January 1960

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January 23, 1960: The bathyscaphe Trieste descends seven miles to the ocean floor
January 24, 1960: French Algerians erect the barricades
January 1, 1960: Independence for Cameroon
January 4, 1960: Albert Camus killed in auto accident

The following events occurred in January 1960:

January 1, 1960 (Friday)

  • The Republic of Cameroun became independent at midnight local time (2300 12/31/59 GMT) with the lowering of the French tricolor, and the raising of a new tricolor (red, yellow and green) flag at Yaoundé. The former French Cameroons colony had been under a U.N. Trusteeship during a transition period, and Prime Minister Ahmadou Ahidjo headed the government pending the adoption of a constitution. United Nations Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld, along with Henry Cabot Lodge, the American Ambassador to the U.N., were present, along with the Soviet First Deputy Premier, Frol Kozlov, who announced that the Soviets would recognize the new government. Marxist Félix-Roland Moumié, who had previously been supported by the Soviet Union, continued to wage a campaign of terrorism against the Ahidjo government, and thirty people were killed on the Republic's first day.[1]
  • Midnight, January 1, 1960, is the point from which dates are measured under SAS System and Stata computer programming software.
  • The symbolic "Doomsday Clock" on the cover of the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists was moved back five minutes, from "two minutes to midnight" (where it had been since 1953) to "seven minutes to midnight".[2]
  • Cities created through merger in Norway-- Smøla (from Edøy, Brattvær, and Hopen); Evje og Hornnes (from Evje and Hornnes); and Sirdal (from Tonstad and Øvre Sirdal).
  • Died: Margaret Sullavan, 50, American film actress, drug overdose.
  • Davey and Goliath is broadcast in the United States.

January 2, 1960 (Saturday)

  • The temperature in Oodnadatta, South Australia, reached 50.7 °C (123.3 °F) in the shade, for what remains the highest temperature ever recorded in Australia.[3]
  • At the Senate Caucus room in Washington, U.S. Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts formally announced that he would seek the Democratic nomination for President of the United States. Addressing a question about whether being a Roman Catholic would affect his chances of winning, Senator Kennedy told "I would think that there is really only one issue involved in the whole question of a candidate's religion, that is, does a candidate believe in the separation of church and state?"[4]
  • Born: Naoki Urasawa, Japanese manga author, in Tokyo
  • Died: Friedrich Adler, 80, Austrian assassin. Adler had killed Austrian Prime Minister Karl von Stürgkh in 1916.

January 3, 1960 (Sunday)

January 4, 1960 (Monday)

  • The EFTA Treaty was signed in Stockholm by Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, to form the European Free Trade Association, a 7-member alternative to nations that could not, or did not want, to be in the six-nation European Economic Community. The treaty took effect on May 3, 1960.[6]
  • The steel strike of 1959 was settled, three weeks before an injunction under the Taft-Hartley Act was set to expire, as Labor Secretary James P. Mitchell and Vice-President Richard M. Nixon mediated the dispute between the United Steelworkers Association and eleven steel manufacturers.[7]
  • Banks in France issued the first bills for the nouveau franc worth one hundred ancients francs, and brought back the centime coin, replacing the old franc. The new franc, at roughly five to U.S. dollar, had become legal tender on January 1. To prepare the French for the changeover, the old-style bills had been overstamped with new value and the initials "N.F."[8]
  • Born: Michael Stipe, American rock singer (R.E.M.), in Decatur, GA
  • Died: Author Albert Camus was killed at 1:54 a.m. while riding as a passenger in a Facel-Vega sports car near the town of being driven by his publisher, Michel Gallimard. The car left the road near Villeneuve-la-Guyard, striking a tree. An unfinished, 144 page manuscript of Camus' latest novel, was found near the wreckage. The First Man would finally be published 35 years later.[9]

January 5, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan began a six-week, 20,000-mile tour of Britain's current and former African colonies and meeting, not returning to London until February 15.[10]
  • Le Monde broke the news of a confidential report, made to the French government by the International Red Cross, documenting the French Army's torture in Algeria.[11]
  • The Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that a trust fund, set up by Benjamin Franklin's will in 1791 to assist "young married artificers", could not be divided before its 1991 maturity date, despite the fact that there were no more artificers who would benefit. Started by Franklin with the deposit of 1,000 pounds sterling, the fund had grown to $1,578,098 by 1960.[12] By the time the monies were split between Massachusetts and Pennsylvania in 1991, the Fund was worth more than $6.5 million.[13]

