Honourable Artillery Company

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Honourable Artillery Company
File:HAC shortarms crest.gif
Crest and Motto of the Honourable Artillery Company
Active 1087;
chartered 25 August 1537–
Allegiance  United Kingdom
Branch  British Army
Role Surveillance and Target Acquisition (STA)
Size One regiment
Part of 1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade
Garrison/HQ London
Motto Arma pacis fulcra
(Latin: "Armed Strength for Peace")[note 1]
March Quick – The British Grenadiers
Slow – The Duke of York
Canter – Bonnie Dundee
Trot – The Keel Row
Walk – The Duchess of Kent
Captain-General Her Majesty The Queen[1]
Colonel Commandant General Sir Richard Barrons KCB, CBE[2]
Lt. Col. Edward Heath
General Sir Richard O'Connor, KT, GCB, DSO, MC, ADC
Tactical Recognition Flash GuardsTRF.svg
Only worn by Corps of Drums
Plume None
Bearskin cap
Abbreviation HAC

The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII and is considered one of the oldest military organisations in the world.[3] Today it is a registered charity whose purpose is to attend to the "better defence of the realm", this purpose is primarily achieved by the support of the HAC Regiment and a detachment of Special Constabulary to the City of London Police. The word "artillery" in "Honourable Artillery Company" does not have the current meaning that is generally associated with it, but dates from a time when in the English language that word meant any projectile, including for example arrows shot from a bow. The equivalent form of words in modern English would be either "Honourable Infantry Company"[4] or "Honourable Military Company."

In the 17th century its members played a significant part in the formation of both the Royal Marines and the Grenadier Guards whilst more recently regiments, battalions and batteries of the Company fought with distinction in both World Wars and its current Regiment, which forms part of the Army Reserve, is the oldest surviving regiment in the British Army, and the second most senior[5] in the Army Reserve.[note 2] Members of the Regiment and Specials are drawn, for the most part, from young men and women working in and around the City and Greater London. Those leaving the active units may become Veteran Members and remain within the fraternity of the Company.


The HAC can trace its history back as far as 1087,[6] but it received a Royal Charter from Henry VIII on 25 August 1537, when Letters Patent were received by the Overseers of the Fraternity or Guild of St George authorising them to establish a perpetual corporation for the defence of the realm to be known as the Fraternity or Guild of Artillery of Longbows, Crossbows and Handgonnes. This body was known by a variety of names until 1656, when it was first referred to as the Artillery Company. It was first referred to as the Honourable Artillery Company in 1685 and officially received the name from Queen Victoria in 1860. However, the Archers’ Company of the Honourable Artillery Company was retained into the late 19th century, though as a private club. Founded in 1781 by Sir Ashton Lever, it met at Archers’ Hall, Inner Circle, Regent's Park, London. The Archers' Company remained a part of the regiment operated from 1784 to the late 1790s, along with Matross, Grenadier (established on 11 August 1686)[7] and Light Infantry companies/divisions, with a Rifle or Jaeger Company introduced around 1803.[8]

Shield of the Honourable Artillery Company, in sand, 19th century.
HAC coat of arms supporter-a Pikeman of the Honorable Artillery Company in Sand.

The regiment has the rare distinction of having fought on the side of both Parliament and the Royalists during the English Civil War 1642 to 1649.

From its formation, the company trained at a site it had occupied at the Old Artillery Ground in Spitalfields and at The Merchant Taylors' Company Hall.[9] In 1622, the company built its first Armoury House at the site of the Old Artillery Gardens.

In 1638, Sir Maurice Abbot granted the company use of lands at its current site south of Bunhill Fields Burial Ground on City Road, which in 1649 consisted of twelve acres enclosed by a brick wall and pale.[9] In 1657, it sold its old Armoury House in Spitalfield to Master Gunner Richard Woolaston for £300.[10]

In 1656 the Grenadier Guards were formed from gentlemen of the Honourable Artillery Company who had taken the then heir to the throne, Prince Charles (later Charles II), to Europe for his safety during the English Civil War.[11]

In 28 October 1664 in the New Artillery Gardens the body of men that would become the Royal Marines was first formed with an initial strength of 1,200 infantrymen recruited from the Trained Bands of London as part of the mobilisation for the Second Anglo-Dutch War. James (later King James VII & II), the Duke of York and Albany, Lord High Admiral and brother of King Charles II, was Captain-General of the Honourable Artillery Company, the unit that trained the Trained Bands.[12][13]

Until 1780, captains of the HAC trained the officers of the London Trained Bands.

The Company served in Broadgate during the Gordon Riots of 1780 and in gratitude for its role in restoring order to the City, the Corporation of London presented "two brass field-pieces", which led to the creation of an HAC Artillery Division. (These guns are on display in the entrance hall of Armoury House.)

In 1860, control of the Company moved from the Home Office to the War Office and in 1889, a Royal Warrant gave the Secretary of State for War control of the Company's military affairs. In 1883, Queen Victoria decreed that the HAC took precedence next after the Regular Forces and therefore before the Militia and Yeomanry in consideration of its antiquity.[14][15]

South Africa 1900–02

Members of the Company first served as a formed unit overseas in the South African War (1899–1902). Almost two hundred members served;[16] the majority in the City of London Imperial Volunteers (CIV) as infantry, mounted infantry and in a Field Battery that was officered, and for the most part manned, by members of the Company.[17]

Territorial and Reserve Forces Act 1907

In 1907, the Company became part of the newly formed Territorial Force with the passing of the Territorial and Reserve Forces Act. The HAC Infantry was due to become part of the newly formed London Regiment as the "26th (County of London) Battalion"[18] but instead managed to retain its own identity as the Honourable Artillery Company Infantry Battalion. The HAC also had its property and privileges protected by the Honourable Artillery Company Act 1908.

