Arpaio speaking in Phoenix in February 2011.
|Sheriff of Maricopa County|
January 1, 1993
|Preceded by||Tom Agnos|
|Born||Joseph Michael Arpaio
June 14, 1932
Springfield, Massachusetts, U.S.
|Residence||Fountain Hills, Arizona, U.S.|
|Signature||Joe Arpaio's signature|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1950–1954|
|Unit||Medical Detachment Division|
Arpaio styles himself as "America's Toughest Sheriff." He has been accused of abuse of power, misuse of funds, failure to investigate sex crimes, improper clearance of cases, unlawful enforcement of immigration laws, and election law violations, amongst others. He has been found guilty of racial profiling in federal court, with a monitor appointed to oversee his office's operations. His jails have twice been ruled unconstitutional. The U.S. Department of Justice concluded that Arpaio oversaw the worst pattern of racial profiling in U.S. history, and subsequently filed suit against him for unlawful discriminatory police conduct. As of September 2015, cases involving Arpaio or his office have cost Maricopa County taxpayers $142 million in legal expenses, settlements and court awards.
Starting in 2005, Arpaio took an outspoken stance against illegal immigration. In 2010, he became a flashpoint for opposition to Arizona's SB1070 anti-illegal immigrant law, which was largely struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court. Arpaio is also known for his investigation of U.S. President Barack Obama's birth certificate, and his continuing claim that it is forged.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Civilian law enforcement career
- 3 Personal life
- 4 Authority as Maricopa County Sheriff
- 5 Actions as Maricopa County Sheriff
- 5.1 Television and media coverage
- 5.2 Jails
- 5.3 Tent City
- 5.4 Volunteer chain gangs
- 5.5 Pink underwear
- 5.6 Selective Service registration and organ donors
- 5.7 Sheriff's posse
- 5.8 Controversies
- 5.8.1 Unconstitutional jail conditions
- 5.8.2 Improper clearance of MCSO cases
- 5.8.3 Failure to investigate sex crimes
- 5.8.4 Feuds with judges and County Supervisors
- 5.8.5 Abuse of power
- 5.8.6 Election law violation
- 5.8.7 Misuse of funds
- 5.8.8 Munnell memo
- 5.8.9 Staged assassination plot
- 5.8.10 Federal grand jury abuse of power inquiry
- 5.8.11 Illegal immigration enforcement
- 5.8.12 Racial profiling
- 184.108.40.206 Melendres v. Arpaio racial-profiling class-action lawsuit
- 220.127.116.11 Justice Department investigation on racial profiling
- 18.104.22.168 United States v. Maricopa County, et al, racial-profiling lawsuit
- 5.8.13 Investigation of President Obama’s birth certificate
- 6 Election results
- 7 Books
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Arpaio was born in Springfield, Massachusetts on June 14, 1932, to Italian parents, both from Lacedonia, Italy. Arpaio's mother died while giving birth to him, and Arpaio was raised by his father, a grocery store owner. Arpaio completed high school and worked in his father's business until age 18 when he enlisted in the United States Army.
Arpaio served in the U.S. Army from 1950 to 1954 in the Medical Detachment Division and was stationed in France for part of the time as a military policeman.
Civilian law enforcement career
Following his discharge in 1954, Arpaio moved to Washington, D.C. and became a police officer, moving in 1957 to Las Vegas, Nevada. He served as a police officer in Las Vegas for six months before being appointed as a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, which later became part of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). During his 25-year tenure with the DEA, he was stationed in Argentina, Turkey and Mexico, and advanced through the ranks to the position of head of the DEA's Arizona branch.
After leaving the DEA, Arpaio became involved in a travel venture through his wife's travel agency Starworld Travel Agency, based out of Scottsdale. While there, he sold passage on the Phoenix E space rocket, which was hoped to take off from either Edwards Air Force Base or Vandenberg Air Force Base on the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' voyage to the new world. Although he claimed in 1988 that the first 19 flights of the Phoenix E were booked, no flights were ever made.
In 1992, Arpaio successfully campaigned for the office of Maricopa County Sheriff. The voters of Maricopa County re-elected him in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012.
Authority as Maricopa County Sheriff
First voted into office in 1992, Arpaio is the top law enforcement officer in Maricopa County, which contains the state capital, Phoenix, and is one of the most populous counties in the United States
As elected Sheriff, Arpaio is personally responsible for law enforcement in Maricopa County, as well as managing the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office (MCSO), running the county jail, providing courtroom security, prisoner transport, service of warrants, and service of process. Arpaio delegates authority to deputies and other employees of the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office.
Actions as Maricopa County Sheriff
Television and media coverage
Arpaio has, throughout his tenure as Maricopa County Sheriff, sought out media coverage. He has been featured and profiled thousands of times by worldwide news media, and claims to average 200 television appearances per month.
In late 2008 and early 2009, Arpaio appeared in Smile...You're Under Arrest!, a three-episode Fox Reality Channel series in which persons with outstanding warrants were tricked into presenting themselves for arrest.
Arpaio's practices include serving inmates Food salvage and limiting meals to twice daily. He has also banned inmates from possessing "sexually explicit material" including Playboy magazine after female officers complained that inmates openly masturbated while viewing them or harassed the officers by comparing their anatomy to that of the nude models in the publications. The ban was challenged on First Amendment grounds but upheld by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.
In February 2007, Arpaio instituted an in-house radio station he calls KJOE. Arpaio's radio station broadcasts classical music, opera, Frank Sinatra hits, patriotic music and educational programming. It operates from the basement of the county jail for five days a week, four hours each day.
In 2013, National Geographic Channel featured Arpaio's jail system in the Banged Up Abroad episode Raving Arizona televised worldwide. The episode told the story of the Ecstasy dealer Shaun Attwood who started the blog Jon's Jail Journal  while in Arpaio's cockroach-infested maximum-security Madison Street jail. Jon's Jail Journal went on to attract international media attention to the human rights violations in Arpaio's jail system.
Arpaio set up a "Tent City" in 1993 as an extension of the Maricopa County Jail for convicted and sentenced prisoners. Arpaio has described Tent City as a concentration camp. Tent City is located in a yard next to a more permanent structure containing toilets, showers, and an area for meals.
On July 2, 2011, when the temperature in Phoenix hit 118 °F (48 °C), Arpaio measured the temperature inside Tent City at 145 °F (63 °C). Some inmates complained that fans near their beds were not working, and that their shoes were melting from the heat. During the summer of 2003, when outside temperatures exceeded 110 °F (43 °C), Arpaio said to complaining inmates, "It's 120 degrees in Iraq and the soldiers are living in tents, have to wear full body armor, and they didn't commit any crimes, so shut your mouths."
In 1997, Amnesty International published a report on Arpaio's jails which found that Tent City is not an "adequate or humane alternative to housing inmates in suitable ... jail facilities." Tent City is criticized by groups contending that there are violations of human and constitutional rights.
In 2005, Pearl Wilson whose son was murdered in Tent City, wrote a letter to the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors asking for Tent City to be torn down.
Volunteer chain gangs
In 1995, Arpaio reinstituted chain gangs. In 1996, he expanded the chain gang concept by instituting female volunteer chain gangs. Female inmates work seven hours a day (7 a.m. to 2 p.m.), six days a week. He has also instituted the world's first all-juvenile volunteer chain gang; volunteers earn high school credit toward a diploma.
One of his most visible public-relations actions was mandating that all underwear issued to prisoners be pink, which the Maricopa County Sheriff Office's website cites as being "world-famous." Arpaio subsequently started to sell customized pink boxers (with the Maricopa County Sheriff's logo and "Go Joe") as a fund-raiser for Sheriff's Posse Association. Despite allegations of misuse of funds received from these sales, Arpaio declined to provide an accounting for the money.
Arpaio's success in gaining press coverage with the pink underwear resulted in his extending the use of the color. He introduced pink handcuffs, using the event to promote his book, Sheriff Joe Arpaio, America's Toughest Sheriff. Arpaio has said "I can get elected on pink underwear...I've done it five times."
Selective Service registration and organ donors
In 2001, he was the first sheriff to require all inmates aged 18 and over to register for the Selective Service System. (Registration is required by federal law for all U.S. males between 18 and 26 years of age, as well as for resident aliens of the same age, regardless of their immigration status.) Since 2001, a total of 28,000 inmates (including 9,000 aliens) have registered for Selective Service.
