India–Israel relations

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
Indian-Israeli relations
Map indicating locations of India and Israel



India–Israel relations refers to the bilateral ties between the Republic of India and the State of Israel. The two countries enjoy an extensive economic, military, and strategic relationship.[1][2]

India is the largest buyer of Israeli military equipment and Israel is the second-largest defense supplier to India after Russia.[3] From 1999 to 2009, the military business between the two nations was worth around $9 billion.[4] Military and strategic ties between the two nations extend to intelligence sharing on terrorist groups and joint military training.[5][6]

As of 2014, India is the third-largest Asian trade partner of Israel, and tenth-largest trade partner overall. In 2014, bilateral trade, excluding military sales, stood at US$4.52 billion.[7] As of 2015, the two nations are negotiating an extensive bilateral free trade agreement, focusing on areas such as information technology, biotechnology, and agriculture.[8][9]


File:מיכאל מיכאל עם ראש הממשלה הראשונה של הודו, ג'ווהרלל נהרו.jpg

India's position on the establishment of the State of Israel was affected by many factors, including India's own partition on religious lines, and India's relationship with other nations.[10] Indian independence leader Mahatma Gandhi believed the Jews had a good case and a prior claim for Israel,[11][12][13] but opposed the creation of Israel on religious[11][14] or mandated terms.[11][14][15] India did not vote for the Partitioning of Palestine plan of 1947[16] and voted against Israel's admission to the United Nations in 1949.[17] Various proponents of Hindu nationalism supported or sympathized with the creation of Israel. Hindu Mahasabha leader Vinayak Damodar Savarkar supported the creation of Israel on both moral and political grounds, and condemned India's vote at the UN against Israel.[18][19] Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh leader Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar admired Jewish nationalism and believed Palestine was the natural territory of the Jewish people, essential to their aspiration for nationhood.[20][21]

On September 17, 1950, India officially recognized the State of Israel.[10] Following India's recognition of Israel, Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru stated, "we would have [recognized Israel] long ago, because Israel is a fact. We refrained because of our desire not to offend the sentiments of our friends in the Arab countries."[10] In the 1950s, Israel was permitted to open a consulate in Bombay (now Mumbai). However, the Nehru government did not want to pursue full diplomatic relations with Israel as it supported the Palestinian cause, and believed that permitting Israel to open an embassy in New Delhi would damage relations with the Arab world.[22]

From India's recognition of Israel in 1950 to the early 1990s, the relationship with remained informal in nature. India's opposition to official diplomatic relations with Israel stemmed from both domestic and foreign considerations. Domestically, politicians in India feared losing the Muslim vote if relations were normalized with Israel.[23][24] Additionally, India did not want to jeopardize the large amount of its citizens working in Arab States of the Persian Gulf, who were helping India maintain its foreign-exchange reserves.[23][25] India's domestic need for energy was another reason for the lack of normalization of ties with Israel, in terms of safeguarding the flow of oil from Arab nations.[23][25] India's foreign policy goals and alliances also proved problematic to formal relations with Israel, including India's support for the pro-Palestine Liberation Organization Non-Aligned Movement, India's tilt towards the Soviet Union during the Cold War, and India's desire to counter Pakistan's influence with the Arab states.[25] On an ideological level, the dominant political party in India during this era, namely the Indian National Congress, opposed Israel due to their perception that it was a state based on religion, analogous to Pakistan.[25]

Although there was no formal relationship for several decades, meetings and cooperation took place between both countries, including figures such as Moshe Dayan.[citation needed] Israel also provided India with crucial information during its multiple wars.[citation needed] After decades of non-aligned and pro-Arab policy, India formally established relations with Israel in January 1992 and ties between the two nations have flourished since, primarily due to common strategic interests and security threats. Formation of Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) allegedly neglected the sentiments of Indian Muslims and blocking of India by Pakistan from joining OIC is considered to be the cause of diplomatic shift.[26][27][28] On a diplomatic level, both the countries have managed to maintain healthy relations despite India's repeated strong condemnations of Israeli military actions in Palestinian territories, which are believed by analysts to be motivated by the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government's desire for Muslim votes in India.[29]

2014 Israel-Hamas conflict

At the height of the tension between Israel and Hamas in July India offered a rhetorical condemnation holding both sides responsible for erupting violence and asked Israel to stop "disproportionate use of force" in Gaza which was read by many as departure from tradition of more vocal supports for the Palestinian cause. External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj insisted that "there is absolutely no change in India's policy towards Palestine, which is that we fully support the Palestinian cause while maintaining good relations with Israel. " clarifying India's current position on the issue. That might sound like fence-sitting, but it is a policy shared by all Indian governments of the past 20 years following the establishment of formal diplomatic relation in 1992.[30]

Swaraj, a seasoned parliamentarian, had herself blocked the opposition demand in Rajya Sabha for passing a resolution condemning Israel for 2014 Israel-Gaza conflict by saying that "India has friendly relation with both Israel and Palestine and therefore any such move may impact its friendship negatively".[31] Although later in a symbolic gesture India joined others BRICS nations in voting at the United Nations Human Rights Council for a probe into the alleged human rights violation in Gaza, which generated mixed response among media and analysts in India.[32] When the UNHRC report alleging that Israel had committed war crimes was tabled for vote, India abstained from voting, one of five countries to do so. 41 nations voted in favour, and the United States was the only vote against.[33] Israeli envoy to India Daniel Carmon thanked India for not supporting what he described as "another anti Israel bashing resolution".[34]

Diplomatic visits

Israeli and Indian flags in New Delhi during Ariel Sharon's visit, September 2003

In 2000, Jaswant Singh became the first Indian Foreign Minister to visit Israel.[35] Following the visit, the two countries set up a joint anti-terror commission. The foreign ministers of the two countries said intensified co-operation would range from counter-terrorism to information technology.[36][37]