January 6, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • At the Johns Hopkins University Hospital in Baltimore, an emergency room intern, Dr. Henry Thomas, became the first person to save a life following CPR training. The technique of "closed chest compression" had been shown to Dr. Thomas and other physicians by developed by Dr. James Jude, but had only been attempted before during surgery. The patient, 45-year-old Eugene Barnes, had collapsed while removing his shirt for an examination. Dr. Thomas applied cardiopulmonary resuscitation and kept Barnes alive during a 22-minute wait for a defibrillator, and Barnes went on to a full recovery. The rest of the world would learn about CPR in the July 9, 1960, issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.[14]
  • National Airlines Flight 2511 exploded in midflight at 18,000 feet and crashed into a swamp at 2:00 a.m. near Bolivia, North Carolina, killing all 34 on board. The 29 passengers had been put on the Douglas DC-B for their Miami to New York flight, after their flight on a Boeing 707 had been cancelled. Killed in the crash was attorney Julian Frank, whose life had been insured by Dr. Robert Spears, listed as one of the dead from the 1959 crash of National Airlines Flight 967. Investigators concluded that Frank had unwittingly carried a bomb on board the plane inside his carry-on luggage. Dr. Spears was found and arrested in Arizona.[15]
  • The Associations Law officially came into force in Iraq (coinciding with Army Day), allowing the legal registration of political parties. Prior to the adoption of this law, political parties had been banned in Iraq since 1954.[16][17]
  • Born: Howie Long, American football player, in Somerville, MA; Kari Jalonen, Finnish ice hockey player, in Oulu; Nigella Lawson, British chef and writer, in London; and Miriam O'Callaghan, Irish TV broadcaster, in Foxrock

January 7, 1960 (Thursday)

  • For the first time, a Polaris missile reached its target using its own inertial guidance system, rather than being directed from a ground station. The shot from Cape Canaveral came a few hours after President Eisenhower's final State of the Union speech, describing the new era of nuclear submarines armed with the Polaris missiles. "Impossible to destroy by surprise attack," said Ike, "they will become one of our most effective sentinels for peace."[18]
  • The Soviet Union announced that it would be testing a long-range rocket over an area in the North Pacific Ocean, and warned other nations not to send ships through a designated 280 by 160 mile area between January 15 and February 15.[19]
  • Died: Prince Ferdinand Pius, Duke of Calabria, 90, pretender to throne of Kingdom of Two Sicilies

January 8, 1960 (Friday)

  • Lee Harvey Oswald, an American defector to the Soviet Union, was personally welcomed by the Mayor of Minsk, given a free apartment, and then set up in a new job as a metal worker in the Byelorussian Radio and Television factory.[20]
  • David Cooper Nelson became the first convict to be executed in New Mexico's gas chamber, and the last. The legislature had replaced the electric chair with gas, and would later adopt lethal injection as its mode of capital punishment.[21]
  • The Los Angeles Rams sued the new American Football League and the Houston Oilers over the rights to Heisman Trophy winner Billy Cannon, who had signed with both teams.[22]

January 9, 1960 (Saturday)

January 10, 1960 (Sunday)

  • The United States would defend the Nationalist Chinese islands of Quemoy and Matsu from aggression by Communist China, U.S. Secretary of the Army Wilber M. Brucker said at a news conference in Taipei, marking a change in American policy. The U.S. treaty to defend the island of Taiwan from attack did not include the two islands in the Taiwan Strait.[26] The issue of whether the United States should go to war with China over the two islands would become an issue in the 1960 presidential campaign.
  • Born: Brian Cowen, Prime Minister of Ireland since 2008, in Clara, County Offaly; and Samira Said, Moroccan singer, in Rabat

January 11, 1960 (Monday)

  • Henry Lee Lucas, who would confess to more than 600 murders in 1985, then recant, took his first life, stabbing his 74-year-old mother, Viola, at her home in Tecumseh, Michigan. Sentenced to 40 years in prison, but released in 1970, Lucas then resumed killing, and was ultimately convicted of 11 homicides.[27]
  • U.S. Senator Theodore F. Green of Rhode Island, at 92, the oldest person to ever serve in either house of Congress, announced that he would not run in 1960 for a fifth term.[28] Green served from 1935 to 1961, and died at age 98 in 1966.