Building upon Maricopa County's 50-year-old program, Arpaio expanded the all-volunteer citizen posse through heavy recruiting. The volunteers perform many duties for the sheriff's office:
- Search and rescue
- Emergency communications
- Prisoner transport
- Traffic control
- Backup for sworn deputies
- Office administrative duties
- Holiday Mall Patrol (which provides motorist assistance and security for shoppers during the holiday shopping season)
- Deadbeat parent details targeting individuals with outstanding arrest warrants for failure to pay child support
- Current investigation of President Barack Obama's birth certificate
In November 2010, Arpaio created an armed illegal immigration operations posse, to help his deputies enforce immigration law. Members of this posse included actors Steven Seagal, Lou Ferrigno, and Peter Lupus. Because the MCSO lost its authority to enforce immigration law (both by losing its 287(g) authority, and through the Federal court's order in Melendrez v. Arpaio), this posse is no longer active.
While the MCSO web site claims 3,000 posse members, as of 29 July 2015, the posse has shrunk to 986 members.
Arpaio has been a controversial sheriff. His practices have been criticized by government agencies such as the United States Department of Justice, United States District Courts, and organizations such as Amnesty International, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), the Arizona Ecumenical Council, the American Jewish Committee, and the Arizona chapter of the Anti-Defamation League. The editorial board of The New York Times called Arpaio "America's Worst Sheriff". Controversial issues surrounding Arpaio have included allegations of racial profiling, in which the ACLU has sued the sheriff.
Unconstitutional jail conditions
Federal Judge Neil V. Wake ruled in 2008, and again in 2010, that the Maricopa County jails violated the constitutional rights of inmates in medical and other care related issues. This ruling was a result of a lawsuit brought by the ACLU, which alleged that "Arpaio routinely abused pre-trial detainees at Maricopa County Jail by feeding them moldy bread, rotten fruit and other contaminated food, housing them in cells so hot as to endanger their health, denying them care for serious medical and mental health needs and keeping them packed as tightly as sardines in holding cells for days at a time during intake."
In a ruling issued in October 2010, the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals ordered Arpaio to follow Judge Wake's 2008 ruling, which required Arpaio to end severe overcrowding and ensure all detainees receive necessary medical and mental health care, be given uninterrupted access to all medications prescribed by correctional medical staff, be given access to exercise and to sinks, toilets, toilet paper and soap and be served food that meets or exceeds the U.S. Department of Agriculture's dietary guidelines.
In the case of Braillard v. Maricopa County, the plaintiff's attorney cited numerous reports commissioned and paid for by Maricopa county, dating back as far as 1996, detailing a "culture of cruelty" where inmates are routinely denied humane healthcare at Maricopa County Jails run by Arpaio. Testifying in this case, Arpaio stated that he could not deny making the statement that even if he had a billion dollars he wouldn’t change the way he runs his jails.
Arpaio has publicly stated that his jails are meant as places for punishment, and that their inhabitants are all criminals. Most of the jail's inmates, however, are pre-trial detainees.
Improper clearance of MCSO cases
The sheriff's office failed to properly investigate serious crimes, including the rape of a 14-year-old girl by classmates, and the rape of a 15-year-old girl by two strangers. These cases were reported as "exceptionally cleared" (solved) by the MCSO without investigation or, in one instance, without even identifying a suspect – in contravention of FBI standards for exceptional clearance. In the case of the 15-year-old girl, the case was closed within one month and before DNA testing was even complete, the 13-year-old's because her mother did not want to "...pursue this investigation," and the 14-year-old's because a suspect declined to come in for questioning. In a statement to ABC15, the Sheriff's Office claimed, "The Goldwater Institute’s report cites the FBI’s Uniform Code [SIC] Reporting handbook, which is a voluntary crime-reporting program to compile statistical information and reports. The UCR is not intended for oversight on how law enforcement agencies clear cases...The Sheriff’s Office has its own criteria for clearing cases." The Arizona Department of Public Safety, which serves a the repository for Arizona case clearance statistics, told 12 News that the guidelines in the FBI Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook are mandatory for all Arizona law enforcement agencies. Those guidelines specify that a case can only be cleared by exception when a perpetrator's identity and location is known, and there is sufficient evidence to support prosecution, but, due to special circumstances (such as the suspect dying, or extradition not being possible), an arrest can not be made.
In an interview on the ABC Nightline news program, when asked to explain why 82 percent of cases were declared cleared by exception, Arpaio said "We do clear a higher percentage of that. I know that. We clear many, many cases – not 18 percent." Nightline contacted the MCSO after the interview and was told that of 7,346 crimes, only 944, or 15%, had been cleared by arrest.
Failure to investigate sex crimes
During a three-year period ending in 2007, more than 400 sex-crimes reported to Arpaio's office were inadequately investigated, or not investigated at all. While providing police services for El Mirage, Arizona, the MCSO under Arpaio failed to follow-through on at least 32 reported child molestations, even though the suspects were known in all but six cases. Many of the victims were children of undocumented immigrants.
Justification for ignoring sex crimes
An internal memo written by one of the detectives assigned to the Morrison case blamed a high case load, saying the special victims unit had gone from five detectives to just three, and the detectives left were often called off their cases to investigate special assignments. They included a credit card fraud case involving the Arizona Diamondbacks and a mortgage fraud case in Arpaio's home city of Fountain Hills.
When county supervisors provided more than $600,000 to fund six additional detective positions to investigate child abuse in fiscal 2007, none were added to the sex-crimes squad. Sheriff’s administrators now say they have no idea where those positions were added or what became of the money after it was added to the budget.
A 13-year-old rape victim ignored
Among the victims that were ignored by Arpaio and the MCSO is Sabrina Morrison, a teenage girl suffering from a mental disability. On March 7, 2007, when she was 13 years old, she was raped by her uncle, Patrick Morrison. She told her teacher the next day, and her teacher called the MCSO. A rape kit was taken. But, the detective assigned to the case told Sabrina and her family that there were no obvious signs of sexual assault, no semen, or signs of trauma.
As a result of the detective's statements, Sabrina was branded by her family as a liar. Her uncle continued to repeatedly rape her, saying he would kill her if she told anyone. She became pregnant by him, and had an abortion. The family did not know that the rape kit had been tested at the state lab, and showed the presence of semen. The lab requested that the detective obtain a blood sample from the suspect, Patrick Morrison.
Instead of obtaining the blood sample, or making an arrest, the detective filed the crime lab note and closed the case for four years. Five years later Patrick Morrison was arrested and later admitted to his crime and was sentenced to 24 years in prison
The Morrison case, reopened after 4 years lying dormant
It was not until September 2011 that the Sheriff's Office finally obtained a blood sample from Patrick Morrison, which was a DNA match with the semen taken over 4 years earlier. It wasn't until February 29, 2012, that Patrick Morrison was arrested and charged with one count of sexual conduct with a minor, at which point the MCSO closed the case. Only later was Sabrina's uncle charged with additional indictments based on information obtained from Sabrina by a victim's advocate, after the MCSO had closed the case. Patrick Morrison ultimately pled guilty, and was sentenced to 24 years in prison.
In December 2011, responding to continuing media coverage of the controversy, and apparently unaware that there were hundreds of victims in these cases, Arpaio stated, in a press conference, "If there were any victims, I apologize to those victims."
In August 2012, Sabrina Morrison filed a $30 million notice of claim (a precursor to a lawsuit) against Joe Arpaio and Maricopa County for gross negligence.
Feuds with judges and County Supervisors
Between 2008 and 2010, Arpaio and former Maricopa County Attorney Andrew Thomas together undertook a number of government-corruption investigations targeting political opponents, including judges, county supervisors and administrators, resulting in filing of criminal charges against several individuals, lawsuits against the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors, and a federal civil-racketeering suit against the supervisors, four judges, and attorneys who worked with the county.
In early 2010, Arpaio and Thomas sought to have a grand jury indict a number of Maricopa County Judges, Maricopa County Supervisors, and employees of the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors. The grand jury, in an unusual rebuke, ordered the investigation ended. This action has been described as meaning that "...the case is so bad, there's no further evidence that could be brought [to substantiate it]". Legal experts agree this is a rare move.
Arpaio and Thomas lost every case, either by ruling of the courts, or by dropping the case.