In 2003, Ariel Sharon was the first Israeli Prime Minister to visit India. He was welcomed by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) led National Democratic Alliance coalition government of India.[38] Several newspapers expressed positive views on his visit, and Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee voiced confidence that Sharon's visit would pave the way for further consolidating bilateral ties.[39] Sharon's visit was condemned in leftist[40] and Muslim circles.[41] Hundreds of supporters of India's various pro-Islamic and communist parties rallied in New Delhi. Nearly 100 Muslims were arrested.[41] Students of Aligarh Muslim University demanded that India sever ties with Israel and increase ties with Palestine.[42] The Hindi-language daily Navbharat Times called Sharon "an important friend of India." The Hindu nationalist Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) condemned the protest against Sharon.[43][44] Sharon expressed satisfaction over his talks with Indian leaders. Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee said the visit would increase ties between India and Israel.[45] Sharon invited Vajpayee to visit Israel.[46] Sharon said that Israelis "regard India to be one of the most important countries in the world," and Vajpayee was sure that Sharon's visit would bring the two states closer together.[41]

In early 2006 Indian government ministers Sharad Pawar, Kapil Sibal and Kamal Nath visited Israel.[47] Former Gujarat Chief Minister and the current Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi has also visited Israel.[48]

Despite "India's unwavering support for the Palestinian cause", Foreign Minister SM Krishna visited Israel, Israel PM called this visit by Indian Foreign Minister a historical step forward in developing the relations between the two nations.[49][50]

In May 2014 after victory of Narendra Modi in 2014 general election Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu personally congratulated Modi.[51] Also Narendra Modi met his Israeli counterpart Benjamin Netanyahu in New York on the side line of UN General assembly during his US visit in 2014.[52] On the occasion of Hanukkah festival Indian PM Modi greeted his Israeli counterpart in Hebrew Language on Twitter[53][54][55] and then Israeli PM replied in Hindi Language. Later in 2014 Indian Home Minister Rajnath Singh visited Israel to over view the Border security arrangement of Israel.[56][57][58] During his tour he also met Israeli PM Netanyahu. In the same year former Israeli President Shimon Peres visited India.[59] A high level Israeli delegation with Agriculture Minister of Israel Yair Shamir also participated in Vibrant Gujarat summit in 2015.[60][61][62] In December 2014 a news published in The Hindu that India may end support to Palestine.[63]

In February 2015 Israeli Defence Minister Moshe Ya'alon came to India. During his visit he participated in Aero India 2015. He also met his Indian counterpart as well as Indian PM.[64][65] Pranab Mukherjee became the first Indian President to visit Israel on October 13 to 15, 2015. Mukherjee was given he rare honour of addressing the Knesset.[66]

Military and strategic ties

File:Israeli defence minister Moshe Ya'alon meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi.jpg
Israeli defence minister Moshe Ya'alon meeting with Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi; 19 February 2015.
File:Adm RK Dhowan greeting V Adm Ram Rutberg at South Block, New Delhi.JPG
Indian Adm. Robin Dhowan greets VAdm. Ram Rutberg, Commander-in-Chief of the Israeli Navy at South Block, New Delhi; 24 August 2015
File:INS Trikand entering the port of Haifa, Israel.jpg
INS Trikand entering the port of Haifa, Israel; 19 August 2015

India and Israel have increased co-operation in military and intelligence ventures since the establishment of diplomatic relations. The rise of Islamic extremist terrorism in both nations has generated a strong strategic alliance between the two.[67] India recently launched a military satellite for Israel through its Indian Space Research Organisation.[68]

In 1997, Israel's President Ezer Weizman became the first head of the Jewish state to visit India. He met with Indian President Shankar Dayal Sharma, Vice President K R Narayanan and Prime Minister H D Deve Gowda. Weizman negotiated the first weapons deal between the two nations, involving the purchase of Barak 1 vertically-launched surface-to-air (SAM) missiles from Israel. The Barak-1 has the ability to intercept anti-ship missiles such as the Harpoon.[69] The purchase of the Barak-1 missiles from Israel by India was a tactical necessity since Pakistan had purchased Lockheed P-3 Orion maritime surveillance aircraft and 27 Harpoon sea-skimming anti-ship missiles from the United States.[69] Israel was one of the selected few nations, a group that also included France and Russia, that did not condemn India's 1998 Pokhran-II nuclear tests.[70]

In naval terms, Israel sees great strategic value in an alliance with the Indian Navy, given India's dominance of South Asian waters. Due to the great importance of maritime trade to the Israeli economy it thus sees the potential of establishing a logistical infrastructure in the Indian Ocean with the help of the Indian Navy. In 2000, Israeli submarines reportedly conducted test launches of cruise missiles capable of carrying nuclear warheads in the waters of the Indian Ocean, off the Sri Lankan coast.[67]

In 1996, India purchased 32 IAI Searcher unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), Electronic Support Measure sensors and an Air Combat Manoeuvering Instrumentation simulator system from Israel.[69] Since then Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) has serviced several large contracts with the Indian Air Force including the upgrading of the IAF's Russian-made MiG-21 ground attack aircraft and there have been further sales of unmanned aerial vehicles as well as laser-guided bombs.[71]

India purchased 50 Israeli drones for $220 million in 2005.[72] India was considering buying the newer Harop drone.[73] India is also in the process of obtaining missile-firing Hermes 450s.[citation needed]

Israel Aerospace Industries Ltd signed a US$2.5 billion deal with India in 2007 to develop an anti-aircraft system and missiles for the country, in the biggest defence contract in the history of Israel at the time. IAI CEO Yitzhak Nissan visited India to finalise the agreement with heads of the defence establishment and the country's president. IAI is developing the Barak 8 missile for the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force which is capable of protecting sea vessels and ground facilities from aircraft and cruise missiles. The missile has a range of over 70 kilometres. The missile will replace the current obsolete Russian system used by India.[74]

On 10 November 2008, Indian military officials visited Israel to discuss joint weapons development projects, additional sales of Israeli equipment to the Indian military, and anti-terrorism strategies. The new round of talks was seen as a significant expansion in the Indian-Israeli strategic partnership.[75]