First World War

File:HAC guns at Sheik Othman.jpg
A QF 15 pounder of B Battery, Honourable Artillery Company, at Sheik Othman, Aden.
Gunners of A Battery, the Honourable Artillery Company, attached to the 4th Australian Light Horse Brigade, crouch between their 13 pounder quick fire field guns and a cactus hedge near Belah, Palestine, in March 1918.

The HAC expanded to three infantry battalions and seven artillery batteries[19] during the First World War. Second Lieutenants Reginald Leonard Haine and Alfred Oliver Pollard, of the 1st Battalion HAC, were awarded Victoria Crosses for their actions at Gavrelle in 1917. In total 1,600 men from the HAC were killed during the war.

In September 1914 the 1st Battalion followed the British Expeditionary Force to France and fought in the 1st Battle of Ypres. After the fighting at the Battle of the Ancre in 1916 and the Battle of Arras in 1917, it became an officer training battalion and provided demonstration platoons.[20] Elements of the battalion were used to help quell the Étaples Mutiny. The 2nd Battalion HAC was raised in August 1914; it was in France by October 1916 and in action on 25 February 1917 at Bucquoy. They fought at the Battle of Arras in May and the 3rd Battle of Ypres in October.[21] In November 1917, the battalion moved to the Italian Front under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Richard O’Connor. In the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, in October 1918, they led a force of Italians, Americans and British that compelled the garrison of the strategic island of Papadopoli (in the main channel of the River Piave) to surrender. For this remarkable feat of arms, the HAC was awarded two Distinguished Service Orders, five Military Crosses, three Distinguished Conduct Medals and 29 Military Medals.[22]

Both A Battery and B Battery went to Suez in April 1915. In July, B Battery fought in the recapture of Sheikh Othman (key to the water supply to Aden) from the Turks as part of the Aden campaign.[23] In February 1917, both batteries took part in the Palestine Campaign, were in action at the First and Second Battle of Gaza and entered Jerusalem in December 1917. In the German counter-attack during the Second action of Es Salt on 1 May 1918, A Battery was forced to make a rapid withdrawal under heavy fire, which resulted in the loss of all its guns. Both A and B Batteries took part in the Battle of Megiddo in September.[24]

The 2nd Line batteries – 2/A Battery and 2/B Battery – were formed in 1914 and served on the Western Front in 1917 and 1918 as part of an Army Field Artillery Brigade; the 3rd Line batteries – A (Reserve) Battery and B (Reserve) Battery – were formed in 1915 to provide trained replacements for the 1st and 2nd Line batteries.

A seventh battery, the 309th (HAC) Siege Battery RGA, went to France in April 1917 and saw action at the Battle of Messines and the Battle of Amiens.[25][26]

In 1919 Lt-Col Edward Lisle Strutt commanded a detachment of HAC soldiers that escorted the family of Charles I, the last Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King, to safety in Switzerland in 1919, after having served as the family's protector at Eckartsau on the personal initiative of King George V.[27][28]


When the Territorial Force was reconstituted as the Territorial Army (TA) in 1920, the HAC infantry battalion was reformed, while A and B Batteries formed a composite RHA unit with the City of London Yeomanry (Rough Riders) (one battery) as 11th (HAC and City of London Yeomanry) Brigade, RHA. The TA began to expand rapidly at the time of the Munich Crisis in 1938, and the Yeomanry left to form a separate light anti-aircraft regiment leaving 11th Regiment RHA (HAC). Subsequently the HAC formed the 12th (1939) and 13th Regiments RHA (HAC) (1940) and the 86th (HAC) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment (1939).[29][30][31]

Second World War

An M7 Priest of the 11th (HAC) Regiment Royal Horse Artillery in Tunisia (1943).

Infantry Battalion

In 1939, the Infantry Battalion became 162 (HAC) Officer Cadet Training Unit, this was the Officer Training Unit of the Reconnaissance Corps.[32] In 1942 101 RAC OCTU amalgamated with 162 Reconnaissance Corps OCTU to form 100 RAC OCTU based at Royal Military College, Sandhurst.[33]

11th (HAC) Regiment, RHA

The 11th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, served in North Africa at the Battle of Knightsbridge with 25-pounder guns and, after re-equipping with the M7 Priest self-propelled gun, in the Second Battle of El Alamein. The regiment's guns were the first guns ashore in the invasion of Sicily; then they took part in the Allied invasion of Italy and the Italian Campaign.[34]

File:The British Army in North-west Europe 1944-45 B10244.jpg
11th Armoured Division vehicles during the advance in Holland, 22 September 1944. On the right is a Sexton self-propelled gun of 13th (HAC) Regiment Royal Horse Artillery.

12th (HAC) Regiment, RHA

The 12th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, took part in the Operation Torch landings and were in action at Thala in February 1943, where they halted a German advance following the Battle of the Kasserine Pass. After re-equipping with Priests, they too moved on to Italy in March 1944 and fought at Monte Cassino.[35]

13th (HAC) Regiment, RHA

The 13th (HAC) Regiment, RHA, (equipped with Sexton self-propelled guns) fought in Normandy, the Netherlands and across the Rhine into Germany as part of 11th Armoured Division.[36]

86th (HAC) HAA Regiment, RA

See main article: 86th (Honourable Artillery Company) Heavy Anti-Aircraft Regiment, Royal Artillery

The regiment formed part of 26th (London) Anti-Aircraft Brigade defending the London Inner Artillery Zone.[37] Anti-Aircraft Command mobilised on 24 August 1939, and so 86th (HAC) HAA Rgt was already manning static gunsites at places like Primrose Hill and Finsbury Park when war was declared on 3 September. The regiment served in the defence of the capital throughout The Blitz. It became a mobile unit in 1942 and was one of the first units to land on D-Day, with Regimental Headquarters commanding a composite AA Assault Group on Juno Beach.[38] During the Normandy Campaign and subsequent advance into Belgium the regiment's 3.7-inch HAA guns were sometimes used to engage ground targets.[39] During the winter of 1944–45 its guns and radar defended Brussels and Antwerp against V-1 flying bombs (known as 'Divers').[40][41]

Over seven hundred members of the Company lost their lives during the Second World War.