Arpaio's and Thomas' actions in these matters led to Thomas' disbarment by a disciplinary panel of the Arizona Supreme Court, which found that Thomas "outrageously exploited power, flagrantly fostered fear, and disgracefully misused the law" while serving as Maricopa County Attorney. The panel found "clear and convincing evidence" that Thomas brought unfounded and malicious criminal and civil charges against political opponents, including four state judges and the state attorney general. "Were this a criminal case," the panel concluded, "we are confident that the evidence would establish this conspiracy beyond a reasonable doubt."
- Gary Donahoe, retired Superior Court judge: $1,275,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $767,127.
- Kenneth Fields, retired Superior Court judge: $100,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $81,040.
- Barbara Mundell, retired Superior Court judge: $500,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $134,273.
- Anna Baca, retired Superior Court judge: $100,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $112,588.
- Stephen Wetzel, former county technology director: $75,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $107,647.
- Sandi Wilson, deputy county manager and county budget director: $122,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $458,318.
- Don Stapley, former county supervisor: $3.5 million settlement. County legal expenses: $1,682,020.
- Mary Rose Wilcox, county supervisor: $975,000 settlement, plus 9,938 in court-ordered legal costs. County legal expenses to date: over $375,442.
- Susan Schuerman, Stapley’s executive assistant: $500,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $200,201.
- Conley Wolfswinkel, Stapley’s business associate: $1,400,000 settlement. County legal expenses: $1,586,152.
- Andy Kunasek, county supervisor: $123,110 settlement. County legal expenses: $1,150.
Abuse of power
In February 2010, Judge John Leonardo found that Arpaio "misused the power of his office to target members of the Board of Supervisors for criminal investigation".
In 2008, a federal grand jury began an inquiry of Arpaio for abuse of power, in connection with an FBI investigation. On August 31, 2012, the Arizona US Attorney's office announced that it was "closing its investigation into allegations of criminal conduct" by Arpaio, without filing charges.
Arpaio was investigated for politically motivated and "bogus" prosecutions, which a former US Attorney called "utterly unacceptable". Phoenix Mayor Phil Gordon has called Arpaio's "long list" of questionable prosecutions "a reign of terror".
The targets of Arpaio's alleged abuse of power have included:
- Phil Gordon, Phoenix Mayor
- Dan Saban, Arpaio's 2004 and 2008 opponent for the office of Sheriff of Maricopa County
- Terry Goddard, Arizona Attorney General
- David Smith, Maricopa County Manager
- The Maricopa County Board of Supervisors
- Barbara Mundell, Maricopa Superior Court Presiding Judge
- Anna Baca, former Maricopa Superior Court Presiding Judge
- Gary Donahoe, Maricopa Superior Court Criminal Presiding Judge
- Daniel Pochoda, ACLU attorney
- Sandra Dowling, former Maricopa County School Superintendent
- Mike Lacey, Editor, Phoenix New Times
As of July 2010, only Sandra Dowling has been successfully prosecuted. Indicted on 25 felony counts, Dowling eventually pled guilty to patronage for giving a summer job to her daughter, a single class-2 misdemeanor which was not among the original counts, although as part of the plea bargain she also agreed to recuse herself from the Maricopa County Regional School District. Dowling has since filed suit, alleging negligence, malicious prosecution, abuse of process and several constitutional violations, although Arpiao won summary judgment against her claims.
The U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled on August 29, 2012 that the Mike Lacy, Editor, of Phoenix New Times and other executives can sue the Maricopa County sheriff's office for their 2007 arrests.
Election law violation
During the month of July 2010, a committee established by Arpaio, the Campaign to Re-Elect Joe Arpaio 2012, funded advertisements critical of Rick Romley, a candidate in the Republican Primary for Maricopa County Attorney and Arizona Attorney General candidate Tom Horne, despite the fact that Arpaio was not running for re-election at the time (his term did not expire until the end of 2012).
An order issued on the behalf of the Maricopa Elections Department on August 24, 2010, found that one of the advertisements, a direct mailer, advocated the defeat of Romley, and was an in-kind contribution to Bill Montgomery (Romley's primary election opponent), in violation of Arizona election law. The order stated that the Campaign to Re-Elect Joe Arpaio 2012 will be fined three times the amount of money that was spent on the mailer. In September, 2010, Arpaio's campaign was fined $153,978 in this matter. Montgomery ultimately defeated Romley in the primary election, with Romley stating Arpaio's ads "hurt" his results.
Misuse of funds
The analysis showed that money from a restricted detention fund which could only legally be used to pay for jail items, such as food, detention officers' salaries and equipment, was used to pay employees to patrol Maricopa County. The analysis also showed that many Sheriff's Office employees, whose salaries were paid from the restricted detention fund, were working job assignments different from those recorded in their personnel records. Arpaio's office kept a separate set of personnel books detailing actual work assignments, different from information kept on the county's official human-resources records.
Separate investigations by The Arizona Republic uncovered widespread abuse of public funds and county policies by Arpaio's office, including high-ranking employees routinely charging expensive meals and stays at luxury hotels on their county credit cards.
The Republic also found that a restricted jail enhancement fund was improperly used to pay for out-of-state training, a staff party at a local amusement park, and a $456,000 bus, which was purchased by Arpaio in violation of county procurement rules.
In September 2010, a 63 page internal memo, written by Maricopa Deputy Chief Frank Munnell, was made public. The memo alleged years of misconduct and mismanagement by Arpaio's second in command and other top MCSO officers, including the use of a public-corruption task force to conduct politically motivated probes into political opponents. The memo alleged that top officials in the MCSO "willfully and intentionally committed criminal acts by attempting to obstruct justice, tamper with witnesses, and destroy evidence." Arpaio forwarded the memo to the Pinal County Sheriff's Office, requesting they conduct an administrative investigation. Former top MCSO staffers claimed that Arpaio knew of the acts alleged in the Munnell memo, but took no action to stop them. Arpaio has not commented publicly on the allegations.
In October 2010, the US Attorney for Arizona confirmed that the FBI and Department of Justice had received copies of the Munnell memo, and were conducting criminal investigations into its allegations.
Staged assassination plot
In 1999, undercover MCSO deputies arrested James Saville, then 18 years old, and charged him with plotting to kill Arpaio with a pipe bomb. A local television station had been tipped off to the arrest by the MCSO, and broadcast footage of the arrest that evening. The MCSO held a news conference shortly after the arrest, and Arpaio appeared in interviews on local television stations, saying "If they think they are going to scare me away with bombs and everything else, it's not going to bother me."
After spending four years in jail awaiting trial, Saville was about to sign a plea deal that would have sent him to prison for 20 years. Although he maintained his innocence, he was initially unwilling to take a chance on being sentenced to even longer than that had he been convicted. However, the former head of undercover investigations for the MCSO called Saville's legal team with a bombshell—based on his review of the case, he felt that Saville had been entrapped. Although entrapment is all but impossible to prove in most jurisdictions, Saville's attorneys eventually discovered that MCSO detectives had bought the bomb parts themselves, then convinced Saville to build it even though he was not predisposed to commit such a crime. On July 9, 2003, a Maricopa County Superior Court jury acquitted Saville, finding that the bomb plot was an elaborate publicity stunt to boost Arpaio's reelection bid.
In 2004, Saville sued Arpaio and Maricopa County for wrongful arrest and entrapment, seeking $10 million in damages. In 2008, the suit was settled, with Maricopa County paying Saville $1.6 million.
Federal grand jury abuse of power inquiry
As of December 2011, a federal grand jury had been investigating Arpaio's office on criminal abuse-of-power allegations since at least December 2009 and was specifically examining the investigative work of the sheriff's anti-public corruption squad.
On August 31, 2012, federal authorities said they’re closing their abuse-of-power investigation into Arpaio in Arizona without filing charges against him.
Illegal immigration enforcement
In 2005, Arpaio began focusing on illegal immigration enforcement, after Maricopa County Attorney Andrew Thomas was elected with a campaign slogan of "Stop illegal immigration." Arpaio has stated that, prior to 2005, he didn't view illegal immigration as a "serious legal issue."
Arpaio has run a large number of operations targeting business employing Latinos, and arresting employees who are illegal aliens for identity theft. According to Arpaio, 100 percent of the persons arrested for using stolen IDs in 57 raids conducted up until March, 2012, were illegal immigrants.
