Joko Widodo

From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Jump to: navigation, search
His Excellency
Joko Widodo
Joko Widodo 2014 official portrait.jpg
7th President of Indonesia
Assumed office
20 October 2014
Vice President Jusuf Kalla
Preceded by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
16th Governor of Jakarta
In office
15 October 2012 – 16 October 2014
Deputy Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
Preceded by Fauzi Bowo
Succeeded by Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
16th Mayor of Surakarta
In office
28 July 2005 – 1 October 2012
Deputy F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo
Preceded by Slamet Suryanto
Succeeded by F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo
Personal details
Born (1961-06-21) 21 June 1961 (age 59)
Surakarta, Indonesia
Political party Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle
Height 1.75 m (5 ft 9 in)
Spouse(s) Iriana (1986–present)
Children Gibran Rakabuming Raka
Kahiyang Ayu
Kaesang Pangarep
Residence Merdeka Palace
Alma mater Gadjah Mada University
Religion Sunni Islam
Signature Joko Widodo's signature

Joko "Jokowi" Widodo (Javanese: ꦗꦑ꧈ꦮꦶꦢꦢ[1] Jåkå Widådå; O-Javanese: Jaka Widada; born 21 June 1961) is the President of Indonesia, in office since 2014. Previously he was Mayor of Surakarta from 2005 to 2012 and Governor of Jakarta from 2012 to 2014. He is the first Indonesian president not to have emerged from the country’s political elite or as an army general.[2]

Jokowi was nominated by his party, the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), to run in the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election with Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (often known as Ahok) as his running mate.[3] Jokowi was elected as Governor of Jakarta on 20 September 2012 after a second round runoff election in which he defeated the incumbent governor Fauzi Bowo.[4] Jokowi's win was widely seen as reflecting popular voter support for "new" or "clean" leaders rather than the "old" style of politics in Indonesia.[5]

His nomination as PDI-P candidate for the 2014 presidential election was announced on 14 March 2014.[6] The presidential election was held on 9 July 2014. After some controversy about the result of the election, Jokowi was named as president-elect on 22 July. He was formally declared as the winner of the election by the General Elections Commission (Komisi Pemilihan Umum or KPU), winning more than 53% of the vote over his opponent, Prabowo Subianto, who disputed the outcome and withdrew from the race before the count was completed.[7]

Early life and education

Joko Widodo is of Javanese descent. Before changing his name (changes of name are not unusual in Java), Jokowi was called Mulyono.[8] His father came from Karanganyar, his grandparents came from a village in Boyolali.[9] His education started in State Primary School 111, Tirtoyoso, known for being a school for less wealthy citizens.[10] At twelve, he started working in his father's furniture workshop.[11][12] The evictions he experienced three times in his childhood affected his way of thinking and his leadership later on as the mayor of Surakarta (Solo) as he organised housing in the city.[13]

After primary school, he continued his studies in SMP Negeri 1 Surakarta (middle school).[14] He had wanted to continue his education in SMA Negeri 1 Surakarta (high school), but he failed the entrance exam and went to SMA Negeri 6 Surakarta instead.[15]

Political career

Mayor of Surakarta

When he first ran for the office of mayor of Surakarta, his background as a property and furniture businessman was questioned. One academic paper claimed his leadership style was successful because it established an interactional relationship with the people of Solo, through which he was able to induce people's strong faith in him.[16] He adopted the development framework of European cities (which he frequently traveled to as a businessman) into his own city of Surakarta.[17]

Jokowi's actions during the seven years that he was mayor of Surakarta included:[18]

  • Building new traditional markets – including an antiques market and a home appliances market
  • Constructing a 7-km city walk with a 3-meter wide pedestrian walkway along Surakarta's main street
  • Revitalizing the Balekambang and Sriwedari parks
  • Stricter regulations on cutting down trees along the city's main streets
  • Rebranding Surakarta as a center of Javanese culture and tourism under the tagline "The Spirit of Java"
  • Promoting the city as a center for meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions (MICE)
  • The blusukan culture, the manner in which Jokowi made impromptu visits to certain areas to hear directly from the people their needs and criticisms
  • Prohibiting his family members from bidding for city projects
  • Healthcare insurance program for all residents
  • Public transportation in the form of double-decker buses and the railbus
  • Solo Techno Park, which helped support the Esemka Indonesian car project[19]

His supporters pointed to rapid positive changes in Surakarta under his leadership and the branding the city with the motto "Solo: The Spirit of Java". While in office he relocated junk dealers in the Banjarsari Gardens, a move which was helpful in revitalizing the functions of the open green land; he emphasized the importance of business firms engaging in community activities; he improved communications with the local community (appearing regularly on local television). As a follow-up of the new branding of Surakarta, he applied for Surakarta to become a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities, which was approved in 2006, and subsequently had Surakarta chosen to host the organization's conference in October 2008. In 2007, Surakarta had also hosted the World Music Festival (Festival Musik Dunia/FMD) which was held at the complex of Fort Vastenburg. The FMD in 2008 was held in the Mangkunegaran Palace Complex.