Following the 2008 Mumbai attacks, Israel offered a team of about 40 special-operations forces and assistance in investigations.[76] Tzipi Livni said: "If they need us we will help where needed".[77] Magen David Adom dispatched a team of paramedics, medics and other professionals to assist with rescue efforts in the wake of the attacks.[78][78] Israeli newspapers reported that the Manmohan Singh government turned down an offer by Defense Minister Ehud Barak to send counter-terrorist units to help fight the attackers.[79][80]

In December 2009, Lt Gen Gabi Ashkenazi, Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, made a visit to India to cement the defence ties between the two countries. He pledged every help to India in fighting terrorism.[81][82][83][84]

In March 2011, it was reported that India would buy 8356 Israeli Spike anti-tank missiles, 321 launchers, 15 training simulators and peripheral equipment, for $1 billion, from Israel's Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. The deal was finalized by Prime Minister Narendra Modi after coming into office.[85][86]

In September 2015, the Indian government approved the air force's request to purchase 10 Heron TP drones from Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI).[87] In 2015 a delegation from Israel's Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs visited India, led by former Israeli ambassador to the United Nations Dore Gold. Shared strategic interests were discussed, including combatting radical Islam, the handling of territorial disputes, and the security situation in the Middle East and South Asia.[88]

In October 2015, The Pioneer reported that India and Israel were planning to hold their first joint military exercise. The date and location were not announced.[89]


A Rediff story in 2003 revealed that the Indian external intelligence agency Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) had clandestine links with the Mossad, Israel's external intelligence agency. When RAW was founded in September 1968 by Rameshwar Nath Kao, he was advised by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to cultivate links with Mossad. This was suggested as a countermeasure to military links between that of Pakistan and China, as well as with North Korea. Israel was also concerned that Pakistani army officers were training Libyans and Iranians in handling Chinese and North Korean military equipment.[90]

Pakistan believed intelligence relations between India and Israel threatened Pakistani security. When young Israeli tourists began visiting the Kashmir valley in the early 1990s, Pakistan suspected they were disguised Israeli army officers there to help Indian security forces with anti-terrorism operations. Israeli tourists were attacked, with one slain and another kidnapped. Pressure from the Kashmiri Muslim diaspora in the United States led to his release.[90]

In 1996, R.K. Yadav, a former RAW official had filed a disproportionate assets case in the Delhi High Court against Anand Kumar Verma, RAW chief between 1987 and 1990. Yadav listed eight properties that he claimed were purchased illegally by Verma using RAW's unaudited funds for secret operations. Although his petition for a CBI inquiry into Verma's properties was dismissed, Yadav managed to obtain more information using in RTI in 2005 and filed another case in 2009. In 2013, the CBI carried out an investigation of Verma's properties. Proceedings in the Delhi High Court revealed the names of two companies floated by RAW in 1988 - Piyush Investments and Hector Leasing and Finance Company Ltd. The firms were headed by two senior RAW officials V. Balachandran and B. Raman. Balachandran and Raman retired in 1994 and 1995 respectively. The companies were listed as trading houses that dealt in several kinds of minerals, automobiles, textiles, metals and spare parts, and also claimed to produce feature films. The companies purchased two flats in Gauri Sadan, a residential building on Hailey Road, New Delhi in March 1989 for 23 lakh.[91]

India Today reported that the two flats were RAW safe houses used as operational fronts for Mossad agents and housed Mossad's station chief between 1989 and 1992. RAW had reportedly decided to have closer ties to Mossad, and the subsequent secret operation was approved by then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. India Today cites "RAW insiders" as saying that RAW agents hid a Mossad agent holding an Argentine passport and exchanged intelligence and expertise in operations, including negotiations for the release of an Israeli tourist by the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front militants in June 1991. When asked about the case Verma refused to speak about the companies, but claimed his relationship with them was purely professional. Raman stated, "Sometimes, spy agencies float companies for operational reasons. All I can say is that everything was done with government approval. Files were cleared by the then prime minister [Rajiv Gandhi] and his cabinet secretary. Balachandran stated, "It is true that we did a large number of operations but at every stage, we kept the Cabinet Secretariat and the prime minister in the loop."[92]

In November 2015, The Times of India reported that agents from Mossad and MI5 were protecting Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his visit Turkey. Modi was on a state visit to the United Kingdom and was scheduled to attend the 2015 G-20 Summit in Antalya, Turkey. The paper reported that the agents had been called in to provide additional cover to Modi's security detail, composed of India's Special Protection Group and secret agents from RAW and IB, in wake of the November 2015 Paris attacks.[93][94]

Bilateral trade

The Israeli headquarters of the State Bank of India, located in Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv District.

Bilateral trade between India and Israel grew from $200 million in 1992 to $4.52 billion in 2014.[7][95] As of 2014, India is Israel's tenth-largest trade partner and import source, and seventh-largest export source.[7] India's major exports to Israel include precious stones and metals, organic chemicals, electronic equipment, plastics, vehicles, Machines, engines, pumps, clothing and textiles, and medical and technical equipment. Israel's imports from India amounted to $2.3 billion or 3.2% of its overall imports in 2014.[96] Israel's major exports to India include precious stones and metals, electronic equipment, fertilizers, machines, engines, pumps, medical and technical equipment, organic and inorganic chemicals, salt, sulphur, stone, cement, and plastics. Israeli exports to India amounted to $2.2 billion or 3.2% of its overall exports in 2014.[97]

In 2007, Israel proposed starting negotiations on a free trade agreement with India, and in 2010, then Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh accepted that proposal.[98][99] The agreement is set to focus on many key economic sectors, including information technology, biotechnology, water management, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture.[9] In 2013, then Israeli Minister of Economy Naftali Bennett projected a doubling of trade from $5 to $10 billion between the two countries, if a free trade agreement was successfully negotiated.[99] As of 2015, negotiations on a free trade agreement continue, with both countries considering negotiating a more narrow free trade agreement on goods, followed by separate agreements on trade in investment and services.[9]

