January 1963

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1963
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The following events occurred in January 1963:

January 1, 1963 (Tuesday)

January 8, 1963: The Mona Lisa displayed in Washington, D.C.
  • The #1 ranked (and unofficial college football champion) USC Trojans and the #2 Wisconsin Badgers met in the 1963 Rose Bowl before a crowd of 98,696 people. At the time, American college football's national championship was determined by the AP and UPI polls taken at the end of the regular season. USC won 42-37, holding off a fourth quarter, 23-point rally by Wisconsin.[3]
  • Alabama Crimson Tide defeated the Oklahoma Sooners 17-0 in the 1963 Orange Bowl football competition at the Miami Orange Bowl.[4]
  • The city of Chesapeake, Virginia, was created from a merger of the city of South Norfolk and the remainder of surrounding Norfolk County, Virginia.[5]
  • Died: Robert S. Kerr, 66, U.S. Senator for Oklahoma since 1948 and oil multi-millionaire, sometimes called "the uncrowned King of the Senate".

January 2, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • The Battle of Ap Bac in South Vietnam began, and was the first time that Viet Cong forces stood and fought against a major South Vietnamese attack. At the outset, Viet Cong ground fire shot down a United States Army UH-1 attack helicopter and four U.S. Army CH-21 transport helicopters as they arrived at their landing zone. South Vietnamese Air Force C-123 Provider transport planes dropped about 300 South Vietnamese paratroopers later in the day.[6] Despite outnumbering the Viet Cong 4 to 1, and having American armor, artillery and helicopters, "what should have been an ARVN victory turned into an exercise of everything that was wrong with the South Vietnamese army".[7][8]
  • Seventeen people were killed in an explosion at the Home Packing Company in Terre Haute, Indiana.[9]
  • Born: Edgar Martínez, American MLB baseball player, in New York City
  • Died: Dick Powell, 58, American actor and singer (lymphoma). Powell's death from lymphatic cancer came a day after his pre-recorded introduction to the stories of his anthology series, The Dick Powell Show had been telecast. The show would continue for the rest of the season under the same name with various celebrities hosting, but without Powell's introductions.[10]
  • Died: Jack Carson, 52, Canadian-American comedian and character actor, of stomach cancer

January 3, 1963 (Thursday)

  • In a press conference in Ottawa, U.S. Army General Lauris Norstad's answer to a reporter's question set in motion a series of events that would bring the downfall of Canadian Prime Minister John Diefenbaker. General Norstad had recently retired as NATO's Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. Asked by Charles Lynch[11] of the Ottawa Citizenwhether he was saying that Canada's refusal to accept nuclear weapons for its airplanes meant "that she is not actually fulfilling her NATO commitments", General Norstad said, "I believe that is right."[12][13]
  • Big Freeze of 1963: Freezing conditions in the UK cancelled all but three of the scheduled third round matches of the 1962–63 FA Cup.[14][15] The blizzard was "the worst snow in Britain's 100 years of recorded weather history".[16]
  • Thirty-two Soviet civilians, from Siberia, forced their way into the United States Embassy in Moscow, describing themselves as "persecuted Christians" and seeking political asylum. After embassy officials told the group that they could not stay, the people were placed on a bus and taken away by Moscow police.[17] The 6 men, 12 women and 14 children were sent back to Chernogorsk that evening, after the U.S. Embassy received assurances that the group would get "good treatment".[18]
  • Contact with the American Mariner 2 space probe was lost after 128 days of data transmitted from the planet Venus and from the Sun. Attempts from Earth, on January 8, to restart transmission, failed, and the craft was not found during searches made on May 28, and August 16.[19]

January 4, 1963 (Friday)

  • An express train crashed into the rear of a standing passenger train at Meghnagar, Madhya Pradesh in India. Eight passenger cars were crushed or caught fire after an explosion. At least 38 people were confirmed dead and 90 injured.[20]
  • The Soviet Union successfully launched Luna E-6 No.2, but a malfunction kept the craft from going beyond low Earth orbit. Seven days later, the decay of the orbit caused the satellite to re-enter and burn in the atmosphere.[21]
  • Died: Yusuf Izzuddin Shah, 72, Sultan of Perak since 1948. He received the posthumous title of "Marhum Ghafarullah".
  • The Birth of The Great Bobo Svensson / Lugnviksstrand (Cubaskogen).