Part of Jokowi's personal style was his populist "can-do" (punya gaye) elements designed to build bonds with the broad electorate.[16] As mayor of Surakarta, he became personally involved in an incident just before Christmas 2011 when the Surakarta municipality had overdue bills of close to $1 million (Rp 8.9 billion) owing to state-owned electricity company Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). Following PLN company policy to pursue a more disciplined approach to collecting overdue bills, the PLN imposed a blackout on street lamps in Surakarta just before Christmas. The city municipality quickly authorized payment but in settling the bill protested that the PLN should consider the public interest before taking this type of action. To reinforce the point, Jokowi made a highly publicized personal visit to the local PLN office to deliver the Rp 8.9 billion in cash in the form of hundreds of bundles of notes and even small coins.[20]

He was chosen as the Tempo's Leaders of Choice by Tempo news magazine (2008) and received a Changemakers Award from Republika newspaper (2010); his name also started being considered in national polls for governorship of Jakarta way before his party nomination of him to run for the post, including those by Universitas Indonesia and Cyrus Network (2011).[16]

Governor of Jakarta

File:Gubernur DKI Jokowi.jpg
Joko Widodo in his official portrait as Governor of Jakarta (2012)

While governor of Jakarta Jokowi followed the practice (known as blusukan) of regularly arranging well-publicized visits to local communities, often in quite poor areas, across Jakarta. His inner circle of advisers in Jakarta was reported to include people such as FX Hadi 'Rudy' Rudyatmo, Sumartono Hadinoto, and Anggit Nugroho who were colleagues while he was mayor of Surakarta as well as Basuki 'Ahok' Tjahaja Purnama, his deputy as governor of Jakarta.[21] Jokowi's actions and policies as Jakarta's Governor among others are:


Jokowi actively carried out the practice known as blusukan of regularly visiting quite poor areas across Jakarta. During these visits, he wore simple informal clothes and made a point of spending time in markets or walking along narrow Jakarta lanes (gangs) to chat to people about problems like the price of food, housing difficulties, local flooding, and transport. Polling and media coverage suggested that Jokowi's hands-on style proved very popular both in Jakarta and elsewhere across Indonesia.[22]

Lelang Jabatan

On April and June 2013, Jokowi began to implement a system of bureaucratic recruitment called "lelang jabatan" (literally auction of office position). In this system, previously unknown in Indonesia and similar to policies of advancement on merit common for generations in Indonesia's foreign aid donor countries,[23] every civil servant had the same opportunity to achieve a certain position by fulfilling the required qualifications and passing the test. The test results were announced transparently and the provincial government appointed the qualified civil servant in accordance to their achievements and qualifications.[24]

Health care program

Jokowi blusukan.jpg

Early after taking office in late 2012 Jokowi introduced a universal health care program in Jakarta, based on a Healthy Jakarta Card (Kartu Jakarta Sehat or KJS). The program proved popular, but implementation problems became evident.[25] The demand for health services from hospitals across Jakarta rose by 70% in the first few months.[26] The program involved an insurance program provided through the state-owned insurance company PT Askes Indonesia (Persero) and a plan to regulate health charges for treatment for over 20,000 services and procedures.[27] There was confusion over the details of the implementation of the system and long waiting queues for services caused dissatisfaction. The long queues even generated a market for middlemen who offered line-waiting services for up to Rp 150,000 (around $US 15 at end-2013 exchange rates).[28] The various problems led to criticism of Jokowi in the Jakarta regional parliament that he was promoting a populist, poorly-designed program. However Jokowi defended the popular KJS program and counseled patience.

Educational program

Jokowi launched the "Smart Jakarta Card" on 1 December 2012, in order to help poor students in Jakarta. This card gives an allowance that can be withdrawn from ATMs in order to buy school needs such as books and uniforms. The usage of the card is constantly monitored and is not allowed to be used for other purposes .[29]

Public transportation

On 10 October 2013, Jokowi inaugurated the construction of Jakarta MRT, which previously was delayed for years.[30] Subsequently, on 16 October 2013, Jokowi also restarted the construction of the green line of Jakarta Monorail,[31] although finally the monorail project was disbanded in favour for Jakarta LRT.[32]

Financial reforms

After Jokowi took office, taxes and the provincial budget of Jakarta increased significantly from Rp 41 trillion in 2012 to Rp 72 trillion in 2014.[33][34]


Jokowi and his vice governor, Basuki, publicized their monthly salary and the provincial budget.[35][36] They also initiated programs aimed towards transparency, such as online taxes, e-budgeting, e-purchasing, and a cash management system.[35] Moreover, all meetings and activities that were attended by Jokowi and Basuki were recorded and uploaded on YouTube.[37]

