IND Concourse Line
|IND Concourse Line|
|System||New York City Subway|
|Locale||Manhattan and The Bronx|
|Termini||Norwood – 205th Street
|Owner||City of New York|
|Operator(s)||New York City Transit Authority|
|Line length||6.5 miles (10.5 km)|
|No. of tracks||2-3|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Electrification||600V DC third rail|
IND Concourse Line
The Concourse Line is an IND rapid transit line of the New York City Subway system. It runs from 205th Street in Norwood, Bronx to 145th Street in Harlem, Manhattan. It is the only B Division line in the Bronx, as well as the only fully underground line in the Bronx.
Description and service
|Time period||Section of line|
|rush hours||other times|
|B||local||no service||south of Bedford Park Blvd|
The Concourse Line runs north to south through the Bronx and portions of Harlem, parallel to the mostly-elevated IRT Jerome Avenue Line which lies between two and four blocks to the west for its entire length in the Bronx. It begins as a two-track line at Norwood – 205th Street, running east-to-west underneath East 205th Street, then under private property, then for a short portion under Van Cortland Avenue. As it travels west, a center track forms which leads to the Concourse Yard. The line then curves south at Mosholu Parkway to the Grand Concourse, from which it derives its name, at 206th Street. Two tracks from the Concourse Yard arrive between the two revenue tracks with switches and diamond crossovers between all four of them before the yard tracks merge to form the center track at Bedford Park Boulevard.
South of this station, the two outer tracks depress into a lower level and merge into a single center express track, while the center track splits to become the local tracks. The line then runs south with diamond crossovers at Tremont Avenue. Due to the terrain, the vicinity of 174th–175th Street station is uniquely built both underground and over 175th Street. Between 170th Street and 167th Street are more switches and crossovers, with a lay-up track adjacent to the Manhattan-bound local track.
The line curves west before 161st Street – Yankee Stadium and crosses the Harlem River into Manhattan via the Concourse Tunnel. There is one more stop, 155th Street, before the line curves south and joins the IND Eighth Avenue Line at the lower level of 145th Street.
The IND Concourse Line, also referred to as the Bronx−Concourse Line, was one of the original lines of the city-owned Independent Subway System (IND). The line running from Bedford Park Boulevard to the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan was approved by the city Board of Transportation on March 10, 1925, with the connection between the two lines approved on March 24, 1927. The line was originally intended to be four tracks, rather than three tracks, to Bedford Park Boulevard. This is the only IND line with three tracks (all other IND lines have either two or four tracks). The Concourse line's lower level of the 145th Street station was originally provisioned for four tracks, with the current tracks lining up with those of the upper level.
Construction of the line began in July 1928. It was originally planned to end the line just past the Bedford Park Boulevard station, with a provision for an eastern extension. An alternate approach to the current 205th Street station was proposed in February 1929, extending the line across private property onto Perry Avenue. The current routing was selected by June 1929. The building of the line and proposed extensions to central and eastern Bronx (see below) led to real estate booms in the area. The entire Concourse Line opened on July 1, 1933, less than ten months after the IND's first line, the IND Eighth Avenue Line, opened for service. Initial service was provided by the C train, at that time an express train, between 205th Street, then via the Eighth Avenue Line, Cranberry Street Tunnel and the IND South Brooklyn Line (now Culver Line) to Bergen Street. The CC provided local service between Bedford Park Boulevard and Hudson Terminal (now World Trade Center).
On December 15, 1940, with the opening of the IND Sixth Avenue Line, the D train began serving the IND Concourse Line along with the C and CC. It made express stops in peak during rush hours and Saturdays and local stops at all other times. C express service was discontinued in 1949-51, but the C designation was reinstated in 1985 when double letters used to indicate local service was discontinued. During this time, the D made local stops along the Concourse Line at all times except rush hours, when the C ran local to Bedford Park Boulevard. On March 1, 1998, the B train replaced the C as the rush-hour local on the Concourse Line, with the C moving to the Washington Heights portion of the Eighth Avenue Line.