January 12, 1960 (Tuesday)

January 13, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • The first discussions were held in the White House to discuss covert action to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. A special group, created by the National Security Council's order #5412, approved "Operation Zapata".[31]
  • The Soviet Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD) was abolished, and replaced by separate agencies in the 15 republics.[32]

January 14, 1960 (Thursday)

January 15, 1960 (Friday)

  • The day after Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev asked the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to formally approve his proposal to reduce the Soviet armed forces by nearly one-third, the 1,300 members in both houses gave their unanimous assent. The reduction, from 3,623,000 men to 2,423,000 men, had been announced by Khrushchev the day before in a speech to the joint session, with a plan to shift defense expenditures to nuclear weapons and missiles. "Should any madman launch an attack on our state or on other socialist states," Khrushchev said,"we would literally be able to wipe the country or countries that attack us off the face of the Earth."[35]
  • Eight Chicago policemen were arrested in early morning raids on their homes, and charged with burglary, and several carloads of stolen merchandise were seized from the homes. By the end of the month, 15 city cops had been indicted for what Mayor Daley called "the most disgraceful and shocking scandal in the police department's history. The arrests followed a revelation, by a 23-year-old burglar, that several members of the Chicago PD had assisted him in burglarizing businesses in areas they had been assigned to patrol.[36]

January 16, 1960 (Saturday)

  • Nobusuke Kishi, the Prime Minister of Japan, departed from Tokyo's Haneda Airport at 8:09 a.m., in order to sign an unpopular treaty with the United States on American soil, but not before avoiding a rioting crowd of at least 500 Zengakuren, leftist students who had occupied the airport in protest. Several thousand police were required to disperse the gathering.[37]
  • The village of Willowbrook, Illinois, was incorporated.

January 17, 1960 (Sunday)

January 18, 1960 (Monday)

  • Capital Airlines Flight 20 crashed near Holdcroft, Virginia, while en route from Washington to Norfolk, apparently killing all forty-six passengers and four crew members on impact. The first persons on the scene heard no cries, and the Vickers Viscount was soon consumed by a fire that burned for five hours.[39]
  • Major General Jacques Massu, the commander of the French Army in Algeria, criticized his boss in an interview with Hans Ulrich Kempski of the German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung. President Charles De Gaulle, who came into power with the Army's support in 1958, was outraged by Massu's statement that "Perhaps the Army made a mistake."[40]

January 19, 1960 (Tuesday)

January 20, 1960 (Wednesday)

January 21, 1960 (Thursday)

  • In the third worst mine disaster in history, 437 coal miners were killed at the Coalbrook North Colliery at Coalbrook, South Africa, when a three square kilometer section collapsed, filling the mine shaft with methane.[44]
  • Miss Sam, a rhesus monkey, was launched on board the rocket Little Joe 1B from Wallops Island, reaching an altitude of 48,900 feet before returning safely to Earth, clearing the way for human astronauts.[45]
  • Avianca Flight 671 from New York to Montego Bay, Jamaica, crashed and burned when its landing gear collapsed on touchdown, killing 37 of the 46 persons on board[46]
  • Died: Wu Lien-teh, 80, Chinese physician who halted pneumonic plague epidemic of 1910

January 22, 1960 (Friday)

  • France's President de Gaulle fired Major General Massu from his post as, commander of the troops in French Algeria, following Massu's critical interview. European Algerians were outraged by the firing, precipitating the "week of the barricades".[47]
  • At the Boston Garden, Sugar Ray Robinson lost his world middleweight boxing title in an upset to Paul Pender, a 29-year-old firefighter from Brookline, Massachusetts. Pender outpointed Robinson in fifteen rounds.[48]
  • Born: Michael Hutchence, Australian rock musician (INXS), in Sydney; (d. 1997)

January 23, 1960 (Saturday)

January 24, 1960 (Sunday)

  • As many as 5,000 European residents of French Algeria, including members of the French home guard, sealed off parts of Algiers and then withdrew behind the barricades. In the crisis that followed, leaders of the French Army told Prime Minister Michel Debre that they would disregard orders to attack the insurgents. When the local police clashed with the demonstrators, 24 people were killed and 136 injured.[50]
  • The Democratic Socialist Party (Japan) was formed by Nishio Suehiro and 52 other members of Parliament who had formerly been in the Japan Socialist Party. The DSP lasted until 1994.[51]
  • Born: Rick Leventhal, FOX TV newsman, in Silver Spring, MD
  • Died: Edwin Fischer, 73, Swiss classical pianist; and Ashihei Hino, 53, Japanese novelist (suicide)