Revamping street vendors and traditional markets

Jokowi regulated the chaotic agglomeration of street vendors in Pasar Minggu and Pasar Tanah Abang by relocating them to a new building, as these street vendors were causing horrendous traffic jams.[38] He also built and renovated five traditional markets in 2013 and four traditional markets in 2014.[39][40] The vendors in these markets are not charged for rent, although they are required to maintain their kiosks and to not sell them. They are only asked to pay for maintenance, electricity, and water costs.[41]

Flood control

In 2013, Jokowi initiated dredging and reservoir normalization projects in order to reduce flood problems. Three of the most notable projects were the normalization of Pluit Reservoir, Ria Rio Reservoir, and Pesanggrahan River. These projects involved the relocation of settlements around the reservoirs, in which Jokowi used the "lunch diplomacy" tactic to obtain agreement from the local populace.[42] After the inhabitants of these settlements were moved to a new location, the dredging commenced, and the project was praised by the Prime Minister of the Netherlands Mark Rutte as successful.[43] These projects helped to reduce the extent of flood in 2014.[44]

Presidential candidacy

Joko Widodo taking the presidential oath of office during his inauguration on 20 October 2014

Megawati Sukarnoputri had chosen Jokowi to be the presidential candidate of her party.

After hearing the Quick Count results of many different polls, Jokowi declared victory on 9 July. However, his rival Prabowo Subianto also declared victory, leaving Indonesian citizens confused.[45] On 22 July, hours before the announcement of the election results, Prabowo withdrew.[46] A victory for Jokowi was expected[47] and realized hours later.[46] The Commission gave Joko Widodo a close victory of 53.15 percent of the vote (representing 70,997,859 voters), to Prabowo's 46.85 percent (62,576,444 votes),[48] though Prabowo's camp disputed these totals.[49]

After his victory, Jokowi stated that, growing up under the authoritarian and corrupt New Order, he would have never expected someone with a lower-class background to become president. The New York Times reported him as saying "now, it's quite similar to America, yeah? There is the American dream, and here we have the Indonesian dream".[50] Jokowi was the first Indonesian president to not be from the military or the political elite, and the political commentator Salim Said gave the popular view of the politician as "someone who is our neighbor, who decided to get into politics and run for president".[50]

President of Indonesia

Economic performance

In the first quarter of 2015, year-on-year GDP grew 4.92 percent.[51] In the second quarter it grew 4.6%, the lowest figure since 2009.[52] Anything less than 6 per cent and Indonesia cannot absorb the new entrants to its labour market each year.[53]

The rupiah weakened further, with its exchanges rate per US dollar, falling to Rp 14,000 in August 2015, the lowest level in the last 17 years.[54] on 24 September 2015 it closed at 14797[55]

The year-on-year inflation in June 2015 was 7.26 percent, higher than in May (7.15 percent) and June last year (6.7 percent).[56]

Fuel subsidies reduction policy

Prior to taking office Jokowi sought for outgoing President Yudhoyono to take responsibility for the decision to further increase fuel prices[57] by further removing subsidies.[58] Previous action by former President Yudhoyono to reduce subsidies had resulted in civil unrest.[57] On 1 January 2015, Jokowi took measures which on the surface appeared to reduce fuel subsidies which have been applauded by the International Monetary Fund.[59] The government implemented a fixed diesel subsidy of 1,000 rupiah ($0.08) a liter, while the subsidy for gasoline were reduced or scrapped.[60] The policy has stirred some demonstrations in several places in Indonesia, Jokowi citing it as necessary to increase funding in infrastructure, education and health sectors.[61] However Jokowi has failed to execute or obtain execution of his promised infrastructure projects.[62]

"Some say that I would be unpopular if I remove the fuel subsidies. I said I did not seek popularity". He said [63]

However, since March 2015, the government has set the price of Premium-branded gasoline far below the market price causing the fuel subsidy to be given by losses now incurred by State-owned oil company Pertamina instead of the direct government account.[64]

Maritime-axis doctrine

Joko Widodo aspires Indonesia to become a global maritime power, (Indonesian: poros maritim dunia or global maritime axis). Jokowi sees that the sea would have an increasingly important role in Indonesia'€™s future, and that as a maritime country Indonesia must assert itself as a force between the two oceans: the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Five pillars of Jokowi'€™s maritime-axis doctrine:[65]

  1. Rebuild Indonesia'€™s maritime culture. As a country consisting of 17,000 islands, Indonesia should be aware of and see the oceans as part of the nation's identity, its prosperity and its future are determined by how we manage the oceans.
  2. Maintain and manage marine resources, with a focus on building marine food sovereignty through the development of the fishing industry.
  3. Provide priority to the development of maritime infrastructure and connectivity by constructing sea highways along the shore of Java, establish deep seaports and logistical networks as well as developing the shipping industry and maritime tourism.
  4. Through maritime diplomacy, Indonesia invites other nations to cooperate in the marine field and eliminate the source of conflicts at sea, such as illegal fishing, violations of sovereignty, territorial disputes, piracy and marine pollution.
  5. Indonesia has an obligation to develop its maritime defense forces. This is necessary not only to maintain maritime sovereignty and wealth, but also as a form of our responsibility to maintain the safety of shipping and maritime security.