Israeli imports from India amounted to $2.3 billion or 3.2% of its overall imports in 2014. The 10 major commodities exported from India to Israel were:[100]

  1. Gems, precious metals, coins: $1.2 billion
  2. Organic chemicals: $276.3 million
  3. Electronic equipment: $188.2 million
  4. Plastics: $78.7 million
  5. Vehicles: $72.9 million
  6. Machines, engines, pumps: $40.2 million
  7. Other textiles, worn clothing: $31 million
  8. Clothing (not knit or crochet): $30.2 million
  9. Medical, technical equipment: $29.4 million
  10. Knit or crochet clothing: $29 million

Israeli exports to India amounted to $2.2 billion or 3.2% of its overall exports in 2014. The 10 major commodities exported from Israel to India were:[101]

  1. Gems, precious metals, coins: $1.2 billion
  2. Electronic equipment: $256.2 million
  3. Fertilizers: $208 million
  4. Machines, engines, pumps: $115.8 million
  5. Medical, technical equipment: $105.5 million
  6. Organic chemicals: $86.9 million
  7. Inorganic chemicals: $35 million
  8. Other chemical goods: $29 million
  9. Salt, sulphur, stone, cement: $25.3 million
  10. Plastics: $21.4 million

Science and technology collaboration

In 1993, during the visit to India of then Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres, India and Israel signed an agreement on science and technology, which allowed for direct scientific cooperation between both governments. Specific areas of cooperation included information technology, biotechnology, lasers, and electro-optics. Additionally, a joint committee to monitor collaboration between the two nations was established and set to meet biennially.[102] In 1994, a $3 million joint science and technology fund was set up to facilitate R&D collaboration between both countries.[102]

In 1996, Indian scientists attended a seminar on advanced materials in Israel. In 1997, Israeli scientists attended a seminar on biotechnology in Delhi. In 1998, India and Israel had 22 ongoing joint research projects. A joint symposium on the human genome was held in Jerusalem, where six Indian scientists took part.[102][103] In November 1999, India and Israel agreed on four proposals for joint research projects in the field of human genome research.[102] In 2000, even more joint projects related to human genome research were agreed on, and a status seminar on this field was held in India.[104] In early 1999, more than 20 Israeli scientists participated in a physics symposium on condensed matter in Delhi.[102] In 2001, a similar symposium was held in Jerusalem, with 18 Indian scientists attending.[105]

In 2003, both countries discussed doubling their investment in their ongoing science and technology collaboration to $1 million each, starting in October 2004.[106] In 2005, India and Israel signed a memorandum of understanding to set up a fund to encourage bilateral investment into industrial research and development and specific projects. Under the agreement, at least one Indian and one Israeli company must be collaborating on a project for that project to qualify for the fund. From 2006 to 2014, the fund, named i4RD, has been used in seven projects.[7][107][108][109] In 2012, the two countries signed a five-year $50 million academic research agreement for promoting collaborative research across a wide range of disciplines, including medical and information technology, social and life sciences, humanities, and the arts.[110][111]

In 2012, Israel stated its intent to increase technological and economic cooperation with the Indian state of Bihar, in the fields of agriculture, water management, solar energy, and medical insurance.[112] In 2014, Israel made plans to open two agricultural centers of excellence in Bihar, focusing on increasing productivity of vegetable and mango crops.[113]

Israel has offered to help the India government with a project to clean the Ganga. An Israeli delegation visited India in August 2015 and met with officials of the Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation. Israeli Ambassador to India Daniel Carmon also called on Union Urban Development and Parliamentary Affairs Minister M. Venkaiah Naidu to offer Israel's expertise in water management to battle water scarcity. Ohad Horsandi, spokesperson of the Israeli Embassy in New Delhi stated that Israel was keen to help in India meet its water needs for agriculture and drinking, and was pushing for more government-to-government agreements.[114]

Space collaboration

In 2002, India and Israel signed a cooperative agreement promoting space collaboration between both nations.[115]

In 2003, the Israel Space Agency, or ISA, expressed interest in collaborating with the Indian Space Research Organisation, or ISRO, in using satellites for improved management of land and other resources. Israel also expressed interest in participating in ISRO's proposed mission of sending an unmanned craft to the moon.[106] Additionally, the two countries signed an agreement outlining the deployment of TAUVEX, an Israeli space telescope array, on India's GSAT-4, a planned navigation and communication satellite.[106][115][116] In 2010, the TAUVEX array was removed from GSAT-4 by the ISRO, and the array was never subsequently launched.[117] The GSAT-4 itself failed to launch, due to the failure of its cryogenic engine.[117][118]

In 2005, Israel decided to launch TecSAR, its first synthetic aperture radar imaging satellite, on India's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, or PSLV.[119] TecSAR was chosen to launch through India's PSLV due to Israeli concerns about the reliability and technical limitations of its own Shavit space launch vehicle, economic considerations, and also due to Israel's desire to increase strategic cooperation with India.[119][120] In 2008, TecSAR was successfully inserted into orbit by India's PSLV.[121] One of TecSAR's primary functions is to monitor Iran's military activities.[122][123][124][125]

In 2009, India successfully launched RISAT-2, a synthetic aperture radar imaging satellite.[126] RISAT-2 was manufactured by Israel Aerospace Industries, or IAI, in conjunction with ISRO.[127][128] The launch of the RISAT-2 satellite aimed to provide India with greater earth observation power, which would improve disaster management, and increase surveillance and defense capabilities.[6][129] The acquisition and subsequent launch of the RISAT-2 satellite was accelerated after the 2008 Mumbai attacks, to boost India's future surveillance capabilities.[130]

Agriculture cooperation

In 2008, Israel and India finalized an agricultural plan introducing crops native to the Middle East and Mediterranean to India, with a particular focus on olives.[131] Subsequently, around 112,000 olive trees were planted in the desert of Rajasthan.[132][133] In 2014, more than 100 tonnes of olives were produced in Rajasthan.[134]