January 25, 1960 (Monday)

  • Belgium agreed to grant its African colony, in the Belgian Congo, independence, setting a date of June 30, 1960, and elections to be held in May.[52]
  • Wilt Chamberlain set an NBA record that still stands, for "Most points, rookie, game", with 58 points for the Philadelphia Warriors against the Detroit Pistons, in Bethlehem, PA. The record was tied, by Chamberlain, on February 21 of his rookie year.[53]
  • [Corneliu Tiberiu Constantin was born. Father Ion, Mother Aurelia. place of birth Vulcan, Hunedoara, Romania]

January 26, 1960 (Tuesday)

  • After 22 ballots to select the new National Football League Commissioner, Marshall Leahy was had seven votes, Austin Gunsel had four, but neither candidate had the required 10 of 12 majority needed for the 12-team league. The compromise was the little-known general manager of the Los Angeles Rams, 33-year-old Pete Rozelle. Rozelle would go on to lead the NFL to become the most popular professional sports league in the United States.[54]
  • In Burnsville, West Virginia, Burnsville High School student Danny Heater set an interscholastic record for basketball, scoring 135 points in a 173–43 win over Widen, West Virginia's high school team.[55]

January 27, 1960 (Wednesday)

  • Following Japan's signing of the new security treaty with the United States, the Soviet Union announced that it was cancelling plans to return the islands of Habomai and Shikotan, captured during World War II, to Japan.[56]
  • Construction began on the Baitul Mukarram mosque in Dhaka, East Pakistan. The structure, designed by Abdul Hussain Thariani, is now the National Mosque of Bangladesh.
  • A river of lava from the Kilauea Volcano spilled over the last earthen dike that had protected the village of Kapoho, Hawai'i, and began the destruction of the town, whose 300 residents had been evacuated. By Saturday, Kapoho was gone.[57]
  • Thirty-one people were trampled to death in Seoul, South Korea, when a crowd surged forward to catch a train.[25]

January 28, 1960 (Thursday)

  • The 12-team NFL expanded for the first time since 1949, awarding the franchise for the Dallas Cowboys for 1960, and for the Minnesota Vikings for 1961.[58]
  • China and Burma (now Myanmar) signed an agreement specifying the boundary between the two nations.[59]
  • Died: Zora Neale Hurston, 69, African-American author who attained posthumous fame in the 1970s

January 29, 1960 (Friday)

  • Facing a challenge from rebelling European settlers in French Algeria, France's President Charles de Gaulle went on television in his Army uniform, in order, he said, "to stress that I am speaking as General de Gaulle as well as chief of state". Having announced before that the future of French territory in Algeria would be left to the Algerian Arab majority, de Gaulle emphasized that he would not yield to Europeans "who dream of being usurpers". Following the speech, the French Army ended speculation about whether they would side with the Algerian Europeans against the Paris government, and ordered all home guardsmen, inside the barricades, to report to their headquarters. When the order was disobeyed, the Army moved in to end the rebellion.[60]
  • Born: Greg Louganis, American diver, Olympic medalist, in El Cajon, CA; Gia Carangi, American supermodel and AIDS sufferer, in Philadelphia (d. 1986); and Matthew Ashford, American soap opera actor (Days of Our Lives), in Davenport, IA

January 30, 1960 (Saturday)

January 31, 1960 (Sunday)

  • Joseph McNeill, a 17-year-old college freshman, was turned away by a waitress with the words, "We don't serve Negroes," when he tried to get something to eat at the bus terminal in Greensboro, North Carolina. When he talked about it with three friends at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College, the four African-American students decided that they would take a stand against segregation. The next day, the four would sit down at the Woolworth's Department Store lunch counter and refuse to get up until they were served, and the "sit-in" was born.[62]
  • At Tawfiq, a skirmish between soldiers from Israel and Syria (at that time, part of the United Arab Republic with Egypt), left 12 Syrians and 7 Israelis dead. UAR President Gamal Abdel Nasser sent Egyptian troops back into the Sinai in response.[63]


