From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
A thread of conversation and media in the Messages application on iOS 8
Developer(s) Apple Inc.
Initial release October 12, 2011 (2011-10-12)
Development status Active
Operating system iOS, OS X
Type Instant messaging service
License Proprietary
Website {{#property:P856}}

iMessage is an instant messenger service developed by Apple Inc. It is supported by the Messages application in iOS 5 and later[1] and OS X Mountain Lion and later.[2]


iMessage was announced by Scott Forstall at the WWDC 2011 keynote on June 6, 2011. A version of the iOS Messages application with support for iMessage was included in the iOS 5 update on October 12, 2011.

On February 16, 2012, Apple announced that a new OS X Messages application with support for iMessage, replacing iChat, would be part of OS X Mountain Lion.[2] Mountain Lion, with Messages, was released on July 25, 2012.

On October 23, 2012, Apple CEO, Tim Cook announced that Apple device users have sent 300 billion messages using iMessage and that Apple delivers an average of 28,000 messages per second. In February 2016, Eddie Cue announced that the number of iMessages sent per second has now grown to 200,000.[3]

In May 2014, a lawsuit was filed against Apple over an issue that, if a user switches from an Apple device to a non-Apple device, messages being delivered to them through iMessage would not reach their destination.[4][5] In November 2014 Apple addressed this problem by providing instructions and an online tool to deregister iMessage.[6][7] A federal court dismissed the suit in Apple's favor.[citation needed]

On March 21, 2016, a group of researchers from Johns Hopkins University published a report in which they demonstrated that an attacker in possession of iMessage ciphertexts could potentially decrypt photos and videos that had been sent via the service. The researchers published their findings after the vulnerability had been patched by Apple.[8][9]

On May 3, 2016, a project named "PieMessage" was announced, consisting of code for OS X that communicates with iMessage and connects to an Android client, allowing the Android client to send and receive messages.[10][11]


A new message created with the Messages application running in iOS 7 on an iPhone. When the sender is sending an iMessage, the "Send" button will appear blue notifying the message that is about to be sent is an iMessage instead of an SMS.

iMessage allows users to send texts, documents, photos, videos, contact information, and group messages over Wi-Fi, mobile phone Internet access, or other forms of Internet access to other iOS or OS X users, thus providing an alternative to standard SMS/MMS messaging for most users with devices running iOS 5 or later.

iMessage is accessible through the Messages app on an iPhone, iPad or iPod touch running iOS 5 or later or on a Mac running OS X Mountain Lion or later. Owners of these devices can register one or more email addresses with Apple, and, additionally, iPhone owners can register their phone numbers with Apple, provided their carrier is supported. When a message is sent to a mobile number, Messages will check with Apple if the mobile number is set up for iMessage. If it is, then the message will seamlessly transition from SMS to iMessage.

In Messages, the user's sent communication is aligned to the right, with replies from other people on the left. A user can see if the other iMessage user is typing a message, pale gray ellipsis appears in the text bubble of the other user when a reply is started. It is also possible to start a conversation on one iOS device and continue it on another. iMessage-specific functions operate only between machines running iOS 5 or later or running Mountain Lion or later, but, on the iPhone, Messages can use SMS to communicate with non-iOS devices, or with other iPhones when iMessage is unavailable.[12] On iPhones, green buttons and text bubbles indicate SMS-based communication; on all iOS devices, blue buttons and text bubbles indicate iMessage communication.

All iMessages are encrypted and can be tracked using delivery receipts.[13] If the recipient enables Read Receipts, the sender will be able to see that the recipient has read the message.

iMessage also allows users to set up chats with more than two people—a "group chat". However, the group chatting features do not integrate very well with members in the group who have a different type of phone.

If the correspondents' iPhones are running iOS 5 or later, iMessage will send the users' messages via the users' data connection instead of via SMS/MMS. This means that if a user sends a text message to another iOS 5 user, there is no SMS/MMS charge associated with the message. It is merely treated as an additional data transfer.


The iMessage protocol is based on the Apple Push Notification Service (APNs)—a proprietary, binary protocol. It sets up a Keep-Alive connection with the Apple servers. Every connection has its own unique code, which acts as an identifier for the route that should be used to send a message to a specific device. The connection is encrypted with TLS using a client side certificate, that is requested by the device on the activation of iMessage.


On November 12, 2012, Chetan Sharma, a technology and strategy consulting firm, published the US Mobile Data Market Update Q3 2012, noting the decline of text messaging in the United States, and suggested the decline may be attributed to Americans using alternative free messaging services such as iMessage.[14]

The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has listed iMessage on its "Secure Messaging Scorecard". As of 4 November 2014, iMessage has a score of 5 out of 7 points on the scorecard. It has received points for having communications encrypted in transit, having communications encrypted with keys the provider doesn't have access to (end-to-end encryption), having past communications secure if the keys are stolen (forward secrecy), having their security designs well-documented, and having a recent independent security audit. It is missing points because users can't verify contacts' identities and because the code is not open to independent review (open source).[15] In September 2015, Matthew Green noted that, because iMessage does not display key fingerprints for out-of-band verification, users are unable to verify that there has not occurred a man-in-the-middle attack.[16]

See also



  1. "iOS 5 - See new features included in iOS 5". Apple. Retrieved October 10, 2011. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "OS X Mountain Lion - Inspired by iPad. Made for the Mac.". Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  3. Zach Epstein (October 23, 2012). "Apple Kicks Off iPad Mini Event: 3 Million New iPods Sold, iOS 6 Now On 200 Million Devices". Boy Genius Report. Retrieved February 17, 2013. 
  4. Jim Edwards (2014-05-16). "Apple Lawsuit iPhones Don't Deliver Texts To Android". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-06-14. 
  5. Rosenblatt, Joel (May 16, 2014). "Apple Sued Over Vanishing Texts After IPhones Swapped Out". Bloomberg L.P. 
  8. Garman et al. 2016
  9. Nakashima, Ellen (21 March 2016). "Johns Hopkins researchers poke a hole in Apple’s encryption". The Washington Post. Nash Holdings LLC. Retrieved 21 March 2016. 
  10. Paul Miller (May 4, 2016). "PieMessage project brings iMessage to Android". The Verge. 
  11. PieMessage on GitHub
  12. MG Siegler (June 6, 2011). "Apple Has Finally Stuck A Dagger Into SMS. I Love It.". TechCrunch. Retrieved February 17, 2013. 
  13. Apple. "New Version of iOS Includes Notification Center, iMessage, Newsstand, Twitter Integration Among 200 New Features". Retrieved October 1, 2013. 
  14. Suzanne Choney. "Text messaging is on decline in US, says report". NBC News. Retrieved February 17, 2013. 
  15. "Secure Messaging Scorecard. Which apps and tools actually keep your messages safe?". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 4 November 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2016. 
  16. Green, Matthew (8 September 2015). "Let's talk about iMessage (again)". A Few Thoughts on Cryptographic Engineering (Blog). Retrieved 22 March 2016.