In 1947, the Company was reorganised into:[30]

  • an Infantry Battalion
  • 1st Regiment HAC, RHA, of self-propelled Artillery (from 11th (HAC) RHA Regiment)
  • 2nd Regiment HAC, (HAA) of heavy Anti-Aircraft Artillery (from 86th (HAC) HAA Regiment; disbanded 1955)
  • G Locating Battery (from 12th (HAC) RHA Regiment; disbanded 1961)

In 1973, the Regiment was again reorganised; it was given the role of providing 'Stay Behind' Observation Posts (OPs) for the British Army of the Rhine as one of the three Territorial Army units making up the Corps Patrol Unit (with 21 and 23 SAS).[42] The new structure was:

  • Three patrol squadrons (1, 2 & 3) – a fourth patrol squadron was formed for a short period in the 1980s
  • HQ Squadron, including Training Wing and Medical Wing
  • The Gun Troop (a battery of six 25 pounder guns and not part of the OP role)
  • Band
  • Corps of Drums

In 1992, the signals troops that had been integrated into the patrol squadrons were brought together to form the Signal Squadron; they were subsequently re-integrated with the patrol squadrons in 2010.

In 1992, on Salisbury Plain, the HAC was the last British Army unit to fire the twenty-five pounder in the field, as the Gun Troop retrained onto the 105mm Light Gun. The 25 pounder continued to be fired ceremonially until replaced by the Light Gun.

A former HAC 25-pounder gun, preserved at the Tower of London

In 1996, the first formed unit of the Regiment to be mobilised for active service since the Second World War was called up for Operation Resolute with the NATO IFOR in Bosnia.[1] Since that time, the Regiment has always had soldiers on operational service overseas.

The Regiment participated in the celebration of HM The Queen's Golden Jubilee on 4 June 2002 by firing a 62 gun salute at the Tower of London, and by providing a Guard of Honour (including the Regimental Band and the Massed Corps of Drums of the 1st Bn Grenadier Guards and the HAC) at St Paul's Cathedral.[43] In December of that year, the Captain General visited and dined with the company to commemorate her Golden Jubilee as Captain General.[44]

In 2005, the guns were withdrawn from Gun Troop and the Troop was renamed Liaison Troop (L Tp) with the role of providing liaison officer parties. The majority of L Tp deployed to Iraq over winter 2006/7. The ceremonial Light Guns were retained by the Regiment to fire salutes at the Tower of London.

In 2006, the HAC was the first major unit of the Territorial Army to convert to the Bowman communications system. When Bowman was withdrawn from the Territorial Army in 2008/9, it was one of the few units to retain the equipment.[45]

From 2007 to 2012, one of the patrol squadrons (3 Sqn) was redesignated as the Training Squadron and took on the role of Regiment's Training Wing.

In 2014, the Regiment was re-roled and re-organised into a single Surveillance and Target Acquisition (STA) Patrol Squadron ( 1 Sqn – paired with 4/73 (Special OP) Bty) and two STA Squadrons (2 & 3 Sqns, paired with P and 93 Btys in 5 Regt RA).

In 2016, Queen Elizabeth II became the longest serving Captain-General of the HAC, with 64 years of service.[46]

Current role and organisation

Special Observer Badge, worn by Soldiers who have passed the STA Patrol Course

Current role

The HAC Regiment is a unit of the Army Reserve based just north of the City of London, providing a squadron of STA patrols and two squadrons in the Light STA role.

An STA Patrol comprises a team of four/six specialist soldiers, the role of STA Patrols is to conduct high risk static covert surveillance at long range and in close proximity to the enemy. The patrols are trained and equipped both to collect highly granular information and intelligence and to deliver joint effects at range; be they kinetic (all patrols contain personnel trained in the delivery of precision and indirect fires) or non-kinetic. A pre-requisite of service in the Patrols is successful completion of the STA Patrol Course and qualification as a Special Observer. Training emphasises mental and physical resilience and a high premium is placed on well developed self-reliance and self-discipline. Patrols are trained with a variety of skills to mitigate the dangers of operating in a high risk environment and/or isolated circumstances. Unlike most Army Reserve units, who are only required to train at up to sub-unit (company or squadron) level, the HAC is required to train as a regiment.[47] Its Permanent Staff Instructors are drawn from across the British Armed Forces.

The HAC has a ceremonial role in providing guards of honour at the Guildhall in the City of London during state visits and, since 1924 (when the Royal Artillery ceased to be stationed at the Tower), has provided the saluting battery at the Tower of London for state occasions. Due to the demanding requirements of their role, the HAC is privileged to be one of only a small number of Army Reserve units with responsibility for the carrying out portions of Phase 1 (recruits) and 2 training of its own soldiers 'in house'. The recruits course comprises six HAC-only weekends, followed by a two-week camp with other reserve soldiers at an Army Training Unit (usually Pirbright).