Until 2011, when a Federal District Court injunction halted the practice, Arpaio maintained an immigrant smuggling squad which stopped cars with Latino drivers or passengers, to check their immigration status.
Arpaio has said, of his anti-illegal immigration efforts, "Ours is an operation where we want to go after illegals, not the crime first...It's a pure program. You go after them, and you lock them up."
Arpaio has repeatedly denied racial profiling, although the MCSO does not have a policy specifically barring the practice, nor any reliable internal method of ensuring it is not taking place.
Melendres v. Arpaio racial-profiling class-action lawsuit
In 2007 Manuel De Jesus Ortega Melendres, a Mexican tourist who was a passenger in a car stopped in Cave Creek, Maricopa County, filed a lawsuit (Melendres v. Arpaio) in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona against the Sheriff Arpaio, the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, and Maricopa County, claiming to have been detained unlawfully for nine hours as a result of racial profiling. The lawsuit was expanded when several individuals joined in with similar complaints.
The lawsuit charged that Sheriff Arpaio and the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office (MCSO) unlawfully instituted a pattern and practice of targeting Latino drivers and passengers in Maricopa County during traffic stops, that MCSO’s practices discriminated on the basis of race, in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, and resulted in prolonged traffic stops and baseless extended detentions, in violation of the Fourth Amendment.
The case was initially assigned to U.S. District Judge Mary Murguia. In June, 2009, in response to a motion filed by Arpaio's lawyers, she recused herself. The case was then assigned to U.S. District Judge G. Murray Snow.
In his September 2009 deposition in the case, Arpaio testified he had never read the complaint in the case, was unfamiliar with the details of the allegations of racial profiling therein, didn't know the content of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, and had never read the Department of Justice's guidelines concerning the use of race in investigations, which would have applied to his deputies in the field when they were still operating under a 287(g) program agreement with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). He insisted, however, that his deputies didn't profile based on ethnicity or race.
- "Sheriff Arpaio has made public statements that a fact finder could interpret as endorsing racial profiling, such as stating that, even lacking 287(g) authority, his officers can detain people based upon 'their speech, what they look like, if they look like they came from another country.'... Moreover, he acknowledges that MCSO provides no training to reduce the risk of racial profiling, stating 'if we do not racial profile, why would I do a training program?'"
Judge Snow expanded the complaint into a class-action lawsuit, including all Latino drivers stopped by the Sheriff's Office since 2007, or who will be stopped in the future. He also enjoined the MCSO and all of its officers from "detaining any person based only on knowledge or reasonable belief, without more, that the person is unlawfully present within the United States, because as a matter of law such knowledge does not amount to a reasonable belief that the person either violated or conspired to violate the Arizona human smuggling statute, or any other state or federal criminal law." 
On December 23, 2011, U.S. District Court Judge G. Murray Snow enjoined Arpaio and the MCSO from "detaining any person based only on knowledge or reasonable belief, without more, that the person is unlawfully present within the United States," halting anti-illegal immigration enforcement by MCSO in its current form.
Arpaio filed an appeal with the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. The court upheld Judge Snow's injunction.
Starting July 19, 2012, a six day bench trial was held before Judge Snow. On May 24, 2013, Judge Snow issued a decision, finding the policies and practices of Arpaio and his office discriminatory, in violation of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
In June 2013, the DOJ filed a Statement of Interest in the case, recommending the appointment of an "independent monitor to assess and report on MCSO’s compliance with the remedial measures ordered by the Court." Adopting the DOJ's recommendation, in August, 2013, Judge G. Murray Snow stated in a court hearing that he would be assigning an independent monitor.
In October 2013, Judge Snow issued a 59-page final order, giving the MCSO a list of reforms and requirements to institute and follow. In January 2014, Judge Snow appointed Robert Warshaw, former Rochester, New York, police chief, to act as monitor over the MCSO.
Arpaio filed a limited appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, contesting the district court's order, insofar as it covered traffic stops outside of saturation patrols. The appeals court rejected this claim, upholding Judge Snow's inclusion of non-saturation patrols in his finding of racial profiling, and maintaining his rulings of corrective actions that included training and video-recording of traffic stops. The appeals court did agree with Arpaio that the court-appointed monitor's oversight of internal investigations must only be related to the constitutional violations.
Subsequent to Judge Snow's October 2013 order, Arpaio was videotaped during a training session for MCSO deputies, saying "we don't racially profile. I don't care what everybody says." As a result of this, and mischaracterizations of the court's order by MCSO Chief Deputy Jerry Sheridan, Snow convened a hearing in March 2014, where he chastised Arpaio and Sheridan, saying that they had "defied and even mocked his order to stop singling out Latinos during routine patrols, traffic stops and workplace raids." He then ordered Arpaio's attorney to prepare a corrective letter setting the record straight, to be distributed to all MCSO deputies. Because of Arpaio's First Amendment free speech rights, the court did not require him to personally sign the corrective letter.
Two days after the hearing, having just been rebuked for mocking the court's order, Arpaio sent out a fundraising letter, complaining of "Rampant UNFOUNDED [sic] charges of racism and racial profiling in my office." Judge Snow, responded to this fundraising letter, stating:
- "I want to be careful and say that the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office has used race – has illegitimately used race as a factor, and to the extent that constitutes racial profiling, that's what it is and that's what I found and the sheriff is saying that people have wrongfully accused him of that as of last Wednesday, which was after the meeting in which he was here.
- "So to the extent that I have a sheriff, who I'm not going to prohibit from mischaracterizing my order publicly, to the extent that I have an MCSO that is rife with a misunderstanding of my order and a mischaracterization of it when they are the people that have to understand it and implement it, I have grave concerns..."
On September 11, 2014, Judge Snow granted more than $4.4 million in attorney’s fees to four legal organizations that litigated Melendres v. Arpaio. Attorney’s fees were granted to the ACLU Immigrants’ Rights Project, the ACLU of Arizona, MALDEF, and Covington & Burling.
Contempt of Court charges
In December 2014, after many warnings, Judge Snow told Arpaio there was a very real possibility that he would refer Arpaio to the U.S. Attorney's Office for criminal prosecution on contempt-of-court charges due to the sheriff's office failure to comply with the court's order to stop its racial profiling practices. Snow advised Arpaio to retain a criminal defense attorney. In a bid to shield Arpaio from criminal proceedings, his attorneys filed a written statement arguing that any mistakes in complying with the court's orders were unintentional, or the fault of former employees. Judge Snow found Arpaio's arguments unavailing, and, in January 2015, announced that Arpaio would face a contempt hearing in April 2015, for violating court orders in Menedres v. Arpaio.
In March 2015, a month before the scheduled contempt hearing, Arpaio admitted that he violated several court orders, and consented to a finding of civil contempt against him. Because the matter of criminal contempt was still at issue, the initial contempt hearing was held as scheduled.
Another contempt hearing is scheduled for late September 2015.
Investigation of Federal Judge and DOJ
The article quoted unnamed sources, including a former detective with the MCSO's Special Investigations Division, who claimed that the investigation was being run directly by Arpaio, and was based on his belief that Judge Snow and the DOJ had engaged in a conspiracy against him.
Arpaio neither confirmed nor denied the investigation to the Phoenix New Times. However, in an April 2015 civil contempt hearing before Judge Snow, Arpaio testified that his attorney, Tim Casey, had hired a private investigator to investigate Judge Snow's wife, and that the MCSO had paid Dennis L. Montgomery to investigate whether the DOJ had been penetrating Arpaio's e-mails as well as those of local attorneys and judges, including Judge Snow. (This was called the "Seattle Operation.") Subsequently, MCSO Chief Deputy Jerry Sheridan testified that there was no investigation into Snow, his wife, or his family. As a result of the potential for ethical conflicts arising from Arpaio's and Sheridan's testimony, Casey withdrew as legal counsel for Arpaio and the MCSO.
During a status conference on May 14, 2015, Judge Snow, reading from a prepared statement, said that documents unearthed from the "Seattle Operation" by the court-appointed monitor revealed "an attempt to construct a conspiracy involving this court," as well as other entities and individuals, including the DOJ, former U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, former Phoenix Mayor Phil Gordon, and ex-MCSO Executive Chief Brian Sands, among others. One week after this status conference, Arpaio's criminal defense attorney filed a motion to disqualify Judge Snow, claiming that he had moved from being an independent arbiter in the case into the role of investigating "issues involving his own family." Judge Snow temporarily halted further hearings in the case, but ultimateley denied the motion and resumed holding hearings. On August 7, 2015, Arpaio asked the Ninth Circuit to remove Judge Snow from the case. On September 15, 2015, the Ninth Circuit denied Arpaio's request to remove Judge Snow, as well as Arpaio's related request to halt the lower court's proceedings.