January 5, 1963 (Saturday)

  • The musical Camelot closed after more than two-year run on Broadway and 873 performances[22]
  • The military government of Peru began a nationwide roundup of suspected Communists, arresting more than 300 people accused of plotting subversion.[23]
  • Died: Rogers Hornsby, 62, American baseball player and Hall of Famer; Stanisław Jaros, 28, Polish electrician and would-be political assassin (executed by hanging); Erik Strandmark, 43, Swedish film actor (plane crash); and Stark Young, 81, American novelist

January 6, 1963 (Sunday)

January 7, 1963 (Monday)

January 8, 1963 (Tuesday)

January 9, 1963 (Wednesday)

January 10, 1963 (Thursday)

January 11, 1963 (Friday)

  • "Please Please Me" was released in the United Kingdom by The Beatles, with "Ask Me Why" as the B-side. The group would perform the song on TV two days later on the ITV program Thank Your Lucky Stars. "Please Please Me" would become the first Beatles' single to reach #1 in the UK.[32]

January 12, 1963 (Saturday)

  • At the Australian National Athletics Championships in her home town of Perth, Western Australia, Margaret Burvill set a new world record of 23.2 seconds in the women's 220 yard dash.
  • Born: Nando Reis, Brazilian musician and producer, in São Paulo

January 13, 1963 (Sunday)

  • Sylvanus Olympio, the 60-year-old President of Togo, was assassinated. Olympio apparently was seeking refuge at the United States Embassy in Lomé, next to the presidential palace.[33] U.S. Ambassador Leon B. Poullada said that "the body, riddled by several bullets, was found crumpled only three feet from the embassy's gate".[34] The President's killer, Colonel Étienne Eyadéma, would assume the presidency in 1967 and hold the office until his death in 2005.[35]

January 14, 1963 (Monday)

  • France's President Charles de Gaulle indicated in a press conference that he would veto the application of the United Kingdom to join the Common Market.[36]
  • George C. Wallace was sworn in as Governor of Alabama. In his inaugural speech, he defiantly proclaimed "In the name of the greatest people that have ever trod this earth, I draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny, and I say 'segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever.' Let us send this message back to Washington, that from this day we are standing up, and the heel of tyranny does not fit the neck of an upright man."[37][38][39]
  • A fire broke out in the engine room of the tourist ferryboat, Djandji Raja, as it was traversing the Toba Lake in North Sumatra, then caused a fuel tank to explode. Of the 250 people on board, 105 were burned to death. Word of the accident did not reach Jakarta until five days later.[40]
  • A month before she would commit suicide, Sylvia Plath was able to realize the publication of her first and only novel, The Bell Jar, by the Heinemann company.[41]
  • Charlie Watts joined The Rolling Stones as its drummer, replacing Tony Chapman and performing with the group for the first time at the Flamingo Club in London.[42]
  • The locomotive Flying Scotsman (British Railways No. 60103) made its last scheduled run, before going into the hands of Alan Pegler for preservation.

January 15, 1963 (Tuesday)

  • In his State of the Union address at a joint session of the U.S. Congress, President Kennedy called on Congress to pass legislation to lower income taxes as a means of stimulating the economy. Kennedy called for individual tax rates, ranging from 20% to as much as 91% for the highest brackets, to be cut to a range of 14% to 65%, and for the corporate rate to be cut from 52% to 47%.[43] The bill would not become law until after Kennedy's death, signed by his successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson on February 26, 1964.[44]
  • The Katanga Crisis came to an end as Moise Tshombe declared the end of his attempt to secede from the Congo, and ordered a surrender to the United Nations forces.[45]
  • Forty-seven workmen in India were killed, and another 62 injured, while working underground at Naraj, in the Orissa state.[46]
  • The 27th Legislative Assembly of Quebec began its first session.
  • Born: Erling Kagge, Norwegian polar explorer