Joko Widodo's administration has vowed to develop and upgrade Indonesia's infrastructure. This efforts mainly focused on road and railway expansion, seaports and airports development, and also irrigation projects. In 2016, state budget allocation for the infrastructure sector increased to Rp 290 trillion (US$22 billion), this is the biggest infrastructure allocation in Indonesia's state budget history.[66]

There has been confusion and a start-stop approach on establishing a high-speed train between Jakarta and Bandung using either Japanese or Chinese sponsorship. Although finally, Indonesia on late September 2015 awards this multibillion-dollar railway project to China,[67][68] much to Japan's disappointment.[69]

Foreign policy

Prior to Jokowi's election, Indonesia's foreign policy under former President Yudhoyono was moulded by the mission statement, "A thousand friends and zero enemies".[70]

Jokowi has mandated a three pronged policy of maintaining Indonesia’s sovereignty, enhancing the protection of Indonesian citizens, and intensifying economic diplomacy.[71]

According to Jokowi, Jakarta can no longer tolerate a situation where over 5,000 ships operate illegally in its waters every day, making a mockery out of Indonesian sovereignty and resulting in annual losses of over $20 billion.[72]

"Every day, there are approximately 5,400 foreign fishing ships in our sea," he said. "As many as 90% of them operating illegally."[73]

However, Jokowi has so far been unwilling or unable to take a firm line against vessels from China, and declined to become involved in disputation in the South China Sea.

Jokowi also promotes attempts to release Indonesian drug traffickers from death rows abroad.[74]

In March 2016 Jokowi released a statement calling for the Muslim leaders at the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation summit meeting in Jakarta to unite in reconciliation and pushing for Palestinian independence.[75] Under Jokowi Indonesia's foreign Minister has visited Palestine, but refused entreaties to establish bilateral diplomatic relations with Israel.[76]

Policies on drugs crimes and capital punishment

Indonesian president Joko Widodo

Indonesian laws prescribe the death penalty for some narcotics trafficking and corruption offences.[77][78] After coming into office, Jokowi stated he refused to grant any clemency for drug offenders facing execution in Indonesia.[79] Judicial executions in Indonesia are carried out pursuant to a Presidential Decree following a death sentence imposed by a trial court.[80] An international and legal controversy arose after the president did not have or read the documents related to the clemency applications when he refused the clemency requests of two foreign nationals.[81] Jokowi argued that Indonesia is currently in a state of emergency over drug-related crimes because "the number of (illegal drug users) who need rehabilitation is nearly 4.5 million people," adding that 1.2 million drug users could not be rehabilitated and nearly 50 of them died each day.[79] Jakarta major daily newspaper reported that the statistics were faulty.[82]

In January 2015, Jokowi outraged the Brazilian government by executing one of its citizens, Marco Archer Moreira.[83][84] Offense was particularly caused by denying the condemned of the Catholic faith his last rites.[85] A Dutch citizen was also executed. Both inmates are convicted for drug smuggling crimes and condemned to death sentence by Indonesian court. As a protest, Brazil and the Netherlands immediately withdrew their ambassadors.[86]

During March 2015, Australia proposed that issues around the proposed execution of its citizens Myuran Sukumaran and Andrew Chan, who in 2007 had been denied the right for judicial review to Indonesia's Constitutional Court because they were not Indonesian citizens,[87] be put before the International Court of Justice.[88] On 29 April 2015, Indonesia executed Sukumaran and Chan. In protest, Australia immediately withdrew its ambassador.[89] On 13 May 2015, Australia reduced its foreign aid to Indonesia from $605.3 million to $366.4 million.[90] Former Indonesian constitutional court chief justice Jimly Asshiddiqie, who was a key player in the anti-death penalty lobby in Jakarta in the lead-up to the executions on 29 April, said the push for Chan and Sukumaran to die had come from Indonesian President Joko Widodo personally.[91]

On the other hand, Jokowi granted a Philippine citizen, Mary Jane Veloso, who had been sentenced to death by an Indonesian court, a last minute reprieve. Following an ASEAN meeting with Philippine President Benigno Aquino III, who delivered the clemency request himself in person,[92] she was spared after someone suspected of recruiting her and tricking her into carrying drugs to Indonesia turned themselves in to authorities in the Philippines.[93][94] Jokowi, however, also added that Veloso's last minute reprieve is only temporary.[95]

The French ambassador delivered a strong message to Jokowi with respect to his proposed execution of one of its citizens that "If the execution is carried out, it will not be without consequence for our bilateral relationship". Ambassador Corinne Breuze told reporters in Jakarta, adding that France, which abolished the death penalty in 1981, was opposed to capital punishment in every circumstance.[96] On 25 April 2015, Atlaoui was removed from the execution batch due to a pending legal appeal.[94][97]