  1. "Terrorists Kill 30 at Birth Of New Nation", Oakland Tribune, January 1, 1960, p1; "CAMEROON: Another New Flag", January 11, 1960
  2. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists
  3. 2006 Year Book Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2005), p53
  4. The World Almanac and Book of Facts, 1961, p155; "Hat Thrown Into Ring By Kennedy", Oakland Tribune, January 2, 1960, p1
  5. "Dramatic Specials Top TV Fare For The Week", The Times Recorder (Zanesville, OH), January 3, 1960, pB-7
  6. J.A.S. Grenville and Bernard Wasserstein, The Major International Treaties of the Twentieth Century: A History and Guide with Texts (Taylor and Francis, 2001) p524
  7. "Steel Dispute Settled; 39-Cent Hike Reported – Nixon Given Praise for Major Coup", Oakland Tribune, January 4, 1960, p1
  8. "France Starts Year With A New Franc", Winnipeg Free Press, January 2, 1960, p14
  9. James Campbell, Exiled in Paris: Richard Wright, James Baldwin, Samuel Beckett, and others on the Left Bank (University of California Press, 2003), p239
  10. World Almanac 1961, p154
  11. Gil Merom, How Democracies Lose Small Wars: State, Society, and the Failures of France in Algeria, Israel in Lebanon, and the United States in Vietnam (Cambridge University Press, 2003), p148; "Sadly Conclusive", TIME magazine, January 18, 1960
  12. "Ben Franklin Trust Fund Must Be Held", Amarillo Globe-Times, January 7, 1960, p21
  13. "Benjamin Franklin's pennies saved now worth $6.5 million", The Intelligencer-Record (Doylestown, PA), April 18, 1990, pA-11
  14. Mickey S. Eisenberg, Life in the Balance: Emergency Medicine and the Quest to Reverse Sudden Death (Oxford University Press, 1997), pp125–126
  15. "34 Dead in Airliner Explosion, Crash; Adm. McDonnell, Congressional Medal of Honor Holder, Is Victim; Debris Found in Carolina Swamp" Oakland Tribune, January 6, 1960, p1; "AVIATION: Disintegration & Disaster", TIME Magazine, January 18, 1960
  16. Middle East Record 1960. London: published for the Israel Oriental Society, the Reuven Shiloah Research Center. p. 237
  17. Ismael, Tareq Y. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Iraq. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. p. 101
  18. "Polaris Flies On Its Own Over 900-Mile Course", Oakland Tribune, January 8, 1960, p5; "IKE: 1960 MOST PROSPEROUS YEAR", Lowell (MA) Sun, January 7, 1960, p1.
  19. "Soviet 'Invades' Target Area For U.S. Missiles in Pacific", Oakland Tribune, January 8, 1960, p5
  20. Dick Russell, The Man Who Knew Too Much (Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2003), p117
  21. Robert J. Tórrez, Myth of the Hanging Tree: Stories of Crime and Punishment in Territorial New Mexico (University of New Mexico Press, 2008), p52; "State Gas Chamber Works-- Nelson's Life Snuffed Out", Clovis (NM) News-Journal, January 8, 1960, p1
  22. "Rams File Suit to Keep Cannon From AFL", San Antonio Express, January 12, 1960, p12-A
  23. (New York Times)
  24. Robert O. Collins, The Nile (Yale University Press, 2002), p181
  25. 25.0 25.1 World Almanac 1961, p157
  26. "Will Defend China Isles", Pacific Stars and Stripes, January 11, 1960, p1
  27. Henry Lee Lucas, trutv.com; "Man Is Sought In Fatal Stabbing Of His Mother", AP story in The Progress Index (Petersburg, VA), January 13, 1960, p14
  28. "Sen. Theodore Green, Oldest Member of Congress, to Quit", Oakland Tribune, January 12, 1960, p7
  29. "Emergency Is Lifted In Kenya", Winnipeg Rree Press, January 12, 1960, p4
  30. Avery N. Gilbert, What the Nose Knows: The Science of Scent in Everyday Life (Crown Publishers, ©2008), pp162–163
  31. William J. Daugherty, Executive Secrets: Covert Action and the Presidency (University Press of Kentucky, 2004)
  32. Vasiliy Mitrokhin, KGB Lexicon: The Soviet Intelligence Officer's Handbook (Routledge, 2002), p265
