|File:Jan Němec (1967).jpg
Jan Němec in 1967
12 July 1936 |
now Czech Republic
|Spouse(s)||Ester Krumbachová (m. 1963–68)
Marta Kubišová (m. 1970–73)
Veronica Baumann (m. 1984–2003)
Iva Ruszelakova (m. 2003)
Jan Němec (born 12 July 1936 in Prague) is a Czech filmmaker whose most important work dates from the 1960s. Film historian Peter Hames has described him as the "enfant terrible of the Czech New Wave."
Němec's career as a filmmaker started in the late 1950s when he attended FAMU, the most prestigious institution for film training in Czechoslovakia. At this time, Czechoslovakia was a communist state subservient to the USSR and artistic and public expression was subject to censorship and government review. However, thanks largely to the failure of purely propagandist cinema in the early 1950s and the presence of important and powerful people within the Czechoslovak film industry, such as Jan Procházka, the 1960s led to an internationally acknowledged creative surge in Czechoslovak film that became known as the Czech New Wave, in which Němec played a part.
For graduation, Němec adapted a short story by Arnošt Lustig based on the author's experience of the Holocaust. Němec would return to Lustig's writing to direct the influential film Diamonds of the Night (1964) - also based on the Holocaust. The film follows the fate of two boys who escape from a transit train to a concentration camp. It is noted for its dramatic subjectivization of the experience of the Holocaust using experimental techniques, including flashbacks, simulated hallucinations and an unusual double ending that leaves the viewer in doubt as to the fate of its protagonists. It was his first major success, and while it passed the censors' reviews, it helped lay the foundation for the political movement that was coming. The film has since been called an aesthetic and technical milestone in the exploration of human experience under extreme conditions.
His best known work is A Report on the Party and the Guests (1966). Its plot revolves around a group of friends on a picnic who are invited to a bizarre banquet by a charismatic sadist, played by Ivan Vyskočil, who eventually bullies most of them into blind conformity and brutality while those who resist are hunted down. The film particularly received a bad reception from the authorities as Vyskočil in the film had a remarkable likeness to Lenin, though according to Peter Hames this was accidental. Moreover, the cast consisted of various dissident Czechoslovak intellectuals of the day, including Josef Škvorecký. The film was viewed as being so subversive to the Communist state that Antonín Novotný, the President, was said to "climb the walls" on viewing it and Němec's arrest for subversion was considered.
However, before the political fallout from was able to take effect, he was able to have approved one more feature: Martyrs of Love (Mučedníci lásky, 1966). The film, perhaps in mind of the previous troubles he had suffered, was completely apolitical, but it's surrealist lyrical style did not endear it to the authorities and Němec was forced to work outside the government-approved system, producing the film Mother and Son (Mutter und Sohn, 1967), which won an award at the Oberhausen Film Festival.
His next important feature was a documentary, Oratorio for Prague, of the Soviet-led invasion of Prague in 1968, which ended the liberal Prague Spring. It received standing ovations in New York in the fall of 1968. It was banned, but Němec's footage would eventually be used by countless international news organizations as stock footage of the invasion. Philip Kaufman's film adaptation of The Unbearable Lightness of Being (1988) used footage from the film; Němec also served as an advisor.
After 1968, he left Czechoslovakia although, upon his return, he was not allowed to make films. He attempted to leave the country soon after, but was not able until 1974. He was given a warning by government that "... if he came back, they would find some legal excuse to throw him in jail." From 1974 to 1989, he traveled to Germany, Paris, Holland, Sweden, and the United States. He stayed in the United States for 12 years. Unable to work in traditional cinema, he was a pioneer in using video cameras to record weddings, including documenting the nuptials of the Swedish royal family.
After the fall of Communism in Czechoslovakia in 1989, he returned to his native country, where he has made several films, including Code Name Ruby (Jmeno kodu: Rubin, 1997) and Late Night Talks with Mother (Nočni hovory s matkou, 2000), which won the Golden Leopard at Locarno.
He has been a professor at his alma mater, FAMU since 1996.
He married costume designer and screenwriter Ester Krumbachová in 1963; they divorced in 1968. In 1970 he married singer Marta Kubišová; they divorced in 1973. He married his third wife Veronica Baumann, a Czech language teacher, in 1984; they divorced in 2003. He married film editor Iva Ruszelakova, shortly after. In May 2003, Němec became a father.
- Diamonds of the Night (1964)
- Pearls of the Deep (segment "Podvodníci", 1966)
- A Report on the Party and the Guests (1966)
- Martyrs of Love (1967)
- Oratorio for Prague (1968)
- Late Talks with my Mother (2001)
- "Jan Nemec – Enfant terrible of the New Wave". CE Review. 14 May 2001. Retrieved 16 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- "Kinoeye: An Interview with Czech Film Director Jan Nemec". CE Review. Retrieved 16 April 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Buchar, Robert (2004). Czech new wave filmmakers in interviews. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 25. ISBN 9780786417209. Retrieved 29 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Levy, Adam (August 21, 2003). "Jan Nemec: An enfant terrible at 67". Monroe Luther. The Prague Post s.r.o. Retrieved 28 November 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>