J. James Exon
|J. James Exon|
|United States Senator
January 3, 1979 – January 3, 1997
|Preceded by||Carl T. Curtis|
|Succeeded by||Chuck Hagel|
|33rd Governor of Nebraska|
January 7, 1971 – January 4, 1979
Gerald T. Whelan
|Preceded by||Norbert T. Tiemann|
|Succeeded by||Charles Thone|
|Born||John James Exon
August 9, 1921
Geddes, South Dakota
|Died||June 10, 2005
|Alma mater||University of Nebraska Omaha|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Battles/wars||World War II|
John James "Jim" Exon (August 9, 1921 – June 10, 2005) was an American Democratic politician. He served as the 33rd Governor of Nebraska from 1971 to 1979, and as a U.S. Senator from Nebraska from 1979 to 1997. Exon was a Nebraska Democrat who never lost an election, and the only Democrat to hold Nebraska's Class 2 U.S. Senate seat. He was elected and re-elected governor in 1970 and 1974, elected to the Senate in 1978, and re-elected in 1984 and 1990. He is the only Nebraskan besides George Norris, the architect of Nebraska's unicameral legislature, to win five consecutive statewide elections.
After the war, he worked as the branch manager of a financial services institution. He founded Exon Office Supplies in Lincoln in 1953 and served as its president until 1971. In 1972, when Esso changed its name to Exxon, it asked Gov. Exon for his permission. He received no financial remuneration from the company.
He started his political career as a precinct worker for the Democrats. In 1964, he was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention for Nebraska and served as a delegate for that state in every convention between 1972 and 2004. He served as a member of the Nebraska Democratic State Central Committee between 1964 and 1968 and was a member of the Democratic National Committee from 1968 to 1970. Exon was Chair of the Nebraska Democratic Party in 1970 when he decided to run for Governor.
Governor of Nebraska 1971–1979
Exon's first bid for public office was his successful campaign for Governor of Nebraska, defeating incumbent Republican Norbert Tiemann. The term of the Governor had been extended to four years beginning with Tiemann's win in 1966. Exon was re-elected in a landslide in 1974 and became the first Nebraska Governor to serve eight years in that position.
His repeated vetoes of the legislature's spending programs earned Exon the reputation as a fiscal conservative. He vetoed 141 bills in his final seven years as Governor or an average of 20 a year. Due to his ability to control expenditures and his reluctance to raise taxes, Exon won the support of many Nebraskans who normally voted Republican.
Senator from Nebraska 1979–1997
Exon's popularity as Governor carried over to his 1978 campaign for the U.S. Senate, and he was elected with 68 percent of the vote. He had a reputation as a moderate Democrat, often working with Republicans on fiscal and military issues. While serving on the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, Exon was a strong defender of the B-2 stealth bomber.
In 1984, Exon had the closest election in his political career due to the popularity of President Ronald Reagan, eventually winning re-election by 25,000 votes. He was re-elected again in 1990.
He helped sponsor the Exon-Florio Amendment, which prevented takeovers or mergers by foreign companies of U.S. companies, if said merger was found to be a threat to national security.
In 1988, Exon took 10 vacations paid for by lobbying groups.
Exon helped to write and secure support for a spending reduction in the U.S. budget of $14 billion in 1994, which he stated was his proudest political achievement. His Communications Decency Act of 1996 was Congress's first effort to try to censor content on the Internet with the goal of preventing access or transmission of pornography on the internet. It was later overturned by a unanimous U.S. Supreme Court as an unconstitutional infringement of the First Amendment.
Final Years 1997–2005
After his retirement, Exon served on a Committee established by Congress and led by John M. Deutch on the threat of weapons of mass destruction. In the report, Exon warned of the dangers if such weapons fell into the hands of terrorists and recommended the formation of an agency with a similar role to the Department of Homeland Security.
He was treated for cancer in the last years of his life, although he claimed in 2003 that it wasn't "highly malignant". Exon died of natural causes in Lincoln, Nebraska on June 10, 2005. He was the first person to lie in state for public viewing in the rotunda of the State Capitol building.
- Fritz, Sarah (31 May 1990). "More Senators Cut Back on Speaking Fees, Trips : Honorariums: Records show at least 19 rejected appearance funds and four gave them to charity in 1989. The lawmakers had been stung by scandal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 13 October 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Robert Cannon, The Legislative History of Senator Exon's Communications Decency Act: Regulating Barbarians on the Information Superhighway, Vol 49 No 1 Federal Communications Law Journal
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to J. James Exon.|
- The Exon Library
- Exon's Congressional biography
- New York Times article on Exon's death
- Los Angeles Times article on Exon's death
- Political Graveyard article on James Exon
- Frederick C. Luebke Nebraska: An Illustrated History University of Nebraska Press 1995 pages 368–370 ISBN 0-8032-2902-X
- Duane Hutchinson, Exon: Biography of a Governor Foundation Books 1973 ISBN 0-934988-01-3
Norbert T. Tiemann
|Governor of Nebraska
|United States Senate|
Carl T. Curtis
|U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Nebraska
Served alongside: Edward Zorinsky, David K. Karnes, Bob Kerrey