In 2008, Israel and India signed the Agriculture Cooperation Agreement, which established the Indo-Israel Agricultural Cooperation Project.[135][136] The project's central aim is to utilize Israeli technology to increase crop productivity and diversity in various regions in India.[137] The implementation of the project occurs through establishment of agricultural centers of excellence in India that focus on growing horticulture crops, producing seeds and cut-flowers, and also on beekeeping and dairy farming.[137][138] As of 2015, 15 centers of excellence are fully operational, spanning 10 Indian states.[135]

Cultural ties & Cross-country perceptions

In 2011, cultural artists and performers from India arrived in Israel to participate in a three-week festival commemorating 20 years of diplomatic relations between the two countries. According to India's then Ambassador to Israel Navtej Sarna, the purpose of the festival was to improve the bilateral relationship between the two countries by facilitating a greater understanding of each other's culture.[139]

According to a 2009 international study commissioned by the Israeli Foreign Ministry, the greatest level of sympathy towards Israel can be found in India, with 58% of Indian respondents showing sympathy towards Israel.[140]

According to the 2014 BBC Country Ratings Poll, 9% of Israelis have a mainly positive view of India's influence, 34% have a mainly negative view, and 57% are neutral or gave another response.[141] According to the same poll, 22% of Indians have a mainly positive view of Israel's influence, 34% have a mainly negative view, and 44% are neutral or gave another response.

As reported in 2015, opinion polls taken in India showed 70% and above of respondents had favorable views of Israel.[142]


A Hebrew sign in Kasol, Himachal Pradesh.

Around 40,000 Israelis, many of whom have just finished military service, visit India annually.[139] There are dozens of Chabad-operated community centers in India, where many Israelis celebrate holidays and observe religious traditions.[143] Popular destinations for Israelis include Goa,[144] the Himalayas, Old Manali, Vashisht, Naggar, Kasol, and the villages surrounding Dharamsala.[145] In many of these areas, Hebrew signs on businesses and public transportation are widely noticeable.[145]

The number of tourists from India visiting Israel touched 15,900 in the year 2000.[146] By 2010, the number of tourists had increased to 43439.[147] In 2014, the number of tourists from India visiting Israel was 34,900.[148] A popular destination for Indian tourists traveling to Israel is Jerusalem.[149] In part of 2010, Indian tourists were the biggest spenders in Israel, spending an average of $1,364 per tourist; the average tourist expenditure in Israel during this time was $1,091.[150]

In 2011, representatives from both countries met in Delhi, and planned to enhance tourism through collaboration in the spheres of destination management and promotion, as well as in manpower development. Plans for tour-operators and travel agents in both countries to coordinate were also discussed.[147] In 2015, 600 travel agents from India arrived in Israel for the annual Travel Agents Federation of India conference, and ways to decrease barriers to tourism were discussed.[148]

Interfaith relations

Further information: Hinduism and Judaism

In February 2007, the first Jewish-Hindu interfaith leadership summit was held in New Delhi.[151] The summit included the then Chief Rabbi of Israel Yona Metzger, the American Jewish Committee's International Director of Interreligious Affairs David Rosen, a delegation of chief rabbis from around the world, and Hindu leaders from India.[151][152][153] During the summit, Rabbi Metzger stated:

“Jews have lived in India for over 2,000 years and have never been discriminated against. This is something unparalleled in human history."[151]

In August 2007, amidst protests,[153] a delegation of Indian Muslim leaders and journalists traveled to Israel.[154][155] The visit was touted as a dialogue of democracies,[155] and was organized by the American Jewish Committee's India office.[154] During this trip, Maulana Jameel Ahmed Ilyasi, the then secretary-general of the All-India Association of Imams and Mosques, praised the mutual respect Israeli Arabs and Israeli Jews have for each other, and encouraged resolving problems by dialogue rather than violence.[154] Muslim leaders met with then president Shimon Peres, where Peres highlighted the coexistence of religions in Jerusalem and India's struggle with terror and separatism.[154]

In 2008, a second Hindu-Jewish summit took place in Jerusalem.[156][157] Included in the summit was a meeting between Hindu groups and then Israeli President Shimon Peres, where the importance of a strong Israeli-Indian relationship was discussed.[157] The Hindu delegation also met with Israeli politicians Isaac Herzog and Majalli Whbee.[157] Hindu groups visited and said their prayers at the Western Wall, and also paid their respects to Holocaust victims.[157]

In 2009, a smaller Hindu-Jewish interfaith meeting organized by the Hindu American Foundation and the American Jewish Committee was held in New York and Washington.[156] Hindu and Jewish representatives gave presentations, and participants wore lapel pins combining the Israeli, Indian, and American flags.[156]

On November 2012, Israeli President Shimon Peres remarked, "I think India is the greatest show of how so many differences in language, in sects can coexist facing great suffering and keeping full freedom."[158]

Bnei Menashe

Bene Israel, a group of Jews from India who started migrating to Israel after 1948.

The Bnei Menashe are a group of around 10,000 people from India's remote North-Eastern border states of Manipur and Mizoram who claim descent from the Tribe of Manasseh, one of the Lost Tribes of Israel.[159][160] The Bnei Menashe believe that the Assyrian Empire exiled the tribe of Manassah from Israel over 2700 years ago.[159][160]

Zaithanchhungi, a Mizo anthropologist, developed the lost-tribe claims of the Bnei Menashe in 1981 and presented his research in Israel.[160] According to Zaithanchhungi, the historical similarities of the clothing and folk songs of the Bnei Menashe to Jewish culture are too strong a link to be just a coincidence.[161]

The genetic test results of the Bnei Menashe have been described as inconclusive.[162] DNA studies on the Bnei Menashe at the Central Forensic Institute in Calcutta showed the masculine side of the tribe had no link to Israel, while the feminine side indicated a possible genetic connection to Middle Eastern people that could have resulted through inter-marriage.[160]

