Jam Nizamuddin II
|Jam Nizamuddin II
جام نظام الدين ثاني
|Sultan of Sindh|
|Predecessor||Jam Sanjar (Sadr al-Din)|
|Born||25th of Rabi' al-awwal, 844 (1439 CE)
|Died||1509 CE (aged 60–70)
|Burial||Makli Hill, Pakistan|
|Father||Jam Sadr udin bin Jam unar (babina)|
Jám Nizámuddín II (Sindhi: ڄام نظام الدين عرف, Urdu: جام نظام الدين ثاني; 1439–1509), also known as Jam Nizam al-Din or Jám Nindó (Sindhi: ڄام نندو), was the Sultan of Sindh between 1461 and 1508 CE. He was the most famous ruler of the Samma dynasty, which ruled Sindh, parts of Punjab and Balochistan from 1351 to 1551 CE. His capital was Thatta in modern-day southern Pakistan. The Samma dynasty reached the height of its power during the reign of Nizamuddin, who is still recalled as a hero, and whose rule is considered the golden-age of Sindh.
Nizamuddin's grave is located on Makli Hill and part of the world heritage site of Historical Monuments at Makli. The tomb is an impressive stone structure with fine ornamental carving similar to the 15th-century Gujrat style. It has been restored but unfortunately, it suffers from cracks and wall distortions caused by rough weathering and erosion of the slope on which it stands. After his death, his son Jám Ferózudin lost the Sultanate in 1525 CE to an invading army of Shah Beg Arghun, who had been thrown out of Kandahar by Babur.
Nizamuddín was elected to the throne of the Kingdom by joint councils of men of Thatta, as well as of the military on the 25th of Rabi' al-awwal, 866 (1461 CE), after the death of his father Jam Sanjar. Shortly, after his accession, he went with large force to Bukkur, where he spent about a year, fighting Baloch tribes. He strengthened the fort of Bukkur and left the place in charge of his house-born slave Dilshád, after returning to the capital.
For a period of forty-eight years, he reigned Thatta with absolute power. He was considered a wise and a just ruler, under whom madrasahs and mosques flourished, while the people enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity. Travelers could pass throughout Sindh, without harm to their person or property. The people followed strict Muslim rules. Congregations assembled in the mosques: no one was willing to say his prayers alone. The rise of Thatta, as an important commercial and cultural center was directly related to his patronage and policies. The period contributed significantly to the evolution of a prevailing architectural style that can be classified as early Sindhi-Islamic.
In the last part of Nizamuddín's reign, after 1490 CE, a Mughul army under Shah Beg Arghun came from Kandahar and attacked many villages of Chundooha and Sideejuh, invading the towns of Ágrí, Ohándukah, Sibi Sindichah and Kót Máchián. Nizamuddín sent a large army under his Vazier and adopted son Darya Khan, which, arriving at the village known by the name of Duruh-i-Kureeb, also known as Joolow Geer or Halúkhar near Sibi, defeated the Mughuls in a pitched battle. According to other sources, this battle took place at Jalwakhir near Bibi Nani in the Bolan pass. Sháh Beg Arghun’s brother Abú Muhammad Mirzá was killed in battle, and the Mughuls fled back to Kandahár, never to return during the reign of Nizamuddin. Soon thereafter, Nizamuddin died after a long reign of 48 years.
It is said that as a young man he was eager to learn, spending much of his time in college and cloisters. He had a good, affectionate temper, was obliging and an industrious person. He was very religious and regular in his prayers and practiced abstinence. In his days mosques were said to be always full at the time of prayers.
According to a story he visited his stables regularly every week and would pass his hand over the forehead of his horses saying "O lucky beings, I do not wish to ride you in order to fight with others, unless to go against Kafirs. On all the four sides of us we have Muslim rulers. May God never give us any cause other than in accordance with the religious law, to go elsewhere, or others to come here, lest innocent blood of Muslims be shed and I be ashamed in the august presence of God."
Nizamuddin and Sultan Hoosain Langah of Multan were befriended even though the latter had sheltered Samma nobles expelled by Nizamuddin.
Nizamuddin was fond of the company of learned men, with whom he liked discussing literary subjects. There is a story that a learned man of Shiraz, Jaláluddín Muhammad Roomi, had come from Persia to Sindh and had sent his two pupils Mír Shamsuddín and Mír Muín to Thatta to arrange for his sojourn there. Nizamuddin, learning the intention of the Persian scholar, ordered a place to be prepared for his reception and sent the two pupils with a large sum for expenses of the journey, ordering them to bring the learned man. But before their arrival their master had died. Mír Shamsuddín and Mír Muín therefore returned to Thatta in vain and took up their abode at the place.
Cousens wrote in The Antiquities of Sind:
His tomb is in the necropolis on Makli Hill. It is square in plan but the dome was never constructed, work stopped when the walls reached the springing line. On the exterior of the building there are twelve bands of decoration running around the building from top to bottom comprising diamonds, lotuses, Quranic inscriptions and geometric patterns. There are two unusual features: the mihrab in the interior and the corresponding balcony on the exterior. This type of balcony recalls those in Gujarat therefore it is possible that craftsmen from Gujarat were responsible for this tomb. This is a close view of a section of the wall, showing the richly carved balcony and the bands of decorative carving along the wall.
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- This article includes content derived from "History of Sind - translated from Persian books" by Mirza Kalichbeg Fredunbeg (1853–1929), published in Karachi in 1902 and now in the public domain.
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Jam Nizamuddin IIBorn: 1439 Died: 1509
|Sultan of Sindh