James Earl Rudder
|James Earl Rudder|
|File:Major General James Earl Rudder Army.gif|
May 6, 1910|
|Died||March 23, 1970
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1941–1967|
|Battles/wars||World War II
|Awards||Distinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star Medal (2)
James Earl Rudder (May 6, 1910 – March 23, 1970) was the United States Army major general who as a lieutenant colonel was the commander of the historic Pointe du Hoc battle which was part of the Invasion of Normandy. He also at various times served as Texas Land Commissioner, the sixteenth president of Texas A&M University, third president of the Texas A&M University System, the mayor of Brady, Texas, and was a high school and college teacher and coach.
Rudder was born on May 6, 1910, in Eden in Concho County east of San Angelo. He was the son of Dee Forest Rudder and the former Annie Powell. He attended John Tarleton Agricultural College for two years before transferring to Texas A&M. He earned a degree in industrial education in 1932. In 1933, he began work as a football coach and teacher at Brady High School in Brady, in McCulloch County, Texas. June 12, 1937, he wed Margaret E. Williamson. The couple had five children: James Earl "Bud" Rudder, Jr., Jane Rudder Roach (d. 1984), Robert Dee Rudder, Anne Rudder Erdman, and Linda Rudder Williams. In 1938, Rudder became a football coach and teacher at Tarleton Agricultural College.
After graduation from Texas A&M, Rudder had been commissioned a second lieutenant of infantry in the United States Organized Reserve Corps. After being called into active duty in 1941, Rudder took part in the D-Day landings as Commanding Officer of the United States Army's 2nd Ranger Battalion. His U.S. Army Rangers stormed the beach at Pointe du Hoc, scaling 100-foot (30 meter) cliffs under enemy fire to reach and destroy German gun batteries. The battalion's casualty rate for this perilous mission was greater than 50 percent. Rudder himself was wounded twice during the course of the fighting. In spite of this, they dug in and fought off German counter-attacks for two days until relieved. He and his men helped to successfully establish a beachhead for the Allied forces. The siege was replicated in the 1962 epic film The Longest Day.
Seven months later, Rudder was assigned to command the 109th Infantry Regiment, which saw key service in the Battle of the Bulge. Rudder earned military honors including the Distinguished Service Cross, Legion of Merit, Silver Star, Bronze Star with Oak Leaf Cluster, Purple Heart with Oak Leaf Cluster, French Legion of Honor with Croix de Guerre and Palm, and Order of Leopold (Belgium) with Croix de Guerre and Palm. He was a full Colonel by the war's end and was promoted to Brigadier General of the United States Army Reserve in 1954 and Major General in 1957.
Political and academic career
Rudder served as mayor of his hometown of Brady, Texas for six years. In 1953, he became vice president of Brady Aviation Company. On January 1, 1955, he assumed the office of Texas Land Commissioner after James Bascom Giles abandoned the position. At that time the Veterans Land Program was under scrutiny for mismanagement and corruption. Rudder undertook the task of reforming policies, expediting land applications, and closely supervising proper accounting procedures. He also oversaw the proper leasing of state lands by employing more field inspectors for oil and gas sites and adding a seismic exploration staff. In addition, he improved working conditions for his staff and instigated a program to preserve the many deteriorating General Land Office documents.
Rudder won the 1956 state land commissioner election as a Democrat. He became vice president of Texas A&M University in 1958. Rudder became president in 1959 and president of the entire A&M System from 1965 to his death in 1970. In 1967 President Lyndon B. Johnson presented him with the Distinguished Service Medal, the highest peacetime service award. Since his death in 1970, an annual service has been held in Normandy, France, in his honour.
While president of Texas A&M, Rudder is credited for transforming the University from a small land-grant college to a renowned university. Specifically, he made membership in the Corps of Cadets optional, allowed women to attend, and led efforts to integrate the campus. While the changes were hugely unpopular to the former students (it has been said only a president with Rudder's heroic military record could pull off such drastic changes), there is no doubt these changes freed Texas A&M to become one of the largest universities in the U.S. There are many reminders of Rudder on campus, including Rudder Tower, next to the Memorial Student Center. A special training unit within the Corps of Cadets known as "Rudder's Rangers" is named in his honor. Cadets within the Corps of Cadets at A&M are expected to be able to recite an excerpt from the inscription on Rudder tower, a "Campusology" that reads:
|“||In memory of James Earl Rudder, 1910–1970, Class of 1932, Heroic Soldier, Commissioner of the General Land Office of Texas, Sixteenth President of Texas A&M University … Third President of the Texas A&M University System.
Earl Rudder was architect of the dream that produced this center. In this, as in all he did, he demonstrated uncommon ability to inspire men and lead them to exceptional achievement.
Rudder died on March 23, 1970 after suffering a cerebral hemorrhage.
- Earl Rudder Freeway—the portion of U.S. Highway 190/State Highway 6 (future Interstate 14) that runs through Bryan and College Station, Texas.
- Earl Rudder Middle School—a middle school in San Antonio, Texas; Home of the Rudder Rangers
- James Earl Rudder High School—the second high school of the Bryan Independent School District opened in Bryan in August 2008.
- James E. Rudder State Office Building—Main public office of the Texas Secretary of State, 1019 Brazos St., Austin, Texas 78701
- J. Earl Rudder Tower & Conference Center—12 story building on the campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas.
- TS General Rudder—Training ship for the Texas A&M "Texas Maritime Academy" at Galveston (2012).
- Camp James E. Rudder, subpost of Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. Training site for the Florida phase of U.S. Army Ranger School.
The Major General James E. Rudder Medal- Awarded annually by the Association of the United States Army (AUSA) to an Army Reserve Soldier- serving or retired- whose career in the Army Reserve exemplifies the example of the Army Reserve Citizen-Soldier modeled by General Rudder.
- James Earl Rudder Papers – Texas A&M's Cushing Memorial Library Online
- 2nd Ranger Battalion – How Much Of It Is Real? The Saving Private Ryan Online Encyclopedia
- Texas Handbook biography of James Earl Rudder
- Excerpt from: The VICTORS : Eisenhower and His Boys: The Men of World War II
- Hatfield, Thomas M. (2011), Rudder: From Leader to Legend, Texas A&M University Press, ISBN 978-1-60344-262-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Black, Robert W. (2006), The Battalion: The Dramatic Story of the 2nd Ranger Battalion in World War II, Stackpole Books, ISBN 978-0-8117-0184-6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Black, Robert W. (1992), Rangers in World War II, Presidio Press, ISBN 978-0-8041-0565-1<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Brinkley, Douglas (2006), The Boys of Pointe du Hoc: Ronald Reagan, D-Day, and the U.S. Army 2nd Ranger Battalion, Harper Perennial, ISBN 978-0-06-056530-5<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Lane, Ronald L. (2005), Rudder's Rangers, Ranger Associates, Inc., ISBN 9780934588157<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Mauro, Gary (1986), The Land Commissioners of Texas: 150 Years of the General Land Office, Texas General Land Office<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
|Texas Land Commissioner