The HAC is not part of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, being an older and separate regiment with its own uniform, insignia and colours. Operationally the regiment forms part of 1st Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade. The sub units of the HAC are:[48] Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) – Squadrons.[48][48]

  • Headquarters Squadron.
    • The Corps of Drums. Inherited from the infantry battalion and still wearing the grenade beret badge, Foot Guards belt, beret badge backing and tactical recognition flash. As with an infantry battalion corps of drums, the drummers are 'soldiers first' and regularly deploy soldiers on operations as well as fulfilling their ceremonial role. The Corps of Drums form part of HQ Squadron and are a separate entity from the Band who are primarily musicians. They provide personnel for the Parachute Gun Troop whilst still maintaining their ceremonial drumming role.[49][50]
    • The Medical Wing, commanded by the Surgeon Major who is a Royal Army Medical Corps officer, provides medical support to the Regiment for peacetime training and on deployment. Combat Medical Technicians within the Medical Wing undergo additional specialist medical training with the Defence Medical Services.
    • Parachute Gun Troop, a Troop of Light Gun detachments trained to operate the 105mm Light Gun. The Gun Troop is paired with 7th Parachute Regiment Royal Horse Artillery.[49][50]
    • CIS Troop, a troop to provide Communications Information Systems capability to the HAC and other units within 1ISR.
    • Enabling Troop, a troop to provide logistics and motorised capability to the HAC and other units within 1ISR.
  • STA Squadrons, each Squadron is about 80 soldiers strong:
    • 1 Squadron, Surveillance and Target Acquisition patrols.
    • 2 Squadron, manpower for Light STA detachments.
    • 3 Squadron, manpower for Light STA detachments.


The Regiment has had individuals or sub-units on active service at all times since 1996; with the personnel serving in a wide variety of roles in Northern Ireland, Bosnia, Kosovo, Iraq, Afghanistan and various countries in Africa.[1] Commitments included the deployment of individuals to HUMINT roles in the Balkans (including as part of Joint Commission Observer teams) and then formed patrols to Bosnia, Kosovo and Iraq; independent sub-units to Operation Telic 4 and 5 in Iraq and L Troop to Operation Telic 9; as well as individual and group reinforcements to other infantry and artillery units.[51] In recent times, the rate of deployment, generally in groups of 10, has speeded up dramatically. These groups are divided between operating and maintaining anti-mortar systems and other high technology equipment and forming part of the Brigade Reconnaissance Force (BRF).[52]

On Tuesday 4 December 2007, Trooper Jack Sadler who was serving with the BRF was killed when his vehicle was hit by a blast north of Sangin, in Helmand province. Two other soldiers were injured in the attack.[53] In 2008, the Runner-up for the Cobra Trophy for Volunteer Reservist of the year was Trooper Adam Cocks of 2 Squadron HAC, who was severely injured in Afghanistan when his vehicle struck a mine. While recuperating at Headley Court rehabilitation centre, he and a friend came up with the idea of a rugby match at Twickenham to help raise money for the charity Help for Heroes.[54]

Soldier ranks

The non-commissioned ranks of the HAC are as follows

  • Trooper (Drummer if in the Corps of Drums)
  • Lance Corporal (Corporal insignia)
  • Lance Sergeant
  • Sergeant
  • Colour Sergeant
  • Warrant Officer Class 2
  • Warrant Officer Class 1 (there are no WO1 posts for reserves in the HAC, however HAC soldiers can achieve this rank on Extra Regimental Employment)


In 1830, King William IV ordered that the uniform of the HAC should be based on that of the Grenadier Guards, except that where the Grenadiers wear gold, the HAC were to wear silver. This tradition is continued today by the wearing of the silver coloured grenade in the forage cap similar to the brass one of the Grenadiers, and the buttons and lace on HAC dress uniforms being silver coloured instead of gold. The Corps of Drums wear the Household Division's blue red blue TRF.


The HAC wear the same khaki beret as the Footguards, but with the HAC's own cap badge ("short arms") in white metal on a black backing. Officers and Warrant Officers wear an embroidered cloth version of the same badge. The Corps of Drums and Regimental Band wear the HAC infantry grenade on a blue red blue backing, which is superficially identical to that of the Grenadier Guards.

From July 2008, members of 4/73 (Sphinx) Special OP Battery, the HAC's regular 'sister' unit, adopted the khaki beret to mark their close working relationship.[55]

Other headdress

On the forage cap, the HAC infantry grenade (white metal) is worn by junior ranks of all subunits of the regiment. Sergeants and Warrant Officers wear a different version of the grenade, which has the letters HAC in brass on the ball of the grenade.

Officers wear an embroidered silver grenade on their forage caps in No 1 Dress (Infantry) and on the Service Dress forage cap but when in No 1 Dress (Gunner) they wear the HAC Artillery cap badge. The latter is similar to that of the Royal Artillery but with "HAC" and "Arma Pacis Fulcra" replacing "Ubique" and "Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt".

In Full Dress (normally only worn by the Band and Corps of Drums), the Bearskin is worn without a plume.

Badges of rank

File:HAC Officers Stars.jpg
HAC officer's rank stars. Combat, Service and Mess Dress

In No 2 dress, Soldiers wear the larger Foot Guards badges of rank and qualification. Lance Corporals wear two chevrons and Lance Sergeants three. In Full Dress and Number 1 dress, WO2's wear a large colour badge of the same pattern as the Grenadier Guards, but in silver rather than gold.

Officers' crowns and stars are of the same pattern as those of the Grenadiers (Order of the Garter), woven for combat uniforms but in silver for Service and Barrack Dress.

Stable belts

Each Squadron wears a different stable belt:

  • HQ Sqn and Band – red and blue edged with narrow yellow stripes
  • 1 Sqn – red
  • 2 Sqn – green (Identical to that worn by The Rifles)
  • 3 Sqn – blue
  • Training Wing – black
  • Corps of Drums – blue red blue (Identical to that worn by the Foot Guards)
Honourable Artillery Company

(RHQ, HQ squadron, and Band)

Honourable Artillery Company

(1 squadron)

Honourable Artillery Company

(2 squadron)

Honourable Artillery Company

(3 squadron)

Honourable Artillery Company

(Training Wing)

Honourable Artillery Company

(Corps of Drums)


Other distinctions

HAC ribbon

In 1906, King Edward VII gave the HAC the distinction of a special ribbon for the Volunteer Officers' Decoration and Volunteer Long Service Medal. The ribbon, based on The King's personal colours (in turn taken from the Royal Standard), is red and blue edged with narrow yellow stripes. This ribbon has been carried forward to subsequent Territorial long service medals awarded to HAC members.[56][57]

Each year the Captain General awards a prize to the member of the Regiment who is deemed to have made an outstanding contribution to the Regiment. Holders of this prize, known as the King's or Queen's Prize wear a badge incorporating the Captain General's cypher and the year of award on Numbers 1, 2 and 10 (Mess) Dress.