Jokowi's staunch position on death penalty in Indonesia has drawn international scrutiny, not only as it could harm Indonesia's foreign relations with the native countries of the doomed convicts, such as Brazil, the Netherlands and Australia.,[98] but also because it imperils Indonesia's own citizens facing the death penalty outside Indonesia.[99] Amnesty International condemned the executions saying they showed a "complete disregard for due process and human rights safeguards."[100] For its own citizens facing execution for drug offences outside Indonesia, however, Jokowi tries to defend them.[101]

Around 130 people remain on death row in Indonesia.[102]

Relations with his political party

He quickly came under fire from his own political party for other policy weakness and one lawmaker said he should be impeached.[103]

On 9 April 2015 during PDI-P congress, his party's chair, former President Megawati Sukarnoputri, alluded to him as a functionary. Megawati noted the mechanism of presidential election is that a presidential candidate should be nominated by a political party, as a hint that Jokowi presidential position was owed to his PDI-P nomination. Thus implying that it is natural for the president to carry out the Party's political policy line.[104] "As the 'extended hands' of the party, you are its functionaries. If you do not want to be called party functionaries, just get out!"[105]

Awards and honours

National honours
Foreign honours

2008: Listed by Tempo as one of the 'Top 10 Indonesian Mayors of 2008'.

2012: 3rd place at the 2012 World Mayor Prize for "transforming a crime-ridden city into a regional center for art and culture and an attractive city to tourists".

2013: Listed as one of "The Leading Global Thinkers of 2013" in Foreign Policy magazine. In February 2013 he was nominated as the global mayor of the month by the City Mayors Foundation, based in London.[109]

2014: Listed by Fortune as one of the 'The World's 50 Greatest Leaders'[110]

Personal life

According to The Economist, Jokowi "has a penchant for loud rock music" and owned a bass guitar signed by Robert Trujillo of heavy metal band Metallica, that was confiscated by the anti-corruption commission, KPK.[111] He is a fan of Metallica, Lamb of God, Led Zeppelin and Napalm Death, a grindcore band that is known for their utilitarian, liberal political views. Napalm Death also congratulated the president on their Facebook fan page recently;[112] however, after the Bali Nine and the Lindsay Sandiford case, he came under fire from the band, as well as many others within the metal scene including Tony Iommi, after their appeals for clemency were ignored.[113]

On 2 November 2013, while he was the Governor of Jakarta, he was seen in the rock festival Rock in Solo, at Surakarta, in casual dress. It was the second time he was seen in this rock festival, with the first being in 2011's Rock in Solo.[114]


Jokowi is the eldest son of Noto Mihardjo and Sudjiatmi Notomihardjo. He has three younger sisters, named Iit Sriyantini, Ida Yati and Titik Relawati.[115]

He and his wife, Iriana, have three children. Gibran Rakabuming Raka (male, born 1 October 1988) is running a catering and wedding-planning business in Surakarta; he studied abroad in Sydney and Singapore (at the Management Development Institute of Singapore, MDIS). On 11 June 2015 in Surakarta city, Gibran married Selvi Ananda, a former Miss Surakarta. The wedding was attended by several politicians, including Prabowo Subianto.[116] Kahiyang Ayu (female) was born in 1991; she has recently completed an undergraduate degree in food technology at the state-run Sebelas Maret University in Surakarta. Kaesang Pangarep (male) was born on 25 December 1994 and like his elder brother completed his high school years in ACS International, Singapore.[117]

When Kaesang was graduating from ACS International, Widodo had booked on a commercial Garuda Indonesia flight in an economy class back row seat to Singapore instead of using the presidential jet to travel there to observe his son's ceremony. This has attracted both the Indonesian and Singaporean media as he was demonstrating humbleness towards the Indonesian society. Jokowi vowed to not take the presidential jet for private issues.

Film adaptation

In June 2013, a film depicting Jokowi's childhood and youth was released.[118] Jokowi expressed some objections to the film saying that he felt his life had been a simple one and was not worthy of being presented as a film.[119]