Justice Department investigation on racial profiling
In June 2008, the Department of Justice Civil Rights Division began an investigation of Arpaio amid accusations of discrimination and unconstitutional searches and seizures. The investigation was conducted under the authority of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination related to programs that receive federal funds.
Lack of cooperation with Department of Justice
On July 7, 2009, Arpaio held a press conference, and announced that he would not cooperate with the investigation, either by providing documents, or permitting interviews with personnel. On September 2, 2010, the Department of Justice filed suit against Arpaio, to compel his cooperation with the investigation. A spokeswoman for the Justice Department stated that it was unprecedented for an agency to refuse to cooperate with a Title VI investigation, and that this is the first time the Justice Department has sued to compel access to documents and facilities. The suit was settled in June 2011, after Arpaio allowed federal officials to interview Sheriff's office employees, and review hundreds of thousands of documents for the investigation. 
Findings of racial profiling
On December 15, 2011, the Justice Department released their findings after a 3-year investigation of Arpaio's office amid complaints of racial profiling and a culture of bias at the agency's top level. The report stated that under Arpaio, the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office has "a pervasive culture of discriminatory bias against Latinos" that "reaches the highest levels of the agency."
The Justice Department accused Arpaio of engaging in "unconstitutional policing" by unfairly targeting Latinos for detention and arrest, and retaliating against critics. In the report, a Justice Department expert concluded that Arpaio oversaw the worst pattern of racial profiling in U.S. history.
Based on the Justice Department report on discriminatory policing practices within the MCSO, on December 15, 2011, the United States Department of Homeland Security revoked the MCSO's federal authority to identify and detain illegal immigrants.
United States v. Maricopa County, et al, racial-profiling lawsuit
On May 10, 2012, the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), in United States v. Maricopa County, et al (Case number 2:12-cv-981), filed suit against Arpaio, the MCSO, and Maricopa County, alleging that "The Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office (MCSO) and Sheriff Joseph M. Arpaio have engaged and continue to engage in a pattern or practice of unlawful discriminatory police conduct directed at Latinos in Maricopa County and jail practices that unlawfully discriminate against Latino prisoners with limited English language skills." The complaint included accusations that Arpaio and his staff forced women to sleep in their own menstrual blood, assaulted pregnant women, ignored rape, and criminalized being a Latino.
The United States’ claims in this suit encompass, but are broader than, the unconstitutional discriminatory conduct that the Court in Melendres v. Arpaio found MCSO to have engaged in concerning its immigration-enforcement-related traffic stops.
A DOJ representative said that the agency was left with no choice but to file suit after Arpaio's attorneys balked at a demand for a court-appointed monitor to ensure the Sheriff's Office complies with any settlement terms. Arpaio rejected the notion of a court-appointed monitor, and denied that the MCSO engages in racial profiling.
On June 15, 2015, Senior United States District Judge Roslyn O. Silver of the United States District Court for the District of Arizona entered partial summary judgment for the DOJ, and against Arpaio, on the central racial-profiling allegations in the suit. On July 15, Maricopa County's board of supervisors voted to settle the lawsuit. The partial settlement, however, did not resolve the claims of discriminatory policing, so that portion of the suit may still go to trial in August 2015.
Investigation of President Obama’s birth certificate
On March 1, 2012, Arpaio and members of his Cold Case Posse held a news conference announcing their contention that President Barack Obama’s long-form birth certificate, released by the White House on April 27, 2011, is a computer-generated forgery. Additionally, the Posse’s six-month-long review included an examination of President Obama’s Selective Service card and contended that it, also, is a forgery. Their claims were presented at that press conference, and at a second press conference held on March 31, 2012. The allegations regarding the birth certificate were repeated at a July 17, 2012, news conference, where Arpaio stated that his investigators are certain that Obama's long-form birth certificate is fraudulent.
Some of the major claims presented by Arpaio at the July 17 news conference were subsequently shown to be false; specifically, the 1961 Vital Statistics Instruction Manual that Arpaio and his team claimed to possess contradicted what they claimed it said, and images shown by them, purportedly from that manual, were instead from computer specifications dated 1968 and 1969.
In response to Arpaio's claims, Joshua A. Wisch, a special assistant to Hawaii’s attorney general, said in a statement, “President Obama was born in Honolulu, and his birth certificate is valid. Regarding the latest allegations from a sheriff in Arizona, they are untrue, misinformed and misconstrue Hawaii law.” Arizona state officials, including Governor Jan Brewer and Secretary of State Ken Bennett, have also dismissed Arpaio's objections and accepted the validity of Obama's birth certificate.
As of July 2015, Arpaio still claimed that President Obama's birth certificate was forged, stating “I think I know a fraudulent, fake document."
2000 election results
|2000 Maricopa County Sheriff's Office election, Arizona|
|Republican||Joe Arpaio (incumbent)||572,063||66.49||n/a|
2004 election results
|2004 Maricopa County Sheriff's Office election, Arizona|
|Republican||Joe Arpaio (incumbent)||642,923||56.74||-9.75|
|n/a||Steven W. Martin||142,296||12.56||n/a|
2008 election results
|2008 Maricopa County Sheriff's Office election, Arizona<|
|Republican||Joe Arpaio (incumbent)||730,426||55.2||-1.54|
|Libertarian||Chris A.H. Will||35,425||2.7||n/a|
2012 election results
|2012 Maricopa County Sheriff's Office election, Arizona|
|Republican||Joe Arpaio (incumbent)||679,967||50.66||-4.54|
Failed recall petitions
In November 2007, a group calling itself Arizonans for the U.S. Constitution and Recall of Joe Arpaio filed the paperwork to begin an effort to recall Arpaio and County Prosecutor Thomas from office for allegedly disobeying and violating the United States Constitution and abuse of power. Their petition to get a recall question for the two officials onto the next general election ballot failed when the group was unable to collect the more than 200,000 registered voter signatures required. In a survey taken by the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication, while the petition was in circulation, nearly three out of four respondents opposed the recall, and 65 percent of the respondents held a positive opinion of Arpaio.
On May 30, 2013, a recall attempt on Arpaio again failed only a week after a federal judge ruled that the sheriff's office had engaged in systematic discrimination against Latinos in violation of their constitutional rights. Members of Respect Arizona and Citizens for a Better Arizona started the recall effort, but were unable to get the required 335,000 valid voter signatures by the 5 p.m. deadline.
- Arpaio, Joe; Sherman, Len. (1996). America's Toughest Sheriff: How to Win the War Against Crime. New York City: Summit Publishing Group. p. 262. ISBN 1-56530-202-8.
- Arpaio, Joe; Sherman, Len. (2008). Joe's Law: America's Toughest Sheriff Takes on Illegal Immigration, Drugs and Everything Else That Threatens America. New York City: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. p. 272. ISBN 0-8144-0199-6.
- Arpaio, Joe (2008). "Joining the Army". Re-Elect Sheriff Joe Arpaio. Committee to Re-Elect Joe Arpaio. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
In 1950, America became engulfed in the Korean War; and I had just enlisted in the Army. I wanted a piece of the action. But as luck would have it, instead of heading off to combat, the Army saw an unusual talent in the young Joe Arpaio, something other men my age knew nothing about – typing! So instead of issuing me off to Korea, the Army put me in the military’s Medical Detachment Division where report writing skills and interviewing techniques were critical. The Army never got me over to Korea but it did get me abroad for a while. That’s where I was bitten by wanderlust. Little did I know then that France would be the first of many foreign countries where I would be sent to fight crime. After getting a taste of what being a cop would be like in the military , I was discharged from the army and immediately signed up to be a street cop in one of the toughest cities in America – Washington D.C.
- Kiefer, Michael (September 11, 2015). "Sheriff Joe Arpaio has always done it his way: Chapter 2; A lone wolf from the outset". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved September 14, 2015.
- Hagan, Joe (2012-08-02). "The Long, Lawless Ride of Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Janofsky, Michael (May 16, 2002). "Another Plot Against Tough Sheriff, With a Twist". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- The original source for the sobriquet "America's Toughest Sheriff" is unknown, however both Arpaio and his press relations staff aggressively promote its use. Note Arpaio's book, titled "America's Toughest Sheriff."
