June 1963

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June 26, 1963: U.S. President Kennedy tells the world "Ich bin ein Berliner"

The following events occurred in June 1963:

June 1, 1963 (Saturday)

  • Willie Pastrano, a 6 to 1 underdog challenger, won the world light heavyweight boxing championship, defeating titleholder Harold Johnson. Although most sportswriters thought that Johnson had won the 15 round bout in Las Vegas, Pastrano was declared the winner by the judges in a 2 to 1 decision. "I'm not saying that the underworld dictated the decision," Johnson's manager told reporters afterward, "but the betting was 5-1 and 6-1 for my boy? What do you think?" [1]
  • In Vietnam, President Ngô Đình Diệm's office announced the dismissal of the three major officials involved in the Huế incident— the province chief and his deputy, and the government delegate for the Central Region of Vietnam— for failing to maintain order.
  • Jomo Kenyatta was sworn in as the first Prime Minister of Kenya. p59
  • Died: Alfred V. Kidder, 77, American archaeologist

June 2, 1963 (Sunday)

  • Fred Lorenzen won the World 600 NASCAR race despite his car running out of gas on the final lap. Junior Johnson had been leading the race until suffering a blown tire with three laps left. Lorenzen's win brought his earnings to "just under $80,000 making him the biggest money winner in stock car racing history" even though the racing season was only half over.[2]
  • The Lord Gladstone, A British cargo ship, ran aground at Novorossiysk, Soviet Union, but was refloated with the aid of Soviet ships.[3]
  • Died: Skinnay Ennis (Edgar Ennis, Jr.), 55, American bandleader

June 3, 1963 (Monday)

  • Pope John XXIII died at the age of 81, leaving the papacy sede vacante. As Cardinal Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, he had been the Patriarch of Venice when he was elected on October 28, 1958, to succeed Pope Pius XII as head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Pope's death from stomach cancer, complicated by peritonitis, took place at 7:49 pm in Rome.[4]
  • Northwest Airlines Flight 293, a Douglas DC-7C, crashed in the Pacific Ocean west-southwest of Annette Island, Alaska, off the coast of British Columbia, Canada, killing all 101 people on board. Chartered to carry U.S. military personnel and their families from McChord Air Force Base in Washington, to Elmendorf Air Force Base in Alaska, the plane disappeared shortly after being cleared to climb to an altitude of 18,000 feet.[5] Forty-seven years ago, the cause of the accident remained unknown and the wreckage of the airplane remained "under more than 8,000 feet of water in the Gulf of Alaska".[6]
  • Hue chemical attacks: The Army of the Republic of Vietnam poured chemicals on the heads of Buddhist protestors. The United States threatened to cut off aid to Ngo Dinh Diem's regime.
  • Died: Nazim Hikmet, 61, Turkish poet, of a heart attack while picking up a morning newspaper at the door at his summer house in Peredelkino, USSR.[7]

June 4, 1963 (Tuesday)

  • The Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, religious leader of Iran's Shi'ite Muslim community, was arrested in the city of Qom after speaking out against the emancipation of women in the regime of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[8] Khomeini would be imprisoned for eight months, and released in April 1964. Six months later, he would be arrested again and sent into exile in Turkey, then move the following year to Najaf, in Iraq. In 1979, Khomeini would lead the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran.[9][10]
  • President John F. Kennedy signed Executive Order 11110, delegating authority to the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury to issue silver certificates under the Thomas Amendment to the Agricultural Adjustment Act.
  • Robert Wesley Patch, a six-year-old boy from Chevy Chase, Maryland, was awarded United States Patent No. 3,091,888 for a toy truck that could be "readily assembled and disassembled by a child".[11]
  • Australian diver Max Cramer became the first person to dive to the wreckage of the ship Batavia, exactly 334 years after the Dutch vessel had sunk on June 4, 1629.[12]

June 5, 1963 (Wednesday)

June 6, 1963 (Thursday)

  • Chairman Mao Zedong of the People's Republic of China Communist Party sent a letter to Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, stating that "The Chinese people will never accept the privileged position of one or two superpowers" with a monopoly on nuclear weapons, and then gave the go ahead for China to accelerate its own nuclear program. China would explode its first atomic bomb on October 16, 1964.[18]
  • A spokesman for General Dynamics Corporation told scientists in Denver that a manned space mission to the planet Mars could be launched in 1975. Andrew Kalitinsky was a speaker at a two-day symposium by the American Astronautical Society, called "The Exploration of Mars", and envisioned that "a convoy of four multi-ton spaceships" would make the journey. The day before, NASA announced plans to send two satellites to Mars in November 1964 as the first step toward a mission.[19]
  • Born: Jason Isaacs, English actor, in Liverpool

June 7, 1963 (Friday)

June 8, 1963 (Saturday)