B Battery HAC supported the 10th Hussars during the Second World War and, in 1972, the Captain General approved the Battery wearing a 10th Hussar button as the top button on Numbers 1, 2 and 10 dress. This privilege is carried on by 2 Sqn following the 1973 re-organisation.

The Regiment's soldiers, with the exception of the Corps of Drums, do not wear TRFs (Tactical recognition flashs), even when its members are attached to other units.

Coat of arms

Coat of arms of Artillery Company in the 17th century by Wenceslaus Hollar

The coat of arms of the company is a Shield of Arms, helm, mantling and crest with as supporters a Pikeman and a Musketeer and the motto 'Arma Pacis Fulcra', Unlike other regiments of the British Army, the HAC is incorporated and is therefore eligible to bear and use a Coat of arms. It is believed to date from circa 1615 and the coat of arms appears on a military manual published in 1629.[58]

Battle honours

The battle honours listed were awarded for services of both infantry and artillery units of the HAC. Those in bold are borne on the Colours.


The HAC is unique within the British Army in having two types of Colours. The HAC has its ceremonial Guns (which are considered Colours in Artillery regiments), but also carries a stand of traditional Colours of the Infantry. These Colours follow the pattern of line infantry regiments: the Queen's Colour being a version of the Union Flag, the Regimental Colour being blue with the HAC Coat of Arms in the centre.
The last four occasions that new Colours have been presented to the Regiment were in 1928 by Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VIII), and in 1955, 1980 and on 18 May 2007 by HM Queen Elizabeth II, the regiment's Captain General.[59]

The 1928 Colours are now on display in the Medal Room at Armoury House.

Squadron affiliations

Each of 1, 2 and 3 Squadrons is affiliated to several of the historic sub-units of the HAC and carries on their traditions, hence 2 Squadron wearing the 10th Hussar Button. For example:

  • 1 Squadron is affiliated to A Battery, No 1 Company and the Grenadier Company
  • 2 Squadron is affiliated to B Battery, No 3 Company, No 4 Company and the Yager Company.
  • 3 Squadron is affiliated to 2nd Regiment HAC, C Battery, G Locating Battery, Headquarters, Support and Light Companies.[citation needed]

City of London Police Special Constabulary

In 1919, following a decision to increase the strength of the Metropolitan Police Reserve Force, the Home Secretary approached the HAC to form a Division of Special Constabulary. Some 150 members, mostly Great War veterans, rallied to the call and joined the Division, forming the HAC Detachment. At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Detachment was integrated into G Division of the Metropolitan Police and then later with Islington Division.[60] Following reorganisation, the Detachment is now part of the City of London Police Special Constabulary,[61] its administrative base is Armoury House.[62]

In 2010, the Ferrers Trophy was awarded to Special Constable Patrick Rarden of the detachment for using his banking skills and experience to help train colleagues and provide invaluable assistance to solve fraud cases.[63] The award is given annually to police volunteers for exceptional dedication and innovation.

The detachment retains the Detachment's unique identity by wearing the HAC Regimental Titles in addition to their Divisional identification. They are considered an 'Active' unit of the HAC as is the Regiment and continue the HAC's tradition of keeping order within the City of London.

"The Company"

As well as the Territorial Army Regiment and Specials (the "Active Units"), the HAC exists as a separate charitable organisation[64]—often colloquially referred to as "The Company" or "The House". The Company owns Armoury House and the Regiment's current grounds and, in addition to supporting the Active Unit, provides the basis for a social calendar.

There are two distinct classes of member of the Company. The first, Regimental Members, are those who are currently serving or who have previously served in the HAC Regiment or Special Constabulary. The second, Members, must have served at least two years in Regular or three years in Volunteer units of the Crown or in the Police.[65] Some members are people who have reached senior rank (for example Major General The Duke of Westminster)[66] and they provide some 17% of the overall membership of the Company.[67]

Since 1633, the Company has been governed by a Court of Assistants, like many of the City Livery Companies. The first Annual General Court for which a record can be found was held in 1660.[citation needed] In the early part of the 17th century, the Court of Aldermen of the City of London appointed the chief officers and paid the professional soldiers who trained members of the Company. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen are honorary members of the Court of Assistants.

There are two civilian ceremonial organisations that are part of the HAC as distinct from the 'Active Units' of the Regiment and the Specials:

Pikemen and Musketeers

Pikemen escorting John Stuttard, Lord Mayor of the City of London during the 2006 Lord Mayor's Show

The Pikemen and Musketeers (formed 1925, given a Royal Warrant 1955) are made up of veteran members of the Active Unit. They are the personal bodyguard of the Lord Mayor of the City of London and form his Guard on ceremonial occasions.

Light Cavalry

Light Cavalry HAC at the Lord Mayor's Show

The Light Cavalry Troop (formed 1979, granted Royal Warrant 2004)[68] is open to both Regimental and Non-Regimental members of the Company.[65] They escort the Lady Mayoress, and in particular provide her 'Travelling Escort' at the Lord Mayor's Show. Both mounted and dismounted elements of the Light Cavalry supply guards at polo matches at Smith's Lawn Windsor during the summer months.



