John Craig (mathematician)

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John Craig
Born 1663
Hoddam, Dumfries, Scotland
Died October 11, 1731
High Holborn, London, England
Residence England
Nationality Scottish
Fields Mathematician
Alma mater University of Edinburgh
Academic advisors David Gregory
Known for Log-likelihood ratio
Influences Isaac Newton

John Craig (1663 – October 11, 1731) was a Scottish mathematician and theologian.

Born in Dumfries and educated at the University of Edinburgh, he moved to England and became a vicar in the Church of England.

A friend of Isaac Newton, he wrote several minor works about the new calculus. He is mainly known for his book Theologiae Christianae Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Christian Theology), published in 1698.

In the aforementioned book, Craig presents a formula that describes how the probability of a historical event depends on the number of primary witnesses, on the chain of transmission through secondary witnesses, on the elapsed time and on the spatial distance. Using this formula, Craig derived that the probability of the story of Jesus would reach 0 in the year 3150. This year he interpreted as the Second Coming of Christ because of verse 18:8 in the Gospel of Luke.

His work was poorly received. Several later mathematicians complained about his imprecise use of probability and the unsupported derivation of his formula. Stephen Stigler, in his 1999 book (see references, below) gave a more favorable interpretation, pointing out that some of Craig's reasoning can be justified if his "probability" is interpreted as the log-likelihood ratio.

He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1711.


  • S. M. Stigler, Statistics on the Table, Chapter 13, Harvard University Press, (1999).
  • J. F. Scott, Dictionary of Scientific Biography (New York 1970–1990).
  • Dale, Andrew I. "Craig, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6577.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> (Subscription or UK public library membership required.). The first edition of this text is available as an article on Wikisource:  Stephen, Leslie, ed. (1887). [ "Craig, John (d.1731)" ] Check |ws link in chapter= value (help). Dictionary of National Biography. 12. London: Smith, Elder & Co.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  • R. Nash, John Craige's mathematical principles of Christian theology (1991).
  • M. Cantor, Vorlesungen über Geschichte der Mathematik III (Leipzig, 1896), 52, 188.
  • Dictionary of National Biography (London, 1917).
  • S. M. Stigler, John Craig and the probability of history: from the death of Christ to the birth of Laplace, Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (1986), 879–887.

External links