  33. Official Year Book of the Commonwealth of Australia, No. 47-1961, Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (1961)
  34. Melvyn Dubofsky and Warren R. Van Tine, John L. Lewis: A Biography (University of Illinois Press, 1986), p369
  35. "Soviet OKs Khrushchev Arms Cut", Oakland Tribune, January 15, 1960, p1; Jonathan S. Lockwood, The Soviet View of U.S. Strategic Doctrine: Implications for Decision Making (Transaction Books 1983), p31
  36. "Indignant Burglar Touches Off Political Ruckus", The Register-Guard (Eugene, OR), January 31, 1960, p3
  37. "Japan Reds, Cops Battle At Airport", Oakland Tribune, January 16, 1960; James A. A. Stockwin, Governing Japan: Divided Politics in a Major Economy (Blackwell, 1999), pp51–52
  38. "Ike's Russian Visit Set for June 10–19", The Bridgeport Telegram, January 18, 1960, p1
  39. "Plane Crashes, Burns – 50 Die; Dead Cremated In Their Seats", Kingsport (TN) Times, January 19, 1960, p1; aviation-safety.net report
  40. Serge Berstein, The Republic of De Gaulle, 1958-1969 (Cambridge University Press, 1993), p41
  41. Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements, Volume 4 (Taylor and Francis, 2003), pp2550-2551
  42. AirDisaster.Com Database
  43. "RUSSIAN ROCKET ZIPS 7,760 MILES", El Paso Herald-Post, January 21, 1960, p1
  44. "Hope Fading for Trapped Miners", Oakland Tribune, January 22, 1960, p1; B.H.G. Brady and E.T. Brown, Rock Mechanics For Underground Mining (Springer, 2006), p484; "Tragedy At No. 10", TIME 2/1/60
  45. "Monkey Rides U.S. Rocket", Pacific Stars and Stripes, January 22, 1960, p1; Colin Burgess and Chris Dubbs, Animals in space: from research rockets to the space shuttle (Springer, 2007), pp177–178
  46. "37 Killed in Week's Fourth Plane Disaster" Oakland Tribune, Jan. 21, 1960, p1
  47. "Gen. De Gaulle Fires French Algeria Chief", Oakland Tribune, January 22, 1960, p1; "The Test for De Gaulle", TIME Magazine, February 1, 1960
  48. "Sugar Ray Loses!", The Independent (Long Beach, CA), January 23, 1960, p9
  49. Gary E. Weir, An Ocean in Common: American Naval Officers, Scientists, and the Ocean Environment (Texas A & M University Press, 2001), pp324–325; "Seven-Mile Ocean Dive Sets Record", Oakland Tribune, January 23, 1960, p1
  50. The World Almanac, 1961, p157
  51. Gerald L. Curtis, The Japanese Way of Politics (Columbia University Press, 1988), pp22–23
  52. Michael Crowder, The Cambridge History of Africa (Vol. 8), (Cambridge University Press, 1984), p712
  53. "Regular Season Records: Points", NBA.com
  54. "At 33 and 50 G's, Rozelle New NFL Czar in Shocker", Press-Telegram (Long Beach, CA), pD-1
  55. "Burnsville Boy Gets 135 Points In 173–43 Win", Charleston (WV) Gazette, January 27, 1960, p18; Floyd Conner, Basketball's Most Wanted: The Top 10 Book of Hoops' Outrageous Dunkers, Incredible Buzzer-beaters, and Other Oddities (Brassey's, 2001), p52
  56. Kimie Hara, Japanese-Soviet/Russian Relations Since 1945 (Routledge, 1998), pp 97–98
  57. "Lava Spews Over Dikes-- Ruins Town", Oakland Tribune, January 28, 1960, p1; "Lava Flowing on City's Last 8 Buildings", Tribune, January 30, 1960, p1
  58. "NFL Admits Dallas and Minneapolis-St. Paul, The Post-Standard (Syracuse), January 29, 1960, p14
  59. Pobzeb Vang, Five Principles of Chinese Foreign Policies (AuthorHouse, 2008), p386
  60. World Almanac 1961, p156
  61. "Oakland Wins Pro Football Franchise", Oakland Tribune, January 31, 1960, p1; Ed Gruver, The American Football League: A Year-by-year History, 1960–1969 (McFarland, 1997), pp101–102
  62. Harvard Sitkoff, The Struggle For Black Equality, 1954–1992 (Hill and Wang 1995), pp61–62
  63. Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel's Security & Foreign Policy (University of Michigan Press, 2006.), p240