Some Israeli groups have dismissed the claim of the Bnei Menashe as "historically untenable"[160] while other groups, like Shavei Israel, have supported the claims.[159][160] In 2005, Sephardi Rabbi Shlomo Amar, then one of Israel's two chief rabbis, recognized the Bnei Menashe as the lost descendents of ancient Israelites.[160][163] His decision was significant because it removed barriers for the Bnei Menashe to enter Israel under Israel's Law of Return.[160] As of 2015, over 3000 of the Bnei Menashe have migrated to Israel, through Shavei Israel.[159]

See also


  1. Pfeffer, Anshel (December 1, 2008). "Israel-India relations / Strong, but low-key". Haaretz. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  2. Harel, Amos (February 18, 2015). "Israel-India strategic ties are no longer a secret". Haaretz. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  3. Wilkes, Tommy (February 18, 2015). "Israeli defense minister lands at India airshow to boost arms sales". Reuters. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  4. "India to hold wide-ranging strategic talks with US, Israel". The Times of India. January 19, 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  5. Boudreaux, Richard (November 29, 2008). "Israel has 'no doubt' citizens were targeted". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Lal, Neeta (April 21, 2009). "India's eye in the sky takes aim". Asia Times Online. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "India-Israel Economic and Commercial Relations". Embassy of India- Tel Aviv, Israel. February 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  8. Parashar, Sachin (February 1, 2015). "India, Israel to restart free trade agreement talks". Times of India. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Basu, Nayanima (February 13, 2015). "India, Israel FTA not likely to be signed soon". Business Standard. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Kumaraswamy, P. R. (January 1995). "India's Recognition of Israel, September 1950". Middle Eastern Studies. Taylor & Francis, Ltd. 31 (1): 124–138. Retrieved 24 June 2015. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Panter-Brick, Simone (January 5, 2009). "Gandhi's Views on the Resolution of the Conflict in Palestine: A Note". Middle Eastern Studies. Routledge. 45 (1): 127–133. doi:10.1080/00263200802547719. Retrieved 5 May 2015. 
  12. Fischer, Louis (December 1, 2006). Mahatma Gandhi/His Life & Times (PDF). Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. p. 479. ISBN 978-8172763060. Retrieved 5 May 2015. 
  13. Bishku, Michael (Winter 2011). "India's Israel Policy (review)". Middle East Journal. Middle East Institute. 65 (1). Retrieved 5 May 2015. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Mohandas, Gandhi (November 26, 1938). "The Jews". Harijan. 6 (42). Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  15. Mohandas, Gandhi (July 21, 1946). "Jews and Palestine". Harijan. 10 (24). Retrieved 5 May 2015. 
  16. "Future government of Palestine : resolution / adopted by the General Assembly". UN Bibliographic Information System. November 29, 1947. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  17. "Admission of Israel to membership in the United Nations : resolution / adopted by the General Assembly". UN Bibliographic Information System. May 5, 1949. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  18. Abhyankar, Rajendra (March 2012). "The Evolution and Future of India-Israel Relations" (PDF). The S. Daniel Abraham Center for International and Regional Studies. Retrieved 6 November 2015. 
  19. Savarkar, S.S.; Joshi, G.M., eds. (May 28, 1967). Historic Statements by Savarkar (PDF). G.P. Parchure. pp. 135–136. 
  20. Jaffrelot, Christophe, ed. (2007). Hindu Nationalism: A Reader (PDF). Princeton University Press. p. 108. ISBN 9780691130989. 
  21. Elst, Koenraad (February 18, 2015). Return of the Swastika: Hate and Hysteria versus Hindu Sanity. Voice of India. p. 204. ISBN 9788185990798. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Aafreedi, Navras (2012). "The Impact of Domestic Politics on India's Attitudes towards Israel and Jews". In Singh, Priya; Susmita, Bhattacharya. Perspectives on West Asia: The Evolving Geopolitical Discourses. Shipra Publications. pp. 171–183. ISBN 9788175416376. 
  24. Naaz, Farah (2000). "Indo‐Israel military cooperation". Strategic Analysis. Routledge. 24 (5): 969–985. doi:10.1080/09700160008455261. Retrieved 8 November 2015. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 Pant, Harsh V. (December 2004). "India-Israel Partnership: Convergence and Constraints" (PDF). Middle East Review of International Affairs. Rubin Center for Research in International Affairs. 8 (4): 60–73. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  26. "Bilateral Relations: Historical Overview". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2008-11-28. 
  27. c.f. C. Jaffrelot, op.cit.
  28. c.f. A Financial Times article.
  29. Suroor, Hasan (15 March 2011). "West Asia policy hostage to ‘Muslim vote'". The Hindu. Retrieved October 7, 2012. 
  30. "Why Modi’s India aligns more closely with Israel than with Palestinians". Al Jazeera. 3 August 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  31. "Modi govt's dilemma over Israel-Palestine conflict". Rediff. 16 July 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  32. "Gaza crisis: Modi govt's UNHRC vote against Israel must be lauded". Firstpost. 25 July 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  35. Peres Visit Highlights Growing Ties Between Israel and New Ally India,United Jewish Communities
  36. India/Israel,
  37. Jaswant to visit Israel to boost bilateral ties,The Daily Excelsior
  38. Ariel Sharon's India visit,
  39. Ariel Sharon arrives in India,
  40. Left wants 'killer' Sharon to go home,
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 India and Israel vow to fight terrorism,BBC
  42. "AMU students protest against Sharon's visit". Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  43. "RSS slams Left for opposing Sharon's visit". Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  44. Google Cache of above
  45. Sharon's visit will consolidate ties PM,
  46. Sharon invites Vajpayee to Israel,
  47. Talk to Palestine, Israel tells India Rediff - February 09, 2006
  48. [1][dead link]
  49. "External Affairs Minister S M Krishna's visit to Israel marks new high in bilateral ties". The Times Of India. 2012-01-12. 
  50. Foreign Minister Krishna’s Visit to Israel: Adding Political Content to a Robust Partnership. Full report here. January 16, 2012.
