The Roman province Africa Proconsularis
) to which Ifriqiya
corresponded and from which it derived its name
Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية Ifrīqya) or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
The southern boundary of Ifriqiya was far more unchallenged as bounded by the semi-arid areas and the salt marshes called el-Djerid. The northern and western boundaries fluctuated; at times as far north as Sicily otherwise just along the coastline, and the western boundary usually went as far as Bejaia. The capital was briefly Carthage, then Qayrawan (Kairouan), then Mahdia, then Tunis. The entreating Arabs generally settled on the lower ground while the native population settled in the mountains.
The Aghlabids, from their base in Kairouan, initiated the invasion of Sicily beginning in 827 and establishing the Emirate of Sicily, which lasted until it was conquered by the Normans.
- (Cyrenaica and Tripolitana conquered in 643 by Amr ibn al-As, organized as new province with regional capital at Barqa; first governors uncertain.)
- Mu'awiya ibn Hudaij al-Kindi, c.665-666 - ruled from Barqa
- Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri, 666-674 - conquered south Tunisia (Byzacena), founded Kairouan (670)
- Abu al-Muhajir Dinar, 674-681
- Oqba ibn Nafi'i al-Fihri, (restored), 681-683 - led cavalcade to Morocco, ostensibly bringing entire Maghreb under submission.
- (Oqba killed. Arabs expelled from Byzacena, occupied by Awraba Berber chieftain Kusaila, 683-686)
- Zuhair ibn Qais al-Balawi, 683-689 - initially only Barqa, recovered Byzacena in 686.
- (Zohair killed. Berbers under Kahina recover Byzacena in 689. No clear Arab governor, 689-92).
- Hassan ibn al-Nu'man al-Ghassani, 692-703 - initially only Barqa. Captured Carthage in 695 (lost again), then again in 698 (final). Permanent conquest of Ifriqiya, organized as new province, separately from Egypt, directly under Umayyad Caliph, with capital at Kairouan.
Umayyad Governors of Ifriqiya
- Musa ibn Nusair al-Lakhmi, 703-715
- (During conquest of Spain, Abd Allah ibn Musa was regent in Kairouan, while Musa was in al-Andalus, 712-715)
- Muhammad ibn Yazid, 715-718
- Ismail ibn Abd Allah ibn Abi al-Muhajir, 718-720
- Yazid ibn Abi Muslim, 720-721
- Muhammad ibn Yazid (restored), 721
- Bishr ibn Safwan al-Kalbi, 721-727
- Obeida ibn Abd al-Rahman es-Solemi, 727-32
- Oqba ibn Qudama (temporary), 732-734
- Obeid Allah ibn al-Habhab al-Maousili, 734-41. (Berber Revolt begins 740)
- Kulthum ibn Iyad al-Qasi, 741
- Balj ibn Bishr al-Qushayri (de jure, in Córdoba) and Abd al-Rahman ibn Oqba al-Ghaffari (de facto, in Kairouan), 741-42
- Handhala ibn Safwan al-Kalbi, 742-44
Fihrid Emirs of Ifriqiya
Abbasid governors in Kairouan
- Appointed governors
- Appointed governors
Aghlabid Emirs of Ifriqiya
Fatimid Caliphs in Ifriqiya
Zirid rulers of Ifriqiya
Zirids and Hammadids after Bedouin invasions
(invasion of the Banu Hilal (1057) - Kairouan destroyed, Zirids reduced to tiny coastal strip, remainder fragments into petty Bedouin emirates)
(Ifriqiyan coast annexed by Norman Sicily (1143-1156))
(All of Ifriqiya conquered and annexed by the Almohads (1160))
Hafsid governors of Ifriqiya
- ↑ http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Arabic_Thought_and_Its_Place_in_History : DE LACY O’LEARY, D.D. "ARABIC THOUGHT AND ITS PLACE IN HISTORY" London: KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD. / NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON & CO. (1922), pp. 227-8.
- ↑ See chronicles of Ibn Abd al-Hakam and al-Nuwayri for accounts of the conquest.
- ↑ This follows the tradition of al-Nuwayri, who says Mu'waiya ibn Hudaij was the first emir of Ifriqiya (ruling from Baqra) in 665. Ibn Khaldoun, however, dates the appointment of Mu'waiya ibn Hudaij as early as 651/52, when Abdallah ibn Sa'ad was governor in Egypt.
- ↑ This is primarily covered in the chronicle of al-Nuwayri.
- ↑ On the rise of the Fatimids, see Ibn Khaldoun (v.2 App. #2(pp.496-549))
- ↑ See al-Nuwayri (v.2, App.1) and Ibn Khaldoun, v.2
- ↑ On the Banu Hillal invasion, see Ibn Khaldoun (v.1).
- ↑ For an account of the Almohad and Norman conquests of Ifriqiya, see Ibn al-Athir (p.578ff)
- ↑ See Ibn Khaldoun (v.2 & 3)
- Ibn Abd al-Hakam, English trans. by C.C. Torrey, 1901, "The Mohammedan Conquest of Egypt and North Africa", Historical and Critical Contributions to Biblical Science, pp. 277–330. online; French trans. in De la Salle Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1852, v.1, App. 1 (pp. 301–308)
- al-Nuwayri, French trans. in De La Salle, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1852, v.1, App. 2 (pp. 314–444) (From 647 raid through end of Aghlabids) and 1854, v. 2 App.1 (pp. 483–89) (for Zirids). Italian transl. in M. Amari (1851) Nuova raccolta di scritture e documenti intorno alla dominazione degli arabi in Sicilia, (p.27-163) (Aghlabids only)
- Ibn Khaldoun, French trans. in De La Salle (1852–56), Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale 4 vols, Algiers: Imprimerie du Gouvernment. v.1, v.2 v.3, vol. 4
- Ibn al-Athir extracts from Kamel al-Tewarikh, French trans. in De La Salle, Histoire des Berbères et des dynasties musulmanes de l'Afrique Septentrionale, 1854, v.2, App.#5, (pp. 573ff)
- Julien, C.A. (1931) Histoire de l'Afrique du Nord, vol. 2 - De la conquête arabe à 1830, 1961 edition, Paris: Payot.
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