January 16, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • Saudi Arabia and the United Kingdom resumed diplomatic relations, more than six years after the two nations had closed their embassies during the 1956 Suez Crisis.[47]
  • Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev made a visit to the Berlin Wall from the East Berlin side, then delivered an address to the Communist leadership of East Germany at the SED Party Congress. Khrushchev stated bluntly that the Wall had accomplished its purpose of stemming the exodus of citizens from the nation and stabilized the East German economy, and added that further Soviet economic assistance would not be forthcoming. "Neither God nor the devil will give you bread or butter if you do not manage it with your own hands," Khrushchev said, adding that East Germany "must not expect alms from some rich uncle".[48]
  • The 1963 NBA All-Star Game was played at Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena. The Eastern Conference team beat the Western Conference, 115-108.
  • Born: James May, British television presenter, in Bristol
  • Died: Cesare Fantoni, 57, Italian film actor; Ike Quebec, 44, American jazz saxophonist; and Gilardo Gilardi, 73, Argentine composer, pianist, and conductor

January 17, 1963 (Thursday)

January 18, 1963 (Friday)

January 19, 1963 (Saturday)

  • Hermine Braunsteiner Ryan, formerly a supervising warden at the Ravensbrück concentration camp, and known as "The Stomping Mare" because of her use of steel-studded jackboots to kick inmates, became a naturalized citizen of the United States. Acting on a tip from Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal, the New York Times would expose her past in 1964. Her citizenship would be revoked in 1971, and in 1973 she would be extradited to West Germany for trial as a war criminal. In 1981, she would be sentenced to life imprisonment. Released after 15 years for health reasons (including, ironically, the amputation of her leg), she would die in 1999.[53]
  • Canadian radio station CKST (then known as CJJC) broadcast for the first time.
  • Born: Martin Bashir, British journalist, in Wandsworth, South London; and Caron Wheeler, British soul singer, in London
  • Died: Thomas Kennedy, 75, American labor leader, President of the United Mine Workers of America since 1960

January 20, 1963 (Sunday)

January 21, 1963 (Monday)

January 22, 1963 (Tuesday)

  • In Paris, President Charles de Gaulle of France and Chancellor Konrad Adenauer of West Germany signed the Elysée Treaty, the first bilateral pact between the French and German nations. "In the century prior to the treaty", it would be observed later, "France and Germany had been on opposite sides in three wars: the Franco-Prussian War, World War I and World War II."[56] The treaty provided for the nations' leaders to meet at least twice a year, and the foreign and defense ministers to meet four times a year.[57]
  • Died: Ralph Hudson, murderer, became the last person to be executed by the U.S. state of New Jersey.[58]

January 23, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • British MI5 agent Kim Philby, who was secretly working for the Soviet Union as a double agent for the NKVD, disappeared after having a drink with a colleague at a hotel in Beirut. Five months later, on July 30, the Soviet Union would announce that he had been given asylum there and would confirm his identity as a Soviet spy.[59][60]
  • Cuban missile crisis: The deactivation and removal of its arsenal of American-supplied Jupiter missiles from Turkey was announced by the Turkish government, six days after Italy had announced that their phaseout of the Jupiters. The missiles in Turkey, armed with nuclear warheads and within striking distance of cities in the Soviet Union, had been one of the reasons for the Soviet placement of missiles in Cuba.[61]
  • Sino-Indian War: India's Parliament, the Lok Sabha, voted to approve the terms for peace with China, formally bringing an end to the war between the world's two most populous nations. China had withdrawn its troops the previous month.[62]
  • The first democratic elections in the history of Kuwait took place, although limited to men only. There were 205 candidates for the 50 available seats in the National Assembly.[63]
  • A strike began at the Florida East Coast Railway and would become the longest in railroad history, not ending until nine years later on February 1, 1972. Strike activity would not completely end until April 9, 1976.[64]
  • The Pascagoula (MS) Chronicle, whose publisher, Ira B. Harkey Jr., was alone among white newspaper owners in Mississippi in taking a stand against racial segregation, was saved from financial ruin when a newsman for the New York City radio station WNEW urged his listeners to subscribe to the paper. Dee Finch called attention to Harkey's courageous stand and loss of revenue, said that he was going to buy a subscription to the Chronicle, and invited others to do likewise. In the first day, 750 New Yorkers pledged to subscribe, and advertising agencies announced plans to encourage their clients to buy ad space in the newspaper.[65]
  • Born: Su Tong (pseudonym for Tong Zhonggui), Chinese author, in Suzhou
  • Died: Gustave Garrigou, 78, French racing cyclist, 1911 Tour de France winner
  • Died: Muhammad Ali Bogra, 53, Foreign Minister of Pakistan and former Prime Minister