  1. Kamus Pepak Basa Jawa,Sudaryanto/Pranowo, 2001, #1359
  2. Cochrane, Joe (22 July 2014). "A Child of the Slum Rises as President of Indonesia". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Naik Kopaja, Jokowi – Ahok Daftar Jadi Cagub DKI" (in Indonesian). Tempo. 19 March 2012. Missing or empty |url= (help)CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Editorial: Jokowi's real battle', The Jakarta Post, 22 September 2012.
  5. Sudirman Nasir, 'The thirst for positive 'deviant' leaders', The Jakarta Post, 18 July 2012.
  6. 'Governor of Jakarta Receives His Party’s Nod for President', The New York Times, 14 March 2014.
  7. "Jakarta governor Widodo wins Indonesian presidential election". Indonesia News.Net. Retrieved 23 July 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. Wawancara Jokowi di Satu Indonesia (menit ke 18) diakses dari situs archive video
  9. Dihadapan Pimpinan Muhammadiyah, Jokowi Bantah Anti Islam diakses dari situs Metro TV News pada tanggal 26 May 2014.
  10. Anggi Kusumadewi; Fajar Sodiq (21 September 2012). "Meski Bukan dari Sekolah Elit, Jokowi Bisa Sukses". Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Jokowi Anak Tergusur Mau Jadi Gubernur". 11 April 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. Segu, Vinsensiu (16 July 2012). "Dari Bantaran Kali Menuju DKI-1". Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Jokowi Kecil, Rumah Digusur, Tiga Kali Pindah Kontrakan". Tribunnews. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Sunaryo, Arie (10 August 2013). "Sejak SMP, Jokowi sudah dikenal pendiam tapi pintar". Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  15. "Gagal Masuk SMA Favorit, Jokowi Sakit Tipus dan Pendiam". Tribunnews. 23 September 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 Cahyadi Indrananto (June 2012) Pemimpin Daerah Sebagai Agen: Dramaturgi dalam Komunikasi Politik Walikota Solo Joko Widodo / Local Leaders as Agents: Dramaturgy on Political Communications of City Mayor Joko Widodo of Solo, Postgraduate Thesis.
  17. Joko Wididi Raih Penghargaan Best City Award Asia Tenggara – Best City Award Delgosea Joko Wididi penataan PKL walikota solo
  18. Sita W. Dewi and Kusumasari Ayuningtyas, 'Poor stagnate while city thrives', The Jakarta Post, 18 November 2013.
  19. Kusumasari Ayuningtyas, 'Surakarta mayor uses car made by vocational school students', The Jakarta Post, 3 January 2012.
  20. Kusumasari Ayuningtyas, 'Residents of Surakarta accompany mayor to pay PLN', The Jakarta Post, 4 January 2012.
  21. See the several reports by Sita W. Dewi and Kusumasari Ayuningtyas: 'Jokowi's star appeal: Making hay while sun shines', The Jakarta Post, 18 November 2013; 'The inner circle', The Jakarta Post, 19 November 2013; Sita W. Dewi, 'Man of the house, man of the moment', The Jakarta Post, 20 November 2013.
  22. Editorial: Start working, Jokowi', 22 January 2013, The Jakarta Post.
  23. "Leading and shaping a unified, high performing APS". Australian Public Service Commission. Retrieved 24 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  24. Dewi Sendhikasari D. Lelang Jabatan Camat dan Lurah di DKI Jakarta. diakses dari situs Berkas DPR pada tanggal 23 October 2013
  25. 'For all citizens or only the poor?', The Jakarta Post, 22 December 2013.
  26. Tom McCawley (November 2013) "Overdue Antidote", Development Asia, Asian Development Bank.
  27. '"Jokowi-care" a pilot project for upcoming national health plan', The Jakarta Post, 22 December 2013.
  28. 'A report card for Jakarta's healthcare program', The Jakarta Post, 22 December 2013.
  29. Kartu Jakarta Pintar Diluncurkan. Antara. 15 March 2014
  30. "Proyek Pembangunan MRT Jakarta Resmi Dimulai". VOA Indonesia. 10 October 2013. Retrieved 15 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  31. Syailendra (16 October 2013). "Jokowi Resmikan Monorel Jalur Hijau". Tempo. Retrieved 15 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  32. Raditya Margi (9 September 2015). "Jokowi kicks off LRT construction". The Jakarta Post. Jakarta. Retrieved 21 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  33. Dipimpin Jokowi, Pendapatan DKI naik Rp 31 Triliun dalam Setahun. 17 March 2014
  34. Pernyataan PAD 72 Triliun diralat sebagai APBD, bukan PAD oleh Kepala Dinas Pelayanan Pajak DKI Jakarta Iwan Setiawandi
  35. 35.0 35.1 "Menlu Inggris dukung transparansi Jokowi". BBC. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  36. Jordan, Ray (14 March 2013). "Transparansi Jokowi, Ini Dia Poster APBD 2013". Detik. Retrieved 15 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  37. Juwari, Ahmad (14 November 2012). "Ini Alasan Jokowi Setuju Rapat Pemprov DKI Ditampilkan di Youtube". Detik. Retrieved 15 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  38. Jokowi Siapkan Hadiah Mobil Bagi Pembeli di Blok G. Antara.19 March 2014
  39. Jokowi Tahun Ini Renovasi Empat Pasar Tradisional. merdeka. 19 March 2014
  40. Bosan Lihat Jokowi Mana Ahok Nih?. Kompas. 19 March 2014
  41. Jokowi Resmikan Lima Pasar Tradisional. Republika. 19 March 2014
  42. Diplomasi Makan Siang Jokowi dan Warga Waduk Pluit Berlanjut Pekan Depan. Detik. 22 March 2014
  43. Perdana Menteri Belanda Nilai Jokowi Pemimpin Hebat. merdeka. 15 March 2014
  44. BPBD: Berkat Kerja Jokowi Banjir 2014 Tak Separah 2013. Liputan6. 15 March 2014
  45. Jokowi and Prabowo both claim victory in early Indonesian election results . The Guardian. 10 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014