June 9, 1963 (Sunday)

June 10, 1963 (Monday)

June 11, 1963 (Tuesday)

Governor Wallace confronts Deputy U.S. Attorney General Katzenbach
  • Alabama Governor George C. Wallace stood in the door of the University of Alabama to protest against integration, and blocked James Hood and Vivian Malone from enrolling as the first African American students at the University. U.S. Defense Secretary Robert McNamara ordered that the Alabama National Guard be placed under the command of the federal government, and directed the 31st Infantry Division of the Guard to proceed to Tuscaloosa. Assistant U.S. Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach approached Wallace and cited the U.S. District Court order of June 5, requiring that the students be allowed to register, and Wallace replied, "We don't need a speech here," and then read aloud a statement that he did "hereby proclaim and demand and forbid this illegal and unwarranted action by the central government." [28] Governor Wallace stepped aside at 3:40 that afternoon, after the Alabama National Guard commander, Brigadier General Henry Graham, told Wallace that the Guard would enforce the President's order[29] and Wallace, who elected not to be arrested for contempt of federal court, stepped aside.[30]
  • South Vietnamese Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức, 65, committed suicide by self-immolation, burning himself to death at a major intersection in Saigon to protest the oppression of Buddhists by the government of President Ngo Dinh Diem.[31] Associated Press photographer Malcolm Browne was the only journalist "to heed Buddhist advance notices", and his photographs brought worldwide attention the next day[32] as well as winning him a Pulitzer Prize; "Many point to the self-immolation," one historian would later note, "as the single event that turned the U.S. government against Ngo Dinh Diem, though a series of events and personality clashes made the situation inevitable." [33]
  • The first lung transplant on a human being was performed at the University of Mississippi, by Dr. James Hardy.[34] The patient, identified twelve days later as John Richard Russell, a convicted murderer serving a life sentence for a 1957 killing, was given a full pardon Mississippi Governor Ross Barnett, in recognition of Russell's volunteering for the operation, which Barnett said would "alleviate human misery and suffering in years to come".[35] The donor, never identified, had arrived at the hospital emergency room in the evening after having a massive heart attack, and the family permitted the donation of the left lung for transplant; Russell survived for 18 more days after the surgery.[36]
  • U.S. President John F. Kennedy, delivered a historic Civil Rights Address, in which he promised a Civil Rights Bill, and asked for "the kind of equality of treatment that we would want for ourselves."
  • Died: Syed Abdul Rahim, 53, Indian footballer and first manager of the Indian national team; and Shen Junru, 88, Chinese lawyer and first President of the Supreme People's Court of China

June 12, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • Medgar Evers, a 37-year-old African-American civil rights activist, was shot and killed while standing in his driveway in Jackson, Mississippi.[37][38] Byron De La Beckwith was arrested within two weeks[39] After two trials in 1964 that would both end without the jurors being able to reach a verdict, Beckwith would elude conviction for thirty years before being retried. He would be convicted of the murder on February 5, 1994[40] and spend the rest of his life in prison, dying in 2001.[41] The Evers home, at 2332 Margaret Walker Alexander Drive in Jackson, Mississippi, is not designated as a historic landmark.
  • The long-awaited film Cleopatra, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton, had its worldwide premiere, in New York City.[42]
  • NASA Administrator James E. Webb announced to the U.S. Senate Space Committee that there would be no further spaceflights for Project Mercury, with the next manned missions being with two astronauts each for on the Gemini program.[43]
  • Died: Andrew Browne Cunningham, 80, British Admiral who commanded the Royal Navy's Mediterranean Fleet, and the then the Allied Expeditionary Force, during World War II. Nicknamed "ABC", he became the First Sea Lord in 1943.

June 13, 1963 (Thursday)

  • U.S. Representative Thomas F. Johnson of Maryland, and former U.S. Representative Frank W. Boykin of Alabama, were both convicted of conspiracy to defraud the United States government and accepting bribes. Boykin would later be pardoned, while Johnson, after appealing his conviction all the way to the United States Supreme Court, would serve six months in prison.[44]
  • The Panamanian cargo vessel Carmen collided with the Turkish ship Sadikzade in the Strait of Dover and sinks with the loss of two crewmembers. Sadikzade then collided with a Greek ship, Leandros, which in turn collided with another British ship Clyde Sergeant. These three ships reach port safely.[45]

June 14, 1963 (Friday)

  • Valery Bykovsky was launched into orbit by the Soviet Union on board Vostok 5.[46] Bykovsky would spend almost five days in space, breaking the record recently set by American astronaut Gordon Cooper, and making 82 orbits before returning on June 19, at the same time as Vostok 6 and Valentina Tereshkova.
  • Born: Daniel Podrzycki, Polish politician, in Siemianowice Śląskie (died 2005)
  • Died: Carl Skottsberg, 82, Swedish Antarctic explorer