- Santos, Fernanda (2012-11-08). "Times Topics: Joe Arpaio". The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Congressional hearing targets Sheriff Joe Arpaio's SB-1070 tactics – Immigration News and Comment". Politifi.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- JONATHAN J. COOPER (AP) – Aug 15, 2010 (2010-08-15). "The Associated Press: Tea party activists rally on Arizona-Mexico border". Google.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- Barnes, Robert (June 25, 2012). "Supreme Court Rejects Much of Arizona Immigration Law". The Washington Post.
- Cohen, Tom; Mears, Bill (June 26, 2012). "Supreme Court mostly rejects Arizona immigration law; gov says 'heart' remains". CNN.
- "At a glance: Supreme Court decision on Arizona's immigration law". CNN. Retrieved June 26, 2012.
- Hensley, JJ (March 1, 2012). "Arpaio unveils Obama birth-certificate probe". The Republic. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Joe Arpaio: Barack Obama birth proof 'may be forged'". BBC News. 2012-03-02.
- Mak, Tim (March 2, 2012). "Joe Arpaio on Obama's birth certificate: It may be fake". Politico. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Arpaio: Obama birth record definitely forged". CBS News. 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Sheriff Joe launches into Obama’s birth certificate – again". WND. July 5, 2015.
- Arpaio, Joe (2008). "Growing up". Re-Elect Sheriff Joe Arpaio. Committee to Re-Elect Joe Arpaio. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
I was born on Flag Day, June 14, 1932, and had a tough start in life. My mother died in childbirth. My father, owner of a small Italian grocery in Springfield, Massachusetts was forced to enlist the help of extended family to provide a sense of home for him and me. I spent my entire childhood in Springfield, bouncing around from home to home. I finished high school as an accomplished athlete and average student. Through the years, I helped my father in business by delivering groceries until the day I turned 18 years old and decided to join the army. The beginning of the Korean War was days away and this turned out to be my first step into a lifetime of public service.
- MID=06830228630897368576&FNM=NICOLA&LNM=ARPAIO&PLNM=ARPAIO&CGD=M&first_kind=1&last_kind=0&TOWN=null&SHIP=null&RF=2&pID=604303010014 "OSIA Honors Sheriff Arpaio" Check
|url=value (help). encyclopedia.com. April 1, 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- Terry Greene Sterling (December 16, 2011). "Sheriff Joe Arpaio Slammed in Federal Civil Rights Probe Report". thedailybeast.com.
- "Re-elect Sheriff Joe Arpaio 2012". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-07-14.[dead link]
- "Joe Arpaio DEA Officer". sheriffjoe.org. Retrieved 2010-07-14.[dead link]
- "Arpaios trips to space". phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2014-11-04.
- "Apaio's travel agency offers 'affordable' bookings on space flights". azcentral.com. Retrieved 2014-11-04.
- "Maricopa County Election Results". maricopa.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-14.
- "Joe Arpaios wife Ava". sheriffjoe.org. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
- "2004 Financial Disclosure Statement" (PDF). maricopa.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-28.
- Board, Editorial (2012-07-26). "Sheriff Joe Arpaio’s day in an Arizona court". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Arizona Revised Statutes §11-441 Powers and duties". Law.justia.com. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "DOJ Breaks Off Negotiations With Defiant Sheriff Joe Arpaio". ABC News. 2012-04-03. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF ARIZONA". No. CV-07-2513-PHX-MHM, Manuel de Jesus Ortega Melendres vs. Joseph M. Arpaio. February 10, 2009. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- Fernanda Santos (August 1, 2012). "When a Taste for Publicity Bites Back". The New York Times.
- David Carr (January 4, 2009). "A Star Turn for a Sheriff on Fox TV". The New York Times.
- Zoellner, Tom (2008-11-24). "Janet Napolitano's embarrassing history with Sheriff Joe Arpaio. – By Tom Zoellner – Slate Magazine". Slate.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Sheriff runs female chain gang". CNN. October 29, 2003. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
- "Mauro v Arpaio". FindLaw. August 17, 1999.
- "Arpaio Launches KJOE Radio". KPHO.com. 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
- Hensley, JJ; Collom, Lindsey (October 23, 2008). "Judge backs county inmates in jail case". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- Hensley, JJ (April 8, 2010). "Judge: County failed to improve jails' medical, mental-health conditions". Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- Video on YouTube
- "Jon's Jail Journal (by Shaun Attwood)". Jonsjailjournal.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Blog". Shaunattwood.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Media Requests". Shaunattwood.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Tent City Jail". Maricopa County Sheriff's Office. MCSO.
- Video on YouTube
- "Two Americans video footage". Twoamericans.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- The Honorable Jeffrey S. Cates, Judge (September 26, 2002). "Appeal from the Superior Court in Maricopa County, Cause No. CV 97-008668" (PDF).
- Scott, Eugene (2011-07-03). "Temperatures rise to 145 inside Tent City". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- Ananda Shorey (July 25, 2003). "Phoenix is sizzling through what could be the hottest July on record". signonsandiego.com. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- Tony Ortega (1997-09-18). "Human Plights – Page 1 – News – Phoenix". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- "Blog of Rights: Official Blog of the American Civil Liberties Union » Sheriff Joe's Inhumane Circus". Aclu.org. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Jon's Jail Journal (by Shaun Attwood): Tent City – Sheriff Joe Arpaio’s Shameful Creation". Jonsjailjournal.blogspot.co.uk. 2005-08-28. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Yu, Esther (2013-08-02). "Twenty Years Of In-Tents Treatment: How Sheriff Joe Arpaio Put Racism On Display". ThinkProgress. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "The Problem With Sheriff Joe Arpaio's Tent City [Analysis] – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2013-07-29. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- CNN (March 10, 2004). "Anderson Cooper 360 transcript". CNN. Retrieved 2009-03-04.
- "CNN reporter Eric Phillips interviews Sheriff Arpaio and a juvenile offender". CNN. March 11, 2004. Retrieved 2007-10-20. (CNN Live Today transcript)
- "Custody Operations: Laundry Services". Maricopa County Sheriff's Office. Retrieved 2015-05-08.
- Tony Ortega (May 27, 1999). "Blowing His Cool". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- "Not Pretty In Pink". The Smoking Gun. January 14, 2005. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- Lemons, Stephen (2012-10-18). "Joe Arpaio Obliterated in New TV Ads by Citizens for Professional Law Enforcement". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Sheriff Arpaio: "I could be elected on pink underwear"". YouTube. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "'Illegals' in jail ordered to register for draft". Deseret News. January 16, 2004.[dead link]
- "Re-Elect Joe Arpaio – Teaching to Have a Heart". Sheriffjoe.com. Committee to Re-Elect Joe Arpaio 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-20.[dead link]
- "Hollywood actors join Arpaio's immigration posse | Phoenix News | Arizona News | azfamily.com | Phoenix News". azfamily.com. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- Lemons, Stephen (June 5, 2013). "Bad Conscience". Phoenix New Times digital issue.
- Lemons, Stephen (July 29, 2015). "Joe Arpaio's Incredibly Shrinking Posse (w/Update)". Phoenix New Times.
- "Ill-treatment of inmates in Maricopa County jails, Arizona". Amnesty International. 1 August 1997. Archived from the original on 2003-09-09.
- "Valley rabbis' statement on Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Jewish News of Greater Phoenix. 24 July 2009.
- "Phoenix Mayor Gordon calls for FBI investigation of Arpaio". The Arizona Republic. 13 April 2008.
- New York Times editorial board (December 31, 2008). "America’s Worst Sheriff (Joe Arpaio)". The New York Times.