January 24, 1963 (Thursday)

  • 1963 Elephant Mountain B-52 crash: A B-52C bomber, carrying two nuclear weapons and on airborne alert for the U.S. Air Force, lost its vertical stabilizer in turbulence, broke up in midair and crashed into a mountain in on Piscataquis County, Maine. Seven of the nine-man crew were killed, and one of the unarmed nuclear bombs fell from the plane and broke apart on impact on a farm. A part of that bomb, containing enriched uranium, was never located, "even though the waterlogged farmland in the vicinity was excavated to a depth of 50 feet".[66]
  • The Italian cargo ship Graziella was driven ashore in a gale at Tangier, Morocco.[67]
  • Died: Otto Harbach, 89, American lyricist and librettist

January 25, 1963 (Friday)

  • In a major address to the Canadian House of Commons on whether Canada would or would not accept nuclear weapons for its combat aircraft, Prime Minister Diefenbaker made a speech that subsequent historians would describe as "most baffling",[68] "next to incomprehensible"[69] and "long, evasive, rambling... incoherent statements".[12] "However," the Canadian Press (CP) would write, "at no point in his two-hour speech did Mr. Diefenbaker say definitely whether Canada has rejected or accepted a nuclear role for Canadian forces."[70]
  • An annular solar eclipse took place.
  • New Zealand physician, military surgeon, statesman and athlete Arthur Porritt was created a baronet.[71]
  • Died: Sir Isaac Shoenberg, 78, Russian-born British inventor who pioneered the development of the all electronic form of television.

January 26, 1963 (Saturday)

  • The "British Pools Panel" was first used to address instances, in the betting on Britain's soccer football matches, where a scheduled match was postponed. On the first weekend, when 55 games were called off because of freezing temperatures, the panel of former players and referees "predicted" what the results would have been had the match not been postponed, essentially making up results that would be accepted for determining whether a betting line had been picked successfully.[72] Originally, the five-member Panel only intervened if 30 or more matches were called off; later, the panel would convene if any match were postponed.[73]
  • The Rules Committee for American organized baseball voted unanimously (9-0) to increase the size of the strike zone beginning with the 1963 season. The new rule raised the specified that a pitched ball was a strike if it traveled in the "space above home plate which is between the top of the batter's shoulders and his knees when he assumes his natural position". The prior rule in 1950 measured the zone from a player's armpits to the top of the knees.[74] Although the number of walks decreased, so did the number of home runs, particularly in the American League, where attendance declined.[75]
  • The Shah of Iran's "White Revolution" of six reforms, including the right of women to vote, was overwhelmingly approved in a nationwide referendum by the six million male voters; the election was believed by observers to have been fraudulent.[76]
  • The Australia Day shootings scandalized Perth. Two people were shot dead, and others injured, by Eric Edgar Cooke.
  • Born: José Mourinho, Portuguese-born soccer football team manager who has won league titles in four countries, for F.C. Porto in Portugal (2003, 2004); Chelsea F.C. in England (2005, 2006); Inter Milan in Italy (2009, 2010); and Real Madrid C.F. in Spain (2012), as well as two UEFA championships (2004, 2010); in Setúbal
  • Died: Ole Olsen, 70, American vaudeville comedian, and half of the Olsen and Johnson comedy team. In 1938, Olsen and Chic Johnson had created the musical, and later the 1941 film, Hellzapoppin'
  • Died: Sir Maurice Hankey, 85, the first person to hold the post of Cabinet Secretary in the United Kingdom when it was created in 1916.

January 27, 1963 (Sunday)

January 28, 1963 (Monday)

  • African American student Harvey Gantt entered Clemson University in South Carolina, the last U.S. state to hold out against racial integration. "South Carolina is the only state," the Associated Press reported, "which, to this day, had preserved segregation in public schools at all levels."[80] Gantt's entry into the university was described as peaceful, and it was reported that "On the surface, Gantt was being treated by students and college officials alike as just another newcomer."[81] Most South Carolina public schools did not integrate until the 1970s.[82]
  • The fourth, and final, book by author J. D. Salinger was published. Raise High the Roof Beam, Carpenters and Seymour: An Introduction were two novellas put together in one novel, which had both previously appeared in print in the magazine The New Yorker.[83]
  • The city of Vista, California, was incorporated.[84]
  • Castell Coch, near Cardiff, Wales, UK, was made a Grade I listed building.[85]
  • Died: John Farrow, 58, Australian born American film director, winner of 1957 Academy Award for his screenplay in Around the World in Eighty Days.

