". The National Law Review. http://www.natlawreview.com/article/bitcoin-anyone-charge. Retrieved 15 September 2014.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  111. "Study: 45 percent of Bitcoin exchanges end up closing". Archived from the original on 2013-04-26. Retrieved 28 April 2013. © Condé Nast UK 2013  Wired.co.uk (26 April 2013).
  112. Karpeles, Mark (30 June 2011). "Clarification of Mt Gox Compromised Accounts and Major Bitcoin Sell-Off". Tibanne Co. Ltd. Archived from the original on 2014-02-10. 
  113. "Bitcoin Report Volume 8 – (FLASHCRASH)". YouTube BitcoinChannel. 19 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2014-04-11. 
  114. 115.0 115.1 Mick, Jason (19 June 2011). "Inside the Mega-Hack of Bitcoin: the Full Story". DailyTech. Archived from the original on 2013-04-22. 
  115. Lee, Timothy B. (19 June 2011) "Bitcoin prices plummet on hacked exchange". Archived from the original on 2012-04-10. , Ars Technica
  116. Karpeles, Mark (20 June 2011) Huge Bitcoin sell off due to a compromised account – rollback, Mt.Gox Support Archived 20 June 2011 at WebCite
  117. Chirgwin, Richard (19 June 2011). "Bitcoin collapses on malicious trade – Mt Gox scrambling to raise the Titanic". The Register. Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. 
  118. Dotson, Kyt (1 August 2011) "Third Largest Bitcoin Exchange Bitomat Lost Their Wallet, Over 17,000 Bitcoins Missing". Archived from the original on 2014-02-15. . SiliconAngle
  119. Jeffries, Adrianne (8 August 2011) "MyBitcoin Spokesman Finally Comes Forward: "What Did You Think We Did After the Hack? We Got Shitfaced"". Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. . BetaBeat
  120. Jeffries, Adrianne (19 August 2011) "Search for Owners of MyBitcoin Loses Steam". Archived from the original on 2014-04-04. . BetaBeat
  121. Geuss, Megan (12 August 2012) "Bitcoinica users sue for $460k in lost bitcoins". Archived from the original on 2014-04-11. . Arstechnica
  122. Peck, Morgen (15 August 2012) "First Bitcoin Lawsuit Filed In San Francisco". Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. . IEEE Spectrum
  123. "Bitcoin ponzi scheme – investors lose US$5 million in online hedge fund". RT. 29 August 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-02-18. 
  124. Jeffries, Adrianne (27 August 2012). "Suspected multi-million dollar Bitcoin pyramid scheme shuts down, investors revolt". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. 
  125. Mick, Jason (28 August 2012). ""Pirateat40" Makes Off $5.6M USD in BitCoins From Pyramid Scheme". DailyTech. Archived from the original on 2014-04-11. 
  126. Mott, Nathaniel (31 August 2012). "Bitcoin: How a Virtual Currency Became Real with a $5.6M Fraud". PandoDaily. Archived from the original on 2013-10-27. 
  127. Foxton, Willard (2 September 2012) "Bitcoin 'Pirate' scandal: SEC steps in amid allegations that the whole thing was a Ponzi scheme". The Daily Telegraph. London. 27 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. . The Telegraph
  128. "Bitcoin theft causes Bitfloor exchange to go offline". BBC News. 25 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. 
  129. Goddard, Louis (5 September 2012). "Bitcoin exchange BitFloor suspends operations after $250,000 theft". The Verge. Archived from the original on 2014-02-11. 
  130. Chirgwin, Richard (25 September 2012). "Bitcoin exchange back online after hack". PC World. Archived from the original on 2014-04-14. 
  131. 132.0 132.1 Cutler, Kim-Mai (3 April 2013). "Another Bitcoin Wallet Service, Instawallet, Suffers Attack, Shuts Down Until Further Notice". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on 2014-03-31. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  132. "Transaction details for bitcoins stolen from Instawallet". Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. . Blockchain.info (3 April 2013). Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  133. Chirgwin, Richard (12 August 2013). "Android bug batters Bitcoin wallets / Old flaw, new problem". The Register. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013.  ● Original Bitcoin announcement: "Android Security Vulnerability". bitcoin.org. 11 August 2013. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. 
  134. "Australian Bitcoin bank hacked". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2013-12-30. Retrieved 9 November 2013. . Retrieved 9 November 2013.
  135. "Hong Kong Bitcoin Trading Platform Vanishes with millions". Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2013. 
  136. "Flexcoin — flexing Bitcoins to their limit". malwareZero. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  137. "Bitcoin bank Flexcoin shuts down after theft". Reuters. 4 March 2014. Archived from the original on 2014-03-09. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  138. "Bitcoin bank Flexcoin pulls plug after cyber-robbers nick $610,000". The Register. Archived from the original on 2014-03-10. Retrieved March 9, 2014. 
  139. "Flexcoin homepage". Flexcoin. Archived from the original on 2014-03-12. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  140. Stewart, David D.; Soong Johnston, Stephanie D. (29 October 2012). "2012 TNT 209-4 NEWS ANALYSIS: VIRTUAL CURRENCY: A NEW WORRY FOR TAX ADMINISTRATORS?. (Release Date: OCTOBER 17, 2012) (Doc 2012-21516)". Tax Notes Today. 2012 TNT 209-4 (2012 TNT 209–4). 
  141. 142.0 142.1 Nestler, Franz (16 August 2013). "Deutschland erkennt Bitcoins als privates Geld an (Germany recognizes Bitcoin as private money)". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Archived from the original on 2013-10-22. 
  142. 2013-12-05, 中国人民银行等五部委发布《关于防范比特币风险的通知》, People's Bank of China Archived January 22, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  143. 2013-12-06, China bans banks from bitcoin transactions, The Sydney Morning Herald Archived March 23, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  144. "BitPay to Sponsor St. Petersburg Bowl in First Major Bitcoin Sports Deal". Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  145. "Bitcoin backer BitPay dumps St. Pete Bowl sponsorship". Retrieved 2 April 2015. 

Further reading