- "ACLU Sues Maricopa County Sheriff's Office For Illegal Arrest And Detention Of U.S. Citizen And Legal Resident | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. 2009-08-19. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Sheriff Arpaio Sued Over Racial Profiling Of Latinos In Maricopa County | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. 2008-07-16. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
- "Ninth Circuit Court Of Appeals Orders Sheriff Arpaio To Fix Unconstitutional Conditions In Maricopa County Jail | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. 2010-10-13. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- "Graves, et al. v. Arpaio, et al. – Opinion | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. 2010-10-13. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- "Fred Graves and Isaac Popoca v. Joseph Arpaio" (PDF). United States District Court for the District of Arizona. October 22, 2008. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Fred Graves, Isaac Popoca, et al. v. Joseph Arpaio" (PDF). United States District Court for the District of Arizona. April 7, 2010. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Chung, Joanna (2010-10-14). "Sheriff Joe Told to Clean Up His Jails — Again – Law Blog – WSJ". Blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- "Key evidence in Maricopa County Jail death suit of Deborah Braillard 'destroyed'". ABC 15. 2010-08-23. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Tony Ortega (1997-05-29). "Joe Assumes Deposition". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Dana, Joe (19 January 2010). "Many MCSO cases solved without arrests". azcentral.com. 12 News. 12 News. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- Bolick, Clint (21 May 2009). "Justice Denied: The Improper Clearance of Unsolved Crimes by the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office". Goldwater Institute. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- Bolick, Clint (2 December 2008). "Mission Unaccomplished: The Misplaced Priorities of the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office". Goldwater Institute. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- "Goldwater Institute: Arpaio’s crime clearance rate a sham". AzCapitolTimes.com. 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
- Richardson, Bill (27 May 2009). "The numbers don’t match Arpaio’s hype". East Valley Tribune. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
- Fenske, Sarah (2009-05-28). "How the MCSO Neglected a 14-Year-Old Rape Victim". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2012-06-07.
- Bernstein, Josh (2009-05-21). "Sexual assault victim claims MCSO failed to do its job". ABC15. Archived from the original on 2009-05-23.
- "The Pulitzer Prizes | Works". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Gabrielson, Ryan (2008-07-12). "REASONABLE DOUBT: Public pays the price". East Valley Tribune. The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Victim Power". Victim Power. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
- "Sheriff Joe Arpaio Unapologetic About Tactics, Illegal Immigrant Crackdowns – ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2009-07-23. Retrieved 2010-10-24.
- Billeaud, Jacques (December 4, 2011). "Critics: 'Tough' sheriff botched sex-crime cases". Boston.com. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Lemons, Stephen (2012-08-20). "Joe Arpaio's Deputy Told to Work Fraud Cases Instead of Child Rape Crime". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Arpaio’s office continues to investigate sex-crime cases". Casa Grande Dispatch. 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Lemons, Stephen (2012-08-20). "Joe Arpaio's Deputy Told to Work Fraud Cases Instead of Child Rape Crime". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Lemons, Stephen (2012-09-28). "Rape victim opens up about botched MCSO investigation". CBS 5. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Lacey, Marc (December 9, 2011). "Arpaio Is Criticized Over Handling of Sex-Crimes Cases". The New York Times.
- Loew, Morgan (2013-02-27). "Rape victim opens up about botched MCSO investigation". KPHO. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Hee, Michelle Ye. "Maricopa County supervisors settle lawsuits filed by ‘New Times’ founders, Stapley". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Maricopa County feud: What happens next?". The Arizona Republic. August 15, 2009.
- Wingett, Yvonne (2010-09-15). "Maricopa County's officials tab for feuding hits $5.6 million". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Rudolf, John (2012-04-11). "Arizona Prosecutor Disbarred For Plotting Bad Arrests With 'America's Toughest Sheriff'". Huffington Post.
- Lemons, Stephen (2012-04-19). "Andy Thomas Needs a Perp Walk With His Papi, Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Wingett, Yvonne (2010-12-06). "Investigator to recommend disbarment in Thomas ethics case". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Mary Rose Wilcox awarded $975,000 from Arpaio suit". Azcentral.com. 2014-06-02. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Hee, Michelle Ye. "Maricopa County infighting, lawsuits cost taxpayers $44.4 million". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Wingett, Yvonne (2010-02-25). "Supervisor cases collapse". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "Sources: FBI Investigating Joe Arpaio". KPHO. Oct 30, 2009. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- Conder, Chuck (July 10, 2010). "Arizona sheriff under investigation for alleged abuse of power". CNN. Retrieved July 10, 2010.
- "Feds close criminal investigation into Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Fox News. August 31, 2012. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Judges file claims accusing Joe Arpaio, Andrew Thomas for abuse of power". Arizona Republic. May 28, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- "Dowling sues Arpaio, county for prosecution". The Arizona Republic. June 4, 2009.
- [dead link]
- Wingett, Yvonne (2010-08-24). "Joe Arpaio's campaign mailers violate rules, elections panel finds". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- "Officce of Maricopa County Attorney : Campaign Finance Proceeding" (PDF). Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Lemons, Stephen (2010-09-14). "Joe Arpaio Fined $154K for "In-Kind Contribution" to Bill Montgomery (w/Update) – Phoenix News – Feathered Bastard". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Mike Sakal, Tribune. "Arpaio campaign fined for illegal mailers targeting Romley – East Valley Tribune – Arizona Local News". East Valley Tribune. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- Wingett, Yvonne. "Joe Arpaio's office misspent funds, analysis says". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Wingett, Yvonne. "Joe Arpaio's office misused up to $80 million, Maricopa County says". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Sanchez, Yvonne Wingett (April 13, 2011). "Joe Arpaio's staff misspent $99.5 million, budget officials say". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Sarah BudusonReporter, KPHO.com (2007-06-28). "Maricopa Officials: Arpaio's Spending Illegal – Phoenix News Story – KPHO Phoenix". Kpho.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Wingett, Yvonne (2010-08-08). "Maricopa County Sheriff's Office spent loosely". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Wingett, Yvonne (2009-08-18). "Audit sought on how jail fund is spent by Maricopa County Sheriff's Office". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Lemons, Stephen (2010-09-16). "Joe Arpaio's Watergate: Read MCSO Deputy Chief Frank Munnell's Memo Here (w/Update) – Phoenix News – Feathered Bastard". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- Lemons, Stephen (2010-09-17). "Joe Arpaio Knows All, and David Hendershott's His Lackey, Say Former Staffers and Critics – Phoenix News – Feathered Bastard". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- Wingett, Yvonne (2010-10-06). "Joe Arpaio aide's misconduct allegations investigated by U.S. Attorney's Office, FBI". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2011-02-10.
- Dougherty, John (1999-08-05). "The Plot To Assassinate Arpaio". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Bommersbach, Jana. Will Sheriff Joe Stop at Nothing? PHOENIX Magazine, February 2005.
- Dickerson, John (2008-10-28). "A Phony Murder Plot Against Joe Arpaio Winds Up Costing Taxpayers $1.1 Million". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Dougherty, John (2004-06-24). "In the Crosshairs". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Claims vs. county cost taxpayers $71 mil". The Arizona Republic. May 23, 2010. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Billeaud, Jacques (2011-12-15). "Feds say Arpaio violated civil rights". azfamily.com.
- Howerton, Jason. "FEDS DROP CRIMINAL CASE AGAINST SHERIFF JOE ARPAIO". The Blaze. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "EJ Montini | Insiders". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Pettersson, Edvard (2012-07-25). "Arizona’s Arpaio Testifies Race Not Factor in Arrests – Bloomberg Business". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Bogado, Aura (May 1, 2009). "Arpaio vs. Immigrants: Those most affected left out of debate". FAIR: Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Reasonable Doubt". East Valley Tribune. July 2008. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Fernández, Valeria (2012-07-27). "Attorneys Allege 'Culture of Discrimination' in Arpaio’s Office". New America Media. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Hendley, Matthew (2012-03-15). "Joe Arpaio Runs Another "Employer Sanctions Operation" – Get This – Zero of 31 Arrested Are Employers". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Melendres v. Arpaio – Decision on Sanctions Regarding Adverse Inferences at Trial | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Feds: Ariz. Sheriff Arpaio violated civil rights". CBS News. 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Fernández, Valeria (2012-07-25). "Two Faces of Arpaio Revealed in Trial". New America Media. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Ortega Melendres, et al. v. Arpaio, et al.". ACLU. July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Horwitz, Sari (2012-05-10). "Justice to Sue Arizona Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Santos, Fernanda (2012-07-19). "Sheriff Joe Arpaio Trial Opens in Phoenix". The New York Times.
- Hensley, JJ (August 1, 2012). "Racial-profiling trial: Former MCSO deputy testifies". The Republic. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Ortega Melendres, et al. v. Arpaio, et al.". American Civil Liberties Union. 2012-09-25. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- Lemons, Stephen (2009-12-30). "Joe Arpaio, Clueless or Cunning? Sheriff Does His Sgt. Schultz Impersonation During Seven Hour Depo in Racial Profiling Lawsuit". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2013-03-03.