January 29, 1963 (Tuesday)

January 30, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • The U.S. State Department took the unusual step of issuing a press release critical of one of America's closest allies, in rebuttal to the speech by Canadian Prime Minister Diefenbaker about his nation's Canadian nuclear policy. Responding to Diefenbaker's January 25 statement that the two nations had been negotiating for "two to three months or more", the U.S. statement said that "the Canadian Government has not as yet proposed any arrangement sufficiently practical to contribute effectively to North American defense".[88] Diefenbaker accused the U.S. of interfering with Canada's domestic affairs and temporarily recalled the Canadian ambassador from Washington, and U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk issued an apology two days later for the tone of the comments, which the New York Times described as "ill-considered and unusually blunt".[89]
  • Died: Edward A. Carter, Jr., 46, African-American U.S. Army sergeant who would be posthumously given the Medal of Honor for his heroism shown on March 23, 1945. Carter, unfairly accused of being a Communist, was shunned by the Army after World War II, and the medal would not be voted for him by Congress until 34 years after his death.[90]
  • Died: Sir Pelham Warner, 89, English cricketer known as "The Grand Old Man of English Cricket"; English National team captain in 1903-04 and 1905–06; President of MCC; author and founder of The Cricketer magazine
  • Died: Francis Poulenc, 64, French composer (heart failure)

January 31, 1963 (Thursday)