From 1538 to 1658, the HAC occupied and trained at the Old Artillery Ground in Spitalfields on the site of the outer precinct of the dissolved Priory and Hospital of St Mary Spital. In 1658, following disputes over use of the Ground with the Gunners of the Tower, it moved to its current site south of the Bunhill Fields Burial Ground continuing to the south as far as Chiswell St. This area is described in a map of the area of 1677 as the 'New Artillery Garden' and has variously been referred to as the Artillery Ground and the Artillery Garden. This current site now falls in the London Borough of Islington, and is just north of the City of London, the main entrance being in City Road.

During the aftermath of the 7 July 2005 London bombings on the London transport system, the Artillery Garden was used as a temporary mortuary.[1]

Armoury House

Armoury House

Armoury House stands at the north of these grounds, and is the home of the HAC. It was built to replace a smaller 17th-century armoury; the central portion being completed in 1735 to designs by Thomas Stibbs financed in part by a gift of £500 from King George I. Subscriptions were received from members of the Company and from the Court of Lieutenancy for the City of London. The building cost £1,690, which included the price of the furniture.

In 1802, a distinctive flag tower was added to the roof. The East and West Wings were built in 1828, replacing much smaller buildings on either side of Armoury House. A cottage, originally for the Sergeant Major, was built against the West Wing in 1850.

1862 saw the completion of a Victorian drill hall attached to the rear. The Albert Room, as it was called, featured an iron trussed roof and was named in honour of the then recently deceased Prince Albert.

In 1990, the hall was bombed by the Provisional IRA whilst a 21st birthday party was in progress.[69]

Finsbury Barracks

Finsbury Barracks

Finsbury Barracks is the Regiment's Headquarters and is leased by London RFCA from the HAC itself. Completed in 1857, it was designed by the architect Joseph Jennings and built in Kentish Ragstone. An extension, faced in striped stone and granite, linking Finsbury Barracks to Armoury House was designed by Arnold & Boston and added in 1994. Finsbury Barracks was refurbished in the same year and was re-opened by the Captain General in 1996.

The HAC Shooting Lodge / "Bisley Hut"

Built in 1928 on land leased from the National Rifle Association at Bisley and replacing the original hut on the site. The building was funded by donations, including some in memory of the fallen of the First World War.[70] it is a two-storey building with an oak-panelled dining room on the ground floor and sleeping accommodation on the first. In 2011, the HAC disposed of the Lodge and returned the land to the National Rifle Association.

Pencelli Estate

In 1999, the Company acquired the Welsh Pencelli Estate near Brecon as an area that could be used by the Regiment for military and adventure training. The historic estate lies in the heart of the Brecon Beacons National Park and comprises approximately 14,000 acres (57 km²) of hill land.

Notable members of the HAC

Captains General of the HAC[citation needed]


1657 Major General Philip Skippon
1660 James II
1690 William III
1702 Prince George of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Cumberland
1715 George II
1766 George IV
1830 William IV
1837 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
1843 Prince Albert, the Prince Consort
24 July 1863 Edward VII
7 May 1910 George V
1 February 1936 Edward VIII
10 December 1936 George VI
6 February 1952 Elizabeth II[1]
Lord Mayor of London Hugh Hamersley, Commander of the HAC 1619, 1633
The Earl of Denbigh in HAC Uniform as caricatured by Spy (Leslie Ward) in Vanity Fair, August 1894
Colonels Commandant


Schools affiliation

In 1995 six public schools (Eton, Harrow, Marlborough, Radley, Rugby and Wellington) became affiliated to the Company. The rationale behind these affiliations is to facilitate communication with the schools and to inform students of the opportunities available to them within the HAC.[58] The schools were selected on the count of former pupils who became casualties whilst serving in the Great War.

Cadet Force

The HAC established a Cadet Battalion in 1942 during the Second World War which continued until 1958. During the War and until 1948 members of the Cadet Battalion fired salutes and provided guards of honour whilst members of the HAC were away on active service.[109] In 2012 the HAC sponsored and helped establish a cadet unit at the City of London Academy Islington.[110]

See also

Order of precedence

Preceded by
Royal Monmouthshire Royal Engineers
Order of Precedence Succeeded by
Army Reserve



  1. A loose translation, more literally "Arms (hold the) balance of peace"
  2. Reserve units take precedence after regular units