Except for minor maintenance work and a station rehabilitation at 161st Street – Yankee Stadium, stations on the Concourse Line have largely been untouched since its opening in 1933, except for entrance closings and other reductions in service areas.
Provisions for expansion
The Concourse line is mostly straight north of 161st Street – Yankee Stadium, but makes a slight right turn north of Bedford Park Boulevard to end at Norwood – 205th Street, with a provision to extend farther east. The original IND Second System Plan in 1929 proposed extending the line to Baychester Avenue via Burke Avenue and Boston Road. The extension, called "Route 106", was proposed to run elevated over Bronx Park in the lower-deck of a viaduct connecting 205th Street and Burke Avenue. The Second System plans had multiple IND lines criss-crossing the five boroughs; however, the country was in the midst of the Great Depression, and the city had neither the money nor the need to either extend the line east of 205th Street or make the line four tracks. A second plan in the 1930s had an additional extension along Burke Avenue to the New York, Westchester and Boston Railway, running north along the railroad to Dyre Avenue. Preliminary engineering work for the extension along Burke Avenue took place in 1937 and 1938. The city, however, found it easier and less expensive to purchase the railroad (now the IRT Dyre Avenue Line) and connect it with the IRT White Plains Road Line, which hampered the Burke Avenue−Boston Road extension of the Concourse Line to Baychester Avenue. In the 1960s and 1970 under the city's Program for Action, it was proposed to extend the line a short distance to White Plains Road and Burke Avenue, at the IRT White Plains Road Line. Financial troubles also caused the plan to be aborted.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops weekdays only|
|Stops all times except rush hours in the peak direction||Stops all times except rush hours in the peak direction|
|Stops rush hours only|
|Time period details|
- MTA. "Average weekday subway ridership". Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- nycsubway.org—The Independent's Expansion in the 1930s
- "Bronx-Concourse New Subway Link Opened at 12:57 A.M.: Adds 21 1/2 Miles to City's System−Connects With Manhattan Line at 145th". Newspapers.com. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 1, 1933. p. 20. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- Duffus, R.L. (September 22, 1929). "OUR GREAT SUBWAY NETWORK SPREADS WIDER; New Plans of Board of Transportation Involve the Building of More Than One Hundred Miles of Additional Rapid Transit Routes for New York". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "Opens Subway Bids: Estimate Board Gets Twelve Offers for Bronx Work". The New York Times. June 8, 1929. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Van Cortlandt Park / NY Botanical Garden" (PDF). Metropolitan Transit Authority (New York). 2015. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- "CITY SOON TO LAUNCH $600,000,000 SUBWAY FOR THE EAST SIDE; Delaney to Submit Plans for New System Including the Bronx in Two Months.". The New York Times. April 5, 1929. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- New York Times, New Subway Routes in Hylan Program to Cost $186,046,000, March 21, 1925, page 1
- Joseph B. Raskin (1 November 2013). The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-5369-2. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
- "BOARD SPEEDS SUBWAY ON GRAND CONCOURSE; Bids on Last Section Expected Before New Year--Eastern Spur Contemplated.". The New York Times. September 2, 1928. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "Subway Extension Urged". The New York Times. February 24, 1929. Retrieved 4 November 2015.
- "New Bronx Subway Starts Operation". The New York Times. July 1, 1933. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
- "Broadway Junction Transportation Study: NYC Department of City Planning Final Report-November 2008" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. November 2008. Retrieved 27 October 2015.
- "City Board Votes New Subway Links". nytimes.com. The New York Times. March 19, 1937. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
- "$101,200,000 Asked for 1930 Work on Tubes: Projects Include Jay, Fulton, Crosstown and Queens City Subways". Newspapers.com. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 14, 1930. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- "Full text of "Metropolitan transportation, a program for action. Report to Nelson A. Rockefeller, Governor of New York."". Internet Archive. November 7, 1967. Retrieved October 1, 2015.