  46. 46.0 46.1 Yolanda Ryan Armindya (22 July 2014). "KPU Postpones Election Results Announcement". Tempo. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  47. Novrida Manurung, Rieka Rahadiana and Yoga Rusmana (22 July 2014). "Widodo Heads for Indonesia Win as Prabowo Withdraws From Count". Bloomberg. Retrieved 22 July 2014.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  48. "Indonesia elections: Jakarta governor 'Jokowi' wins but rival rejects final results". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  49. "Prabowo camp says PKS tally more accurate than KPU's". The Jakarta Post. 22 June 2014. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  50. 50.0 50.1 Joe Cochrane (22 July 2014). "Joko Widodo, Populist Governor, Is Named Winner in Indonesian Presidential Vote". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  51. Brummitt, Chris (4 May 2015). "Wakeup Call for President Widodo". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  52. "Indonesian economic growth continues decline as Q2 figures show drop to 2009 levels". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  53. Sheridan, Greg (25 June 2015). "Indonesia's Jokowi presidency is becoming a desperate mess". The Australian. Newscorp. Retrieved 25 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  54. "Rupiah slides past 14000 per dollar". The Jakarta Post. 25 August 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  55. "USD IDR Cross Rates". Retrieved 10 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  56. Samosir, Agnes (21 July 2015). "News Summary". ANU Indonesia Project. Retrieved 25 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. 57.0 57.1 "Indonesia fuel prices rocket by 44% sparking protests". BBC. BBC. 22 June 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  58. Irviani, Koman (28 August 2014). "Jokowi fails to persuade Yudhoyono on fuel subsidy". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Indonesia—Moving in a New Direction". IMF Survey. 19 March 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Fitri Wulandari; Eko Listiyorini; Sharon Chen (31 December 2014). "Widodo Makes Biggest Change to Indonesia Fuel Subsidies: Economy". Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  61. Dion Bisara; Muhamad Al Azhari (31 December 2014). "Jokowi Eyes Infrastructure Focus With Fuel Subsidy Cut". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 18 November 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  62. "Indonesian infrastructure promises derailed". CNBC. Reuters. 18 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  63. "Jokowi tegaskan akan naikan harga BBM". Republika.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  64. "Jokowi worries 'big forces' hampering govt projects, policies". Jakarta Post. 3 August 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  65. Rendi A. Witular (13 November 2014). "Jokowi launches maritime doctrine to the world". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 14 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  66. Ayomi Amindoni (23 March 2016). "Jokowi policy attracts infrastructure-based mutual funds". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 18 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  67. "Indonesia to award fast train contract to China - Japanese embassy official". Reuters. 29 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  68. "Indonesia awards multi-billion-dollar railway project to China over Japan". ABC. 30 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  69. Robin Harding in Tokyo; Avantika Chilkoti in Jakarta; Tom Mitchell in Beijing (1 October 2015). "Japan cries foul after Indonesia awards rail contract to China". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  70. "Indonesia's New Foreign Policy - 'Thousand friends- zero enemy'". Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Retrieved 25 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  71. "The Trouble With Indonesia's Foreign Policy Priorities Under Jokowi". The Diplomat. Retrieved 25 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  72. Prashanth Parameswaran (13 January 2015). "Explaining Indonesia's 'Sink The Vessels' Policy Under Jokowi". The Diplomat. Retrieved 18 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  73. "Terapi kejut Jokowi bagi pencuri ikan asing".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  74. Sara Gill (5 March 2015). "Capital punishment — Jokowi's twin policy positions". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  75. Liza Yosephine (7 March 2016). "Jokowi calls for unity for reconciliation in Palestine". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 7 March 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  76. "Indonesia rejects Israel's latest call for bilateral relations". 31 March 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  77. "Support grows for death penalty for corruption convicts". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  78. "Why You Shouldn't Smuggle Drugs In Indonesia". TestTube News. 13 March 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  79. 79.0 79.1 Ina Parlina; Margareth S. Aritonang; Severianus Endi (21 January 2015). "Jokowi refuses to budge on clemency issue". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 6 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. "Penetapan Presiden Nomor 2 Tahun 1964". Pidana. 17 April 1964. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  81. Bachelard, Michael (19 February 2015). "Bali nine executions: Indonesia's President did not have all the documents when he refused clemency". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  82. Claudia, Stoicescu (6 February 2015). "Indonesia's Executions of Drug Convicts Based on Faulty Stats". Jakarta Globe.