- "Arizona: Sheriff's Office Punished in Profiling Case". The New York Times. 2011-12-24.
- "UPDATED: Judge Punishes Sheriff Arpaio’s Office for Document Destruction | Albuquerque Journal News". Abqjournal.com. 2011-12-23. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Melendres v. Arpaio – Decision on Motions for Summary Judgment | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. 2015-03-18. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Stern, Ray (2011-12-23). "Joe Arpaio Can be Sued by Detained Hispanics: Judge Grants Class Status in Lawsuit to Hispanics Stopped by Arpaio's Deputies, Orders Halt to Human-Smuggling Enforcement in Current Form | Phoenix New Times". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Arizona Sheriff Joe Arpaio Loses Immigration Law Appeal". Fox News. 2012-09-26.
- J. J. Hensley (July 8, 2012). "Joe Arpaio's legacy in the balance with lawsuit outcome". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- "Federal Court Rules Arizona Sheriff Joe Arpaio Violated U.S. Constitution". Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Ortega Melendres, et al. v. Arpaio, et al. – Decision". Retrieved 25 May 2013.
- "Officce of Maricopa County Attorney : Campaign Finance Proceeding" (PDF). Justice.gov. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Schwartz, David (30 August 2013). "Judge plans to appoint monitor for controversial Arizona sheriff". Reuters. Retrieved 5 September 2013.
- Lemons, Stephen (2014-04-24). "Arpaio Will Continue to Defy Judge Snow Until He's Held in Contempt". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Court largely upholds racial-profiling ruling against Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Azcentral.com. 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- [dead link]
- Lemons, Stephen (2014-03-24). "Joe Arpaio, Jerry Sheridan Spanked by Judge G. Murray Snow Over Melendres Remarks | Phoenix New Times". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Lemons, Stephen (2014-03-28). "Joe Arpaio Lies About Racial Profiling, and MCSO Deputies Screw Up on Video (Again) | Phoenix New Times". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Lemons, Stephen (2014-04-25). "Joe Arpaio Wants Out of Part of Judge's Latest Order, and MCSO Flack Jack MacIntyre Mischaracterizes Melendres | Phoenix New Times". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Arizona District Court Judge Grants Over $4 million in Attorney Fees to Civil Rights Groups in Landmark Lawsuit Against Sheriff Joe Arpaio and Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office (MCSO) | American Civil Liberties Union". Aclu.org. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Judge fed up with Arpaio defiance". Azcentral.com. 2014-12-05. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Judge: Arpaio will face contempt hearing in April". Azcentral.com. 2015-01-16. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Arpaio admits contempt of court, offers public acknowledgement". Azcentral.com. 2015-03-19. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Cassidy, Megan (July 25, 2015). "Judge sends marshals to seize evidence from Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Arizona Republic.
- "Sheriff Joe Arpaio contempt case to resume in September". KNXV-TV. July 20, 2015.
- Lemons, Stephen (2014-06-04). "Joe Arpaio's Investigating Federal Judge G. Murray Snow, DOJ, Sources Say, and Using a Seattle Scammer To Do It | Phoenix New Times". Blogs.phoenixnewtimes.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Arpaio: PI hired to investigate judge's wife". Azcentral.com. 2015-04-24. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Joffe-Block, Jude (May 8, 2015). "Man Sheriff Joe Arpaio Hired To Investigate Federal Agencies Tries To Intervene In Contempt Case". KJZZ (FM).
- "Arpaio immigration case attorney quits, citing ethical conflicts". Tucson.com. 2015-04-28. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Arpaio civil-contempt hearing recap: Case of surprises". Azcentral.com. 2015-04-25. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Lemons, Stephen (2015-05-15). "Snow Blasts Arpaio's "Bogus Conspiracy Theory"". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Arpaio moves to remove judge on racial-profiling case". Azcentral.com. 2015-05-22. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Sheriff Joe Arpaio Contempt Hearing Delayed Due To Recusal Request". KJZZ. 2015-06-02. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Arpaio foes oppose sheriff's request to disqualify judge – ABC15 Arizona". Abc15.com. 2015-06-13. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Lemons, Stephen (July 10, 2015). "Arpaio's Epic Fail: Judge Refuses to Recuse Self in Melendres". Phoenix New Times.
- "Arpaio asks appeals court to recuse judge in profiling case". KPHO-TV. August 7, 2015.
- "Sheriff Joe Arpaio loses bid to disqualify judge from profiling case". KNXV-TV. September 15, 2015.
- "Civil Rights Division Maricopa County Sheriffs Office Investigation". Justice.gov. 2011-12-15. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Frieden, Terry (September 2, 2010). "Justice Department lawyers sue Arizona sheriff in civil rights probe". CNN. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
- Wingett, Yvonne. "Sheriff Joe Arpaio sued by Justice Department in civil-rights probe". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- "Justice Department lawsuit involving Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio". Azdatapages.com. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "United States of America v. Maricopa County, Arizona" (PDF). Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Wingett, Yvonne (2011-06-02). "Feds settle lawsuit vs. Arpaio's office". Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2011-09-29.
- [dead link]
- Billeaud, Jacques. "Feds say Arpaio violated civil rights". AP. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
- Lacey, Marc (2011-12-15). "Sheriff's Arpaio's Office Targeted Latinos, U.S. Says". The New York Times.
- Ray Stern (15 December 2011). "Sheriff Joe Arpaio's Office Commits Worst Racial Profiling in U.S. History, Concludes DOJ Investigation". Phoenix New Times. Phoenix New Times, LLC. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Ray Stern (15 December 2011). "Feds Pull 287(g) Authority From Maricopa County Jails Because of Civil Rights Violations". Phoenix New Times. Phoenix New Times, LLC. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- Israel, Josh (2012-08-30). "Appeals Court Reinstates Civil Rights Lawsuit Against Joe Arpaio". Thinkprogress.org. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- J. J. Hensley (10 May 2012). "U.S. sues Arpaio's office over treatment of Latinos". azcentral.com. The Arizona Republic. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
- "Plaintiff v. Maricopa County, Arizona" (PDF). Azcentral.com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Judge rules in favor of DOJ in suit against Arpaio". Azcentral.com. 2015-06-16. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- Kiefer, Michael (July 15, 2015). "County votes to settle DOJ lawsuit vs. Arpaio". Arizona Republic.
- Joffe-Block, Jude (July 15, 2015). "Maricopa County Agrees To Settle Part Of Racial Profiling Case". KJZZ.
- White House: birth certificate
- "Sheriff Arpaio says Obama's birth certificate is forged". CBS News.
- The results of the investigation were published in the book, A Question of Eligibility: A Law Enforcement Investigation into Barack Obama's Birth Certificate and His Eligibility to be President, co-authored by Mike Zullo, MCSO Cold Case Posse Chief Investigator, and Jerome Corsi, an American author, political commentator and conspiracy theorist, with the introduction written by Arpaio. Paperless Publishing LLC (February 29, 2012), Amazon Digital Services, Inc., ASIN B007FWO19W
- The Associated Press (July 17, 2012). "Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio: Obama birth record 'definitely fraudulent'". Daily News (Los Angeles). Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- "Exposed: Sheriff Joe Arpaio Birther Scam — Here’s the Proof that Arpaio’s Posse Fabricated Evidence and Lied to the Nation". July 24, 2012. Retrieved November 17, 2013.
- "Joe Arpaio: Obama birth certificate a fraud – Associated Press". Politico.Com. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
- "Brewer disagrees with Arpaio findings, believes Obama birth record real". East Valley Tribune. Tempe, AZ. March 6, 2012.
- "Arizona Officially Accepts Obama's Birth Record". Fox News Latino. May 23, 2012.
- "Elections Results Archive". Maricopa County Recorder's Office.
- "Cronkite-Eight Poll". Arizona State University PBS channel. November 20, 2007.
- "Recall Petition Targets Sheriff Joe Arpaio". The Jawa Report. November 19, 2007.
- "Maricopa County Voters Support Thomas, Arpaio Over Recall Effort". Cronkite News Service. November 20, 2007.
- Carcamo, Cindy (2013-05-30). "Recall effort against Arizona's Sheriff Joe Arpaio fails". LA Times. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Sheriff of Maricopa County