References

  1. "N.S.W. Deaths Still Mystery to Police", The Age (Melbourne), January 3, 1963, p3
  2. "Australian Dictionary of Biography"
  3. "Badgers Lose It But Win Applause With Big Rally", Miami News, January 2, 1963, p4E
  4. "Sparkling Defense, Plus Namath, Made It An Easy Alabama Victory", Miami News, January 2, 1963, p1E
  5. Raymond L. Harper, South Norfolk, Virginia, 1661-2005: A Definitive History (The History Press, 2005) p13
  6. Chinnery, Philip D., Vietnam: The Helicopter War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 978-1-55750-875-1, p. 17.
  7. James E. Westheider, The Vietnam War (Greenwood Press, 2007) p11
  8. "Yank Advisers Blast Vietnamese for Defeat", Milwaukee Journal, January 7, 1963, p2; David M. Toczek, The Battle of Ap Bac, Vietnam: They Did Everything But Learn from It (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2001) p xxi
  9. "Six Explosions Rock The Nation", Miami News, January 2, 1963, p3; Mike McCormick, Terre Haute: Queen City of the Wabash (Arcadia Publishing, 2005) p92
  10. Gregory Peck: A Bio-bibliography (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1995) p232
  11. John English, The Worldly Years: Life of Lester Pearson 1949-1972 (Random House Digital, 2011)
  12. 12.0 12.1 Sean M. Maloney, Learning to Love the Bomb (Potomac Books, 2007)
  13. "General Norstad Claims Canada Pledged To Nuclear Weapons", Montreal Gazette, January 4, 1963, p1
  14. "The Times Archive". London: Times Newspapers Ltd. 1963-01-07. Retrieved 2008-09-09.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Replay The Big Freeze 1962-63". Findarticles.com website. CNET Networks, Inc (Article originally published by The Independent on Sunday). 2003-01-19. Retrieved 2008-09-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>[dead link]
  16. "Southern England Buried By Killer Storm; 17 Dead", Miami News, January 3, 1963, p2
  17. "Soviet Christians Seek A Haven With The U.S.", Miami News, January 3, 1963, p1
  18. "Refused By U.S., 32 Red Refugees Head For Home", Miami News, January 4, 1963, p1
  19. Paolo Ulivi and David M. Harland, Robotic Exploration of the Solar System: Part I: The Golden Age 1957-1982 (Springer, 2007) p25
  20. "Trains Ram in India; at Least 31 Killed", Milwaukee Journal, January 4, 1963, p2
  21. McDowell, Jonathan. "Satellite Catalog". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 28 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  22. Barry Monush, Everybody's Talkin': The Top Films of 1965-1969 (Hal Leonard Corporation, 2009) p194
  23. "Peru Pulls Big Commie Roundup", Miami News, January 6, 1963, p1
  24. Corinne J. Naden, The Golden Age of American Musical Theatre: 1943-1965 (Scarecrow Press, 2011) p221
  25. Jan Knippers Black, United States Penetration of Brazil (Manchester University Press ND, 1977) p26
  26. Centro de Pesquisa e Documentação de História Contemporânea do Brasil (Portuguese)
  27. Abbas Milani, The Shah (Macmillan, 2012) p292
  28. "New postal rates going into effect", Abilene Reporter News, January 7, 1963, p1
  29. Monica Bohm-Duchen, The Private Life of a Masterpiece (University of California Press, 2002) p64
  30. "News in Brief" The Times (London). Wednesday, 9 January 1963. (55594), col F, p. 6.
  31. Total Penumbral Lunar Eclipses, Jean Meeus, June 1980
  32. Kate Siobhan Mulligan, The Beatles: A Musical Biography (ABC-CLIO, 2010) p60
  33. Thomas Patrick Melady and Margaret Badum Melady, Ten African Heroes: The Sweep of Independence in Black Africa (Orbis Books, 2011) pp147-148
  34. "Togo Leader Slain; Elections Promised", Milwaukee Journal, January 14, 1963, p1
  35. Britannica article
  36. "DE GAULLE SNUBS U.K. MARKET ENTRY", Lethbridge (Alb.) Herald, January 14, 1963, p1; Peter Mangold, The Almost Impossible Ally: Harold Macmillan and Charles de Gaulle (I.B.Tauris, 2006) p2
  37. "Segregation Forever, Vows Alabama's New Governor", Miami News, January 14, 1963, p1
  38. The American Experience: George Wallace: Settin' the Woods on Fire: Timeline (1952 – 1972), Public Broadcasting Service, 2000
  39. Michael J. Klarman. "Brown v. Board: 90 Years Later", Humanities: The Magazine of the National Endowment for the Humanities, March/April 2004
  40. "105 Killed As Blazing Ferry Sinks", Miami News, January 19, 1963, p1
  41. Jo Gill, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Sylvia Plath (Cambridge University Press, 2006) p126
  42. Christopher Sandford, Keith Richards: Satisfaction (Da Capo Press, 2004) p47
  43. "$10 Billion Tax Cut Asked by Kennedy", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 15, 1963, p1
  44. Sean J. Savage, JFK, LBJ, And the Democratic Party (SUNY Press, 2006) p113
  45. "Congo Intervention", in Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia, Bernard A. Cook, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2001) p217
  46. "47 Workers Die Below Ground", Miami News, January 16, 1963, p15A
  47. Kent Fedorowich and Martin Thomas, International Diplomacy and Colonial Retreat (Routledge, 2000) p200
  48. Hans-Hermann Hertle, Berlin Wall: Monument of the Cold War (Ch. Links Verlag, 2008) pp80-81