  51. Israeli PM Congratulated MODI on his historic win
  52. Modi meets Israeli PM Netanyahu, discusses defence cooperation, west Asia
  53. PM Modi greets Jews on Hanukkah
  54. Modi greets Jews on Hanukkah, impresses Israeli PM
  55. Modi greets Jews on Hanukkah, impresses Netanyahu
  56. Rajnath Singh in Jerusalem today, Israel says visit 'very significant
  57. Rajnath Singh in Israel to bolster ties, meets Benjamin Natanyahu
  58. Rajnath for strengthening ties with Israel
  59. Israel's former President Shimon Peres to visit India, call upon PM Modi and Sonia Gandhi
  60. Vibrant Gujarat Summit: India, Israel Sign Pact for Third Phase of Agriculture Project
  61. Ashkelon city of Israel signs twin city pact with Vadodara
  62. [2]</refVibrant Gujarat Summit: India, Israel Sign Pact for Third Phase of Agriculture Project>
  63. India may end support to Palestine at U.N
  64. Israel's defence minister to visit India for first time
  65. Israeli defence minister lands at Bengaluru airshow to boost arms sales
  67. 67.0 67.1 India and Israel Forge a Solid Strategic Alliance at the Wayback Machine (archived November 7, 2006) by Martin Sherman,The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs
  68. [3][dead link]
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 The Barak Missile Deal Scandal involving graft for an unnecessary missile system would hamper relations in 2006.Israel-India Military and Civil Trade Ties Skyrocket at the Wayback Machine (archived October 2, 2006),The Jewish Institute for National security Affairs
  70. "Israel's Indian alliance: the Jewish state has become one of Hindu India's most important strategic allies, providing arms and intelligence in their common war against militant Islam. - Free Online Library". Retrieved 2012-11-09. 
  71. India-Israel Military Ties Continue to Grow,The Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs
  72. India Israeli Drones
  73. Israel negotiating Harop drone with India
  74. "IAI signs $2.5 billion deal with India - Israel Business, Ynetnews". 1995-06-20. Retrieved 2012-11-09. 
  75. Rajat Pandit, TNN, 9 November 2008, 04:36AM IST (2008-11-09). "New heights: India, Israel step up defence ties - India - The Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 2012-11-09. 
  76. McElroy, Damien (29 November 2008). "Mumbai-attacks-Britain-sends-team-of-forensic-experts". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 1 December 2008. 
  77. 'We'll help India where needed' – Livni
  78. 78.0 78.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named JPOST10free
  80. "India declines Israeli offer of aid delegation to Mumbai". 
  81. "IDF official announcement". 
  82. "JPOST article". 
  83. "HAARETZ article". 
  84. "Arutz Sheva article". 
  85. "Rafael in $1b Indian anti-tank missile deal - Globes(Israel's Business Arena)". Globes. 2011-03-24. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  86. "Defence Now India, News". 2011-04-15. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  88. Grave-Lazi, Lidar. "Israeli delegation to visit India to strengthen strategic relationship". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 June 2015. 
  90. 90.0 90.1 RAW and MOSSAD, the Secret Link,
  95. "Overview of India-Israel Bilateral Trade and Economic Relations". Israel Trade & Economic Office- Embassy of Israel, India. 2012. Retrieved May 8, 2015. 
  98. Coren, Ora (February 25, 2010). "India, Israel to hold free-trade talks". Haaretz. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  99. 99.0 99.1 "Free Trade Agreement may double India-Israel trade to $10 bn in 5 years". The Economic Times. October 7, 2013. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  102. 102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 102.4 Sreekantan Nair, R (2004). Dynamics of a Diplomacy Delayed: India and Israel. Kalpaz Publications. pp. 159–161. ISBN 978-8178351803. 
  103. Annual Report 1999-2000:Bilateral Cooperation (Report). Department of Science and Technology (India). Retrieved November 6, 2015. 
  104. Annual Report 2000-2001:Bilateral Cooperation (Report). Department of Science and Technology (India). Retrieved November 6, 2015. 
  105. Annual Report 2001-2002:Bilateral Cooperation (Report). Department of Science and Technology (India). Retrieved November 6, 2015. 
  106. 106.0 106.1 106.2 Sunderarajan, P. (December 25, 2003). "Israel plans thrust on science and technology collaboration". The Hindu. Retrieved June 28, 2015. 
  107. "Israel-India-Commercial and Economic Relations". Israel Trade & Economic Office- Embassy of Israel, India. 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  108. "India–Israel Relations" (PDF). Ministry of External Affairs (India). March 2012. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  109. "India forms science ties with Canada, Israel, Vietnam". Science and Development Network. 2005. Retrieved June 26, 2015. 
  110. Sunderarajan, P. (August 3, 2012). "India-Israel sign MoU on research programme". The Hindu. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  111. Dattel, Lior (August 7, 2012). "India, Israel sign $50 million academic research pact". Haaretz. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  112. Salomi, Vithika (August 30, 2012). "Israel to aid Bihar's development bid". The Times of India. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  113. "Israel to open centres on agri-horticulture in Bihar". The Hindu. June 24, 2014. Retrieved August 7, 2015. 
  115. 115.0 115.1 Barzilai, Amnon (November 3, 2002). "Israel, India Sign Agreement on Space Research Cooperation". Haaretz. Retrieved November 4, 2015. 
  116. "ISRO to Launch Israel's Scientific Instrument" (Press release). Government of India- Department of Space. Indian Space Research Organisation. December 25, 2003. Retrieved 2015-11-04. 
  117. 117.0 117.1 Dorminey, Bruce (May 22, 2012). "Israeli Space Telescope On 'Clean Room' Ice For Years; May Never See Launch". Forbes. Retrieved November 4, 2015. 
  118. Subramanian, T.S. (April 16, 2010). "India’s own cryogenic rocket launch fails". The Hindu. Retrieved November 4, 2015. 