June 15, 1963 (Saturday)

  • The French retailing chain Carrefour opened the first hypermarket in Europe. With 2,500 square meters of floor space for a grocery store and department store, parking space for 350 cars, and its own gasoline station, the first Carrefour hypermarket was opened at the Paris suburb of Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois, Essonne.[47]
  • Born: Helen Hunt, US actress, in Culver City, California

June 16, 1963 (Sunday)

  • Valentina Tereshkova of the Soviet Union became the first woman in history to travel into outer space, when she was launched as a cosmonaut on Vostok 6.[48] Tereshkova was also the twelfth person to be sent into orbit. A woman would not travel into outer space again for twenty years, with U.S. astronaut Sally Ride being launched on June 18, 1983, as a mission specialist on the space shuttle Challenger. Tereshkova, who would retire from the Soviet Air Force as a colonel, would marry her fellow cosmonaut, Andriyan Nikolayev, and go into politics, becoming a deputy of the Supreme Soviet, and a member of the Soviet Communist Party's Central Committee.[49]
  • David Ben-Gurion, Prime Minister of Israel since it had become independent in 1948, resigned for what he described as "personal reasons". Ben-Gurion also quit his post as Israel's Defense Minister, which he had held since 1955.[50] He would be replaced by Levi Eshkol.[51]

June 17, 1963 (Monday)

June 18, 1963 (Tuesday)

June 19, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • What would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was sent by President Kennedy to the United States Congress, and was introduced the next day in the House Judiciary Committee by U.S. Representative Emanuel Celler. The most comprehensive civil rights legislation in United States history, the legislation would be passed after Kennedy's assassination, with President Lyndon B. Johnson signing it into law on July 2, 1964.[54]
  • On the same day, President Kennedy secretly approved a CIA program of renewed sabotage of the infrastructure of Cuba, though abiding by his pledge to never invade the Communist island nation.[55]
  • The papal conclave began its meeting in the Sistine Chapel at the Vatican, to elect a successor to Pope John XXIII. Voting began the next day.[56]
  • Valentina Tereshkova the first woman in space, returned to Earth, in Vostok 6, as did cosmonaut Valery Bykovsky[57]
  • The Soviet Union's Mars 1 spacecraft came within 193,000 kilometers (120,000 miles) of the planet Mars, the first man-made object to reach the Red Planet, but was unable to return any data to Earth because of a malfunction in its antenna on March 21.[58]

June 20, 1963 (Thursday)

June 21, 1963 (Friday)

  • Giovanni Battista Montini, the Archbishop of Milan was elected as the 262nd pope, succeeding the late Pope John XXIII.[63] Cardinal Montini would take the regnal name Pope Paul VI, the first pontiff with that name since Paul V (who reigned 1606-1621) and would lead the Roman Catholic Church until his death in 1978. Theologian Hans Küng would later write in his memoirs that "Montini got 57 votes, only two more than the two-thirds majority required," on the sixth ballot, with Cardinals Giacomo Lercaro of Bologna, Leo Joseph Suenens of Belgium and Augustin Bea of Germany having been under consideration as well.[64]
  • Leonid Brezhnev, the ceremonial President of the Presidium of the Soviet Union, was appointed to a position in the Secretariat of the Soviet Communist Party, and viewed as "the dominant contender for succession to Premier Khrushchev as party chief and possibly as head of the government".[65] The predictions proved to be correct, as Brezhnev would be named the Communist Party First Secretary upon the removal of Nikita Khrushchev on October 14, 1964.[66]
  • The 13th Berlin International Film Festival opened.

June 22, 1963 (Saturday)

June 23, 1963 (Sunday)

June 24, 1963 (Monday)

June 25, 1963 (Tuesday)

June 26, 1963 (Wednesday)

  • U.S. President John F. Kennedy delivered his famous "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech in front of the Berlin Wall in West Berlin.[75] After climbing a specially built reviewing stand at the Brandenburg Gate so that he could look into East Berlin, Kennedy was driven to the West Berlin city hall, where he addressed a crowd of 150,000 people. Kennedy began his speech by saying that "2,000 years ago, the proudest boast was civis Romanus sum [Latin, "I am a Roman"]. Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is Ich bin ein Berliner [German, "I am a Berliner"]".[76]
  • The Soviet Union's penal system was reformed to provide for "colony-settlements" (kolonii-poselenya) for prisoners who "displayed evidence of their aptitude for reintegration into society".[77]
  • Paul McCartney and John Lennon wrote their hit song She Loves You, while staying at the Turk's Hotel in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Paul would later recall that when he played the recording for his father, the elder McCartney suggested (unsuccessfully) that "yeah, yeah, yeah" should be replaced with "Yes! Yes! Yes!".[78]
  • The Canadian circus ship Fleurus caught fire and sank at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. All people and animals were saved except for some zebras.[79]
  • Born: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Russian oil company owner and the wealthiest man in post-Soviet Russia, imprisoned since 2003 after opposing the government of Russian President Vladimir Putin; in Moscow