  49. FlightGlobal.com
  50. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., Robert Kennedy and His Times (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002) pp398-399
  51. "GAITSKELL DEATH SHOCKS BRITISH", Miami News, January 19, 1963, p1
  52. Richard F. Kuisel, Seducing the French: The Dilemma of Americanization (University of California Press, 1997) p156
  53. "Ryan, Hermine Braunsteiner", in Who's Who in Nazi Germany, Robert Wistrich, ed. (Routledge, 2001) pp115-116
  54. "Confrontation between Indonesia and Malaya/Malaysia", in Justin Corfield, Historical Dictionary of Singapore (Scarecrow Press, 2010) pp68-69
  55. Pallottine.org
  56. Frank W. Thackeray and John E. Findling, Events That Formed the Modern World: From the European Renaissance to the War on Terror (ABC-CLIO, 2012)
  57. Heinrich August Winkler, Germany: The Long Road West Volume 2: 1933-1990 (Oxford University Press, 2007) p198
  58. Released for Christmas, he stabs his wife
  59. Karl E. Meyer and Shareen Blair Brysac, Kingmakers: The Invention of the Modern Middle East (W. W. Norton, 2009) p378
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  61. Air Force Missileers (Turner Publishing Company, 1998) p 23
  62. Michael Brecher and Jonathan Wilkenfeld, A Study of Crisis (University of Michigan Press, 1997) p 552
  63. Shahid Jamal Ansari, Political Modernization in the Gulf (Northern Book Centre, 1998) p 99
  64. "First Anniversary of End of Rail's Longest Strike", FEC Bulletin, reprinted in Seth H. Branson, Images of Rail: Florida East Coast Railway (Arcadia Publishing, 2006) p 112
  65. David R. Davies, The Press and Race: Mississippi Journalists Confront the Movement (University Press of Mississippi, 2001) p 196
  66. Paul Rogers, Global Security and the War on Terror: Elite Power and the Illusion of Control (Taylor & Francis, 2007) pp23-24
  67. "Arctic Weather Grips Northern Hemisphere" The Times (London). Friday, 25 January 1963. (55608), col G, p. 9.
  68. Patricia I. McMahon, Essence of Indecision: Diefenbaker's Nuclear Policy, 1957-1963 (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2009) p64
  69. Patrick Lennox, At Home and Abroad: The Canada-US Relationship and Canada's Place in the World (University of British Columbia Press, 1999) p64
  70. "Canada Will Have Nuclear Arms If, When Needed", Montreal Gazette, January 26, 1963, p1
  71. Brett & Kate McKay (6 July 2010). "The Whole Man: 25 Men Who Cultivated Both Mind and Body". ArtofManliness.com. The Art of Manliness. Retrieved 7 July 2010.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Andrew McDermott, ed., The Official Football Yearbook 2010-2011 of the English and Scottish Leagues (A & C Black Publishers, 2010) p369
  73. "Making up the Results: The Work of the Football Pools Panel, 1963-1997", by David Forrest and Robert Simmons, in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series D: The Statistician, Vol. 49, No. 2 (2000) pp 253-260
  74. "Baseball Will Widen Batter's Strike Zone", Bridgeport Post, January 27, 1963, pD-2
  75. Mark Armour, Joe Cronin: A Life in Baseball (University of Nebraska Press, 2010) pp276-277
  76. Peter Avery, et al., The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic (Cambridge University Press, 1991) p753
  77. Scott A. Thompson, Flight Check!: The Story Of Faa Flight Inspection (Government Printing Office, 1990) p108
  78. Vincent Bugliosi, Reclaiming History: The Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (W. W. Norton & Company, 2007) p669
  79. Beatles calendar for 1963: 27 January
  80. "Last State To Integrate Tries It At Clemson", Miami News, January 28, 1963, p1
  81. "All's Quiet On Campus At Clemson", Miami News, January 29, 1963, p1
  82. "South Carolina", in Black America: A State-By-State Historical Encyclopedia, Alton Hornsby, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2011) p757
  83. Kenneth Slawenski, J. D. Salinger: A Life (Random House Digital, 2010) pp346-347
  84. "History of Vista", City of Vista website
  85. "Castell Coch". britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-07-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. "France's Ban On Britain Blow To Europe's Unity", Montreal Gazette, January 30, 1963, p1
  87. "RockFM": 20 years from the release of the album "The Secret Of Pyramids" Octave on his real name Octavian Teodorescu (born 29 January 1963) is a rock musician, multi-instrumentist from Bucharest, Romania.(Romanian)
  88. "U.S. Claims Canada Has Yet To Propose Practical Arms Plan", Montreal Gazette, January 31, 1963, p1
  89. Chantal Allan, Bomb Canada: And Other Unkind Remarks in the American Media (Athabasca University Press, 2009) p40-41; "Rusk Apologizes For Tone", Montreal Gazette, February 2, 1963, p1
  90. "Carter, Edward Allen, Jr.", African Americans in the Military, Catherine Reef, ed. (Infobase Publishing, 2010) pp62-64
  91. "Coal for the Beachcombers" The Times (London). Friday, 1 February 1963. (55614), col A-B, p. 22.
  92. Soldier, lawyer and diplomat. Daily News, Retrieved on 21 July 2011.