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 "Text of The Queen's speech at the presentation of colours to the Honourable Artillery Company". 18 May 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007. Since I last presented new colours to the Company in 1980, the Regiment has served with distinction on exercises and operations around the world, and most recently in the Balkans, Iraq and Afghanistan. Facilities sited in the Company's grounds played a key role in the aftermath of the London bombings of 2005.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Service dinner:Honourable Artillery Company". The Times. London. 28 April 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Mass. corps votes in first female members". The Ancient and Honorables is the third-oldest military organization in the world, just a few decades behind the Honourable Artillery Company of London and the Vatican's Pontifical Swiss Guard.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Oxford English Dictionary. Entries for "infantry", "artillery" and "military". "Infantry" today is closer to the meaning of "artillery" then than is "military" because "military" includes in its scope today's usage of "artillery" and also mounted troops, whereas "infantry" , like the HAC when founded, did not include these.
  5. "Letters Confirming The Date of Formation And Precedence of the Regiment". Monmouth Castle Museum.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Nevill, Ralph (1909). British military prints. pp. xxxiv.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. Anthony Higmore (1804). The History of the Honourable Artillery Company of the City of London. p. 123.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Justine Taylor, Archivist, Honourable Artillery Company, Armoury House, London, 2009
  9. 9.0 9.1 Anthony Higmore (1804). The History of the Honourable Artillery Company of the City of London. p. 64.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Anthony Higmore (1804). The History of the Honourable Artillery Company of the City of London. p. 80.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Britain and Belgium mark 360th anniversary of the Grenadier Guards - News stories". GOV.UK. 2 September 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  13. Royal Marines History – Origins
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  15. "THE HONOURABLE ARTILLERY COMPANY AND THE ROYAL NAVAL VOLUNTEERS—PRECEDENCE AT REVIEWS". Hansard. 7 July 1887.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. Williams, Basil; Childers, Erskine, eds. (1903). The H.A.C. in South Africa : a record of the services rendered in the South African War by members of the Honourable Artillery Company. London: Smith, Elder & co. p. 1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Williams, Basil; Childers, Erskine, eds. (1903). The H.A.C. in South Africa : a record of the services rendered in the South African War by members of the Honourable Artillery Company. London: Smith, Elder & co. p. 2.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. List of units of the British Army Territorial Force 1908
  19. Kingham, WR (1919). London Gunners. Naval & Military Press. ISBN 1-84342-658-7.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  20. Walker, G Gould (1954). The Honourable Artillery Company 1537–1947. Gale & Polden. p. 379.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (pp. 243–249)
  21. G Gould Walker, pp. 255–257
  22. Davies, Peter (4 November 2008). "Britain's oldest regiment hails a great Italian victory 90 years on". London: The Times. Retrieved 4 May 2010. When the pikemen and musketeers of the London-based Honourable Artillery Company parade before the President of Italy, Giorgio Napolitano, in the town square of Vittorio Veneto in northeastern Italy today they will do so as a grateful acknowledgement by the Italian authorities of a remarkable British contribution to Italy's final victory over the forces of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the First World War.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  23. General Martin Farndale (1988). History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. The Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base, 1914–1918. Royal Artillery Institution. p. 357. ISBN 1-870114-05-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. G Gould Walker, pp. 249–254
  25. G Gould Walker, p. 258
  26. Baker, Chris. "The Royal Horse Artillery". The Long, Long Trail. Retrieved 16 December 2014. The HAC batteries had a strong officer-producing role for the RHA and RFA, and due to the high quality and number of officers provided it was sought to extend this service to the RGA. Thus in 1916 the 309th (Honourable Artillery Company) Siege Battery RGA was formed. This served in France from 1917 until the end of the war.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  27. Gordon Brook-Shepherd, Uncrowned Emperor – The Life and Times of Otto von Habsburg, Hambledon Continuum, London 2003. ISBN 1-85285-549-5.
  28. Gordon Brook-Shepherd, The Last Habsburg, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London 1968. ISBN 0-297-17650-1.
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  35. G Gould Walker pp. 289–299
  36. Delaforce, Patrick (1993). The Black Bull. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3183-3.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>Patrick Delaforce served with the regiment through this campaign
  37. Routledge, Table LX, p. 378.
  38. Routledge, pp. 307–11.
  39. Routledge, p. 314.
  40. Routledge, pp. 333–41.
  41. G Gould Walker pp. 304–9
  42. HAC Museum display
  43. "Court Circular". Buckingham Palace. 4 June 2002. Retrieved 28 December 2007. A Guard of Honour of the Honourable Artillery Company, with the Band of the Company, and the Massed Corps of Drums of the 1st Battalion Grenadier Guards and the Honourable Artillery Company, under the command of Major Simon Garrett, with the Mounted Bands and a Dismounted Detachment of the Household Cavalry were formed up outside the Great West Door.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  44. "Court Circular". Buckingham Palace. 11 December 2002. Retrieved 28 December 2007. The Queen was entertained to Lunch at Armoury House, City Road, London EC1, this afternoon by the Honourable Artillery Company to celebrate Her Majesty's Fifty Years as Captain General.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  45. "Ministry of Defence". TAQ. December 2008.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. Laura Proto. "Queen celebrates becoming longest serving Captain-General of Honourable Artillery Company | London | News | London Evening Standard". Standard.co.uk. Retrieved 10 June 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. "Royal Artillery Individual Training Regulations" (PDF). June 2004. p. 30. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008. Retrieved 28 December 2007. The one exception to this is the HAC who are mandated to train at the regimental level<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  51. Coughlan, Tom (26 December 2007). "UK troops prepare for Christmas in Afghanistan". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 27 December 2007. A highly paid investment banker for Credit Suisse in civilian life, Trooper Kelly is one of several soldiers from the City of London-based unit to give up a year of handsomely remunerated work in the Square Mile for training and deployment in Helmand.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. Margarette, Driscoll (12 December 2010). "Pinstripe Army at two o'colck". Sunday Times. pp. New Review 8<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. "Trooper Jack Sadler killed in Afghanistan". Ministry of Defence. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 5 December 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Military news in brief". London: The Times. 21 March 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2010. The Cobra Trophy Runner-up for 2008 is Trooper Adam Cocks, 2nd Squadron Honourable Artillery Company, who was severely injured in Afghanistan when his vehicle struck a mine. While recuperating at Headley Court rehabilitation centre, in Surrey, he and a friend came up with the idea of a rugby match at Twickenham to help to raise money for the charity Help for Heroes.