  119. 119.0 119.1 Opall-Rome, Barbara; Jayaraman, K.S. (November 14, 2005). "Israel Chooses Indian PSLV To Launch New Spy Satellite". Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  120. Shapir, Yiftah (February 13, 2008). "The Launch Of Israel's Tecsar Satellite". Scoop Independent News. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  121. Opall-Rome, Barbara (February 25, 2008). "India Launches Israeli Radar Satellite". Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  122. Azoulay, Yuval (February 25, 2008). "Israel Launches Sophisticated Spy Satellite TECSAR". Haaretz. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  123. Opall-Rome, Barbara (January 22, 2008). "India Launches Israeli Radar Satellite". Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  124. "India Launches Israeli Satellite". BBC News. January 21, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  125. Sugden, Joanna (October 16, 2014). "India Launches Navigation Satellite into Orbit Using PSLV". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  126. Bagchi, Indrani (April 21, 2009). "Military surveillance gets a boost with RISAT-2". The Times of India. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  127. "India to launch Israel-backed satellite". CNN. March 21, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  128. "India plans to launch 10 satellites every year". The Hindu. July 13, 2010. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  129. "PSLV Successfully launches RISAT-2 and ANUSAT Satellites" (Press release). Government of India- Department of Space. Indian Space Research Organisation. April 20, 2009. Retrieved 2015-11-05. 
  130. "Report: India Bought Advanced Spy Satellite From Israel". Haaretz. March 20, 2009. Retrieved November 5, 2015. 
  131. Blakely, Rhys (May 22, 2008). "A million olive trees to make Indian desert bloom for farmers". The Times. Retrieved March 12, 2009. 
  132. Das, Goutam (May 25, 2014). "A Growing Olive Branch". Business Today. Retrieved June 25, 2015. 
  133. Reuben, Ofira; Dharamraj, Paul (May 29, 2013). "The Indian-Israeli olive agribusiness experiment". The Times of Israel. Retrieved June 25, 2015. 
  134. "Rajasthan produces 100 Tonnes of olives, production expected to grow manyfold". Daily News and Analysis. September 24, 2014. Retrieved June 25, 2015. 
  135. 135.0 135.1 Udasin, Sharon (January 14, 2015). "India, Israel move to next stage with agricultural cooperation". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 5, 2015. 
  136. "Israel to open centres of excellence for farmers in India". Zee News. January 12, 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2015. 
  137. 137.0 137.1 Sally, Madhvi (November 25, 2014). "Agricultural ties with Israel helping Indian farmers". The Economic Times. Retrieved August 5, 2015. 
  138. "3 Israel centres of excellence coming up". The Times of India. September 5, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2015. 
  139. 139.0 139.1 "Three week fest to commemorate Indo-Israel diplomatic ties". The Economic Times. April 6, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  140. Eichner, Itamar (March 4, 2009). "From India with love". Ynetnews. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  141. "BBC World Service- POLL" (PDF). BBC. June 3, 2014. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  142. Swift, Robert (October 29, 2015). "India – Israel relationship emerges from the closet". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved November 2, 2015. 
  143. "India warns of al-Qaida terror plots against Israeli tourists during holiday season". The Jerusalem Post. September 9, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  144. "Profile of Israeli tourists visiting India is changing: Envoy". Zee News. August 23, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  145. 145.0 145.1 Singh, Khushwant (July 2, 2007). "A Jewish summer in Himalayas". Times of India. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  146. Judy, Maltz (March 5, 2015). "Meet the new tourists to Israel (who don't care for hummus)". Haaretz. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  147. 147.0 147.1 "India and Israel to Enhance Tourism Cooperation". Press Information Bureau. September 5, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  148. 148.0 148.1 Elis, Niv (February 25, 2015). "India’s first travel convention in Israel eases conflict worries". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  149. Rozenberg, Rina (June 27, 2012). "India tourism minister: Nearly every Indian wants to visit Jerusalem". Haaretz. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  150. "India passes Korea as top Asian source of incoming tourism". Globes. February 13, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  151. 151.0 151.1 151.2 Kopf, Shulfa (March 6, 2013). "The biggest show on earth". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  152. Banerjee, Neela (October 2, 2007). "In Jews, Indian-Americans See a Role Model in Activism". The New York Times. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  153. 153.0 153.1 "Indian Muslims protest peace delegation to Israel". Ynetnews. August 15, 2007. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  154. 154.0 154.1 154.2 154.3 Lappin, Yaakov (August 19, 2007). "'Time to end violence'". Ynetnews. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  155. 155.0 155.1 Ahmad, Tufail (November 7, 2007). "Dialogue of Democracy: Indian Muslims Visit Israel". Yale Center for the Study of Globalization. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  156. 156.0 156.1 156.2 Brill, Alan (July 2, 2009). "Two ancient religions behave like old friends". New Jersey Jewish News. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  157. 157.0 157.1 157.2 157.3 "Hindu American Foundation Joins in Historic Hindu-Jewish Summit Held in Israel". Hindu American Foundation. February 26, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  158. Israeli President Shimon Peres praises India as greatest 'show of co-existence' (4 December 2012)
  159. 159.0 159.1 159.2 159.3 "Jewish tribe in India celebrates pre-Passover seder, hoping next year will be in Jerusalem". The Jerusalem Post. April 2, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  160. 160.0 160.1 160.2 160.3 160.4 160.5 160.6 160.7 "Rabbi backs India's 'lost Jews'". BBC. April 1, 2005. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  161. Parfitt, Tudor; Semi, Emanuela (December 16, 2013). Judaising Movements: Studies in the Margins of Judaism in Modern Times. Routledge. p. 38. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 
  162. Fried, Talia (October 2009). "Book Review: Nadia Abu El-Haj, The Genealogical Science: The Search for Jewish Origins and the Politics of Epistemology". Sociology. Sage Publications. 47 (5): 1040–1041. doi:10.1177/0038038513500106. Retrieved 6 May 2015. 
  163. "Israel allows 899 Indian Jews to immigrate". The Hindu. October 21, 2013. Retrieved May 6, 2015. 

External links