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  83. Chris Nusatya in Jakarta, Toby Sterling in Amsterdam, and Silvio Cascione in Brasilia; Writing by Randy Fabi; Editing by Paul Tait (17 January 2015). "Brazil, Netherlands recall Indonesia ambassadors after executions". Reuters. Retrieved 19 February 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  85. Topsfield, Jewel; Allard, Tom (22 February 2015). "'Nobody consoled Marco': Last rites denied for prisoner executed before Bali nine duo". Sydney Morning Herald.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  86. Arshad, Arlina (19 January 2015). "Brazil and the Netherlands recall ambassadors after Indonesian executions". Sydney Morning Herald.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  87. "DECISION Number 2-3/PUU-V/2007" (PDF). Mahkamah Konstitusi.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  88. Bachelard, Michael (2 May 2015). "Chan and Sukumaran execution 'illegal', but Indonesia ignores Australia again". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  89. "Bali Nine executions, Indonesia responds to Australia withdrawing Ambassador".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  90. "Federal budget 2015: Foreign aid to Indonesia cut by nearly half, Africa aid down 70 per cent". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. 13 May 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  91. Bachelard, Michael (12 August 2015). "Schapelle Corby made it harder to save Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran". Fairfax Media. Retrieved 12 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  92. "Jokowi to Respond to Mary Jane's Clemency Appeal". Tempo. 27 April 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  93. "Mother of Filipina spared from Indonesia firing squad hails 'miracle' reprieve". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  94. 94.0 94.1 Cochrane, Joe (28 April 2015). "Indonesia Executes 8, Including 7 Foreigners". New York Times. Retrieved 24 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  95. "Veloso's execution not annulled, says Jokowi". The Jakarta Post. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 5 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  96. "France wants halt to execution of its citizen". Jakarta Post. 18 April 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  97. "Indonesia notifies convicts of execution, Frenchman granted temporary reprieve". 25 April 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  98. Peter Alford; Brendan Nicholson (5 March 2015). "Diplomacy doomed to fail Andrew Chan and Myuran Sukumaran". The Australian. Retrieved 23 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  99. "Indonesia's Death Penalty Hypcoracy". 3 March 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  100. "Indonesia executes drug smugglers by firing squad". Al Jazeera. Al Jazeera. 29 April 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  101. Sarah Gill (5 March 2015). "Capital punishment — Jokowi's twin policy positions". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 August 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  102. "Death Penalty Worldwide". Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 24 July 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  103. Aritonang, Margareth (28 January 2015). "PDI-P lawmaker slams Jokowi's policies". Jakarta Post.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  104. Ging Ginanjar (9 April 2015). "Megawati tegaskan posisi PDIP atas Pemerintah Jokowi". BBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 6 July 2015.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  105. "Indonesian President Widodo under corrupt thumb of Megawati".<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  106. "HM confers state decoration on Indonesian President". 8 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  107. "Jokowi Receives King Abdul Azis Medal". 12 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  108. "President Jokowi Receives Highest Medal of Honour from Timor Leste". 26 January 2016. Retrieved 26 January 2016.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  109. Brian Baker (1 February 2013) Mayor of the Month for February 2013 – Joko Widodo (Jokowi) Governor of Jakarta.
  110. "Fortune ranks the World’s 50 Greatest Leaders". Fortune. 20 March 2014
  111. 'Banyan: Mr Joko goes to Jakarta', The Economist, 8 June 2013.
  112. "Heavy metal-loving governor tipped for Indonesian presidency".
  113. Napalm Death's Barney Greenway urges metal fan President Widodo to show mercy to British death row grandmother Lindsay Sandiford The Independent
  114. Jokowi Nonton Konser Rock hingga ke Solo. 3 November 2013
  115. Anggriawan, Fiddy (20 September 2012). "Jokowi Kenalkan Adik dan Ibu Kandungnya ke Publik". Retrieved 29 March 2014.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  116. "Ditemani Ical, Prabowo Hadiri Resepsi Pernikahan Gibran-Selvi". Retrieved 15 December 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  117. Hashim Widhiarto and Sita W. Dewi, 'First Family stays cool, won't parade wealth', The Jakarta Post, 20 October 2014.
  118. ngapocak (20 June 2013). "Jokowi (2013)". IMDb.
  119. 'Tak Ada Izin, Jokowi Keberatan Film "Jokowi" ', Kompas, 22 May 2013.

Further reading

1. Majeed, Rushda (2012). "The City With a Short Fuse." Foreign Policy. September.
2. Majeed, Rushda (2012). "Defusing a Volatile City, Igniting Reforms: Joko Widodo and Surakarta, Indonesia, 2005–2011." Innovations for Successful Societies. Princeton University. Published July.
3. McCawley, Peter (2014). Joko Widodo's Indonesia: Possible future paths, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Canberra.

Political offices
Preceded by
Slamet Suryanto
Mayor of Surakarta
Succeeded by
F. X. Hadi Rudyatmo
Preceded by
Fauzi Bowo
Governor of Jakarta
Succeeded by
Basuki Tjahaja Purnama
Preceded by
Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
President of Indonesia