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "Yorkshire Gunners honoured for Service in Iraq and Afghanistan". Ministry of Defence. 3 July 2008. Earlier in the day, in what marks a historic change in the history of one of the Batteries from the Regiment – 4/73 (Sphinx) Battery, the traditional dark blue beret of the Royal Artillery was replaced with a khaki-coloured beret. The change came about as a result of the Battery working closely, in times of war, with the Honourable Artillery Company, who have a close association with the Household Division. The khaki beret is the colour beret that the Household Division wear and so to mark this close working relationship the beret has been changed.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. "Honourable Artillery Company – Medal Ribbon". Honourable Artillery Company. Retrieved 7 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. "Honourable Artillery Company of London's Long Service Medal, awarded to Sgt. Tptr W.J. Waterlow, 1906". The Fitzwilliam Museum: Watson Medals Catalogue Home. Fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk. 17 October 2006. Retrieved 7 April 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. 58.0 58.1 Regimental Customs Traditions and History, An Aide Memoire. The Honourable Artillery Company. 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Court Circular". Buckingham Palace. 18 May 2007. Retrieved 28 December 2007. The Queen, Captain General, accompanied by The Duke of Edinburgh, this morning presented new Colours to The Honourable Artillery Company at Armoury House, City Road, London EC1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. "Some questions you might ask about the HAC and Special Constables" (PDF). Honourable Artillery Company.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. "Special Constables' duties". City of London Police.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "City of London Police Special Constabulary". Honourable Artillery Company.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[permanent dead link]
  63. "Crime-fighting volunteers recognised". National Policing Improvement Agency. 17 June 2010. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012. Ferrers Trophy overall winner – Special Constable Patrick Rarden of City of London Police. Patrick has used his banking skills and experience to help train colleagues and provide invaluable assistance to solve fraud cases. He has also established a new charity called "Waste Not, Want Not" to help feed rough sleepers. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Extract from the Central Register of Charities maintained by the Charity Commission for England and Wales". Retrieved 28 December 2007.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. 65.0 65.1 "HAC Members". HAC Website. There are two broad classes of memberships available in the HAC, Regimental and Non-Regimental. Regimental Members are either reserve soldiers in the Active Unit of the HAC or Veteran members who have ended their active soldiering, but still enjoy the many benefits of belonging to this unique organisation. Non-Regimental members will have served for at least 2 years in Regular or 3 years in Volunteer units of any of the Armed Services of the Crown or in the Police. They must be proposed and seconded by Regimental members.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. "HAC Journal Article, Spring 2006". Light Cavalry Website. And, of course, a new member of the Company and recruit to the Light Cavalry, Major-General the Duke of Westminster.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. HAC Financial Statements and Report of the Court of Assistants for the year ended 31 October 2007
  68. "Court Circular". Windsor Castle. 20 April 2004. Retrieved 28 December 2007. The Queen this morning visited the Light Cavalry of the Honourable Artillery Company in Windsor Great Park and was received by General Sir Timothy Granville-Chapman (Colonel Commandant). Her Majesty subsequently took the Royal Salute and granted a Royal Warrant to the Light Cavalry.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. "IRA terror victim speaks out against Peter King". 7 January 2011. The 1990 bombing occurred when Parker was at the 21st birthday of a friend at the hall of the Honourable Artillery Company in London, a space frequently rented out for social events.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Honourable Artillery Company Pavilion". A half-timbered Tudor style shooting lodge, with tiled roof and leaded windows. Familiarly known as the Bisley Hut, the shooting lodge was funded by donations, including some in memory of the fallen. These include a donation from the architect B de C Jackson in memory of his brother Martin killed in action in 1916 and donations from widows and female relatives. The Journal of the Honourable Artillery Company records that 'two members have endowed cubicles in memory of a friend or relation who gave his life'. Inside, the fireplace was donated in memory of Dermot O'Brien who was killed in 1917 and the panelling was donated in memory of Captain Tatham who was killed in 1914.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  87. "Tributes paid to 'wonderful' Jock". He played for Celtic between 1942 and 1947, including a goal from 25 yards on his debut at Parkhead, and featured in four Old Firm' games. However, his appearances were few and faw between after he was conscripted to the Honourable Artillery Company...<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. "Where's Kev?". Ski XClub of Great Britain. Blind daredevil Kevin Alderton, sponsored by the Ski Club of Great Britain, has set the first ever Blind Speed Ski World Record at the 'Flying Kilometre' in Les Arcs, France, with a remarkable speed of 100.94mph, in 2.21 seconds, over a distance of 1 kilometre!<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  93. "Obituary". London: The Daily Telegraph. 4 September 2008. Retrieved 4 May 2010. Young Charles was educated at Haileybury before working for a firm of stock jobbers in the City. He then had a spell with Unilever. He joined the Honourable Artillery Company in 1936 and the Supplementary Reserve in 1939 as a gunner officer.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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  106. "Patrick Shovelton". The Daily Telegraph. 29 March 2012. A scholar at both Charterhouse and Keble College, Oxford, Shovelton joined up on graduating in 1940. He served in the Royal Artillery and the Honourable Artillery Company, then in 1945 was appointed deputy assistant adjutant-general at the War Office.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "John Talbot – Obituary". London: The daily Telegraph. 13 July 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2010. In this action Corporal Sidney "Basher" Bates won a posthumous Victoria Cross. Talbot's own comrades remember his imperturbability – "unshakeable even in the most alarming situations" – a valuable quality in war. The citation for the award of an MC paid tribute to the skill and courage with which he pushed forward with his signallers and broke up a series of determined counter-attacks.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
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Further reading

  • Bluett, Antony A Gunner's Crusade: The Campaign in the Desert, Palestine & Syria as Experienced by the Honourable Artillery Company During the Great War Leonaur Ltd
  • Goold Walker, G The Honourable Artillery Company, 1537–1947 2nd edition (Aldershot: Gale and Polden, 1954)
  • Goold Walker, G The Honourable Artillery Company, 1537–1987 3rd edition (London: Honourable Artillery Company, 1986)
  • Litchfield, Norman E.H., The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0.
  • Money Barnes, Maj R., The Soldiers of London, London: Seeley Service, 1963.
  • Nash, NS, Valour in the Trenches!: 'Bombo' Pollard VC MC* DCM HAC in The Great War Pen & Sword Military (20 October 2011)
  • Pollard, AO Fire-eater. The Memoirs of a VC Naval & Military Press Ltd (20 June 2006)
  • Routledge, Brig N.W., History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: Anti-Aircraft Artillery 1914–55, London: Royal Artillery Institution/Brassey's, 1994, ISBN 1-85753-099-3
  • Trebich, Willy Broken Swastika, Futura Publications Limited
  • Wood, Jake Among You: The Extraordinary True Story of a Soldier Broken by War Mainstream Publishing (17 January 2013)

External links