June 27, 1963 (Thursday)

  • The state of Minnesota enacted the first law in the United States requiring modifications of buildings to provide accessibility for handicapped persons, with Governor Karl Rolvaag signing the bill.[80]
  • In a visit to Ireland, U.S. President Kennedy visited Dunganstown, which his great-grandfather Patrick Kennedy had left in 1843 to emigrate to the United States. "If he hadn't left," Kennedy joked, "I'd be working at the Albatross Company", a local fertilizer factory. Kennedy was hosted by his third cousin, widow Mary Ann Ryan.[81]
  • Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., who had been the losing Republican candidate for Vice President of the United States in 1960, was nominated by the winner of that election, President Kennedy, to be the new U.S. ambassador to South Vietnam.[82]
  • A baronetcy was created for UK politician Ian Orr-Ewing.

June 28, 1963 (Friday)

  • Two days after U.S. President Kennedy had delivered his "Ich bin ein Berliner" speech on the western side of the Berlin Wall, Soviet Premier Khrushchev gave a speech to workers at an East Berlin toolmaking factory and gave his response. According to reports, the English translation of the German translation of Khrushchev's Russian language speech, "I am told the President of the United States looked at the Wall with great indignation. "Apparently, he didn't like it the least little bit. But I like it very much indeed. The working class of the German Democratic Republic has put up a wall and plugged the hole so that no more wolves can break in. Is that bad? It's good." [83][84]
  • Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma, pretender to the thrones of Parma and Spain, was officially renamed Charles Hugues, by judgment of the court of appeal of la Seine, France.
  • Born: Babatunde Fashola, Nigerian politician, in Lagos State
  • Died: Home Run Baker (John Franklin Baker), 77, U.S. baseball player

June 29, 1963 (Saturday)

June 30, 1963 (Sunday)

  • Ciaculli massacre: A car bomb exploded in Ciaculli, an outlying suburb of Palermo, Sicily, killing five police officers and two military engineers. A bomb that was visible on the backseat of the car had been defused, but when a police officer opened the trunk of the Alfa Romeo, a second bomb exploded. The event was the culmination of the First Mafia War, breaking the unofficial peace pact between the police and the Mafia; over the next month, 10,000 police were sent from the Italian mainland and 250 mafiosi were arrested, suspending the activities of the Cosa Nostra.[88]
  • The Alfred-Brehm-Haus, at the time the largest enclosed zoo building in the world (5,300 m2 or 1.3 acres) was opened at Tierpark Berlin with enclosures for the larger felines (including lions, tigers, leopards, jaguars and pumas), and a large aviary.[89]
  • Jim Clark won the 1963 French Grand Prix at Reims-Gueux.

See also


  1. "Aftermath of a Title Fight: Controversy Follows Pastrano's Victory", Miami News, June 3, 1963, p1C
  2. "Lorenzen 'Coasts' To Victory In '600' Despite Empty Tank", Miami News, June 3, 1963, p3C
  3. "Soviet Seamen Help Free British Ship" The Times (London). Monday, 3 June 1963. (55717), col G, p. 6.
  4. "Pope Dies; World Begins Mourning", Milwaukee Journal, June 3, 1963, p1
  5. "101 Aboard Plane Missing Over Alaska", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, June 4, 1963, p1
  6. "Cause Unknown: What brought down these five airplanes?", by Lester A. Reingold, Air & Space magazine (September 2010)
  7. Nazim Hikmet
  8. "Tehran Ablaze In Wild Riots", Miami News, June 5, 1963, p1
  9. "Tehran Ablaze In Wild Riots", Miami News, June 5, 1963, p1; Bahman Baktiari, Parliamentary Politics in Revolutionary Iran: The Institutionalization of Factional Politics (University Press of Florida, 1996) p45
  10. Reinbard Schulze, A Modern History of the Islamic World (I.B.Tauris, 2002) p178
  11. Jim Murphy, Weird & Wacky Inventions (Skyhorse Publishing, 2011); "Boy, 6, Patents a Toy", Miami News, June 1, 1963, p1
  12. Mike Dash, Batavia's Graveyard: The True Story of the Mad Heretic Who Led History's Bloodiest Mutiny (Random House Digital, 2003) p314
  13. "Scandal: Profumo Resigns", Montreal Gazette, June 6, 1963, p1
  14. "Judge Bars Governor From Doorway Stand", Tuscaloosa (AL) News, June 5, 1963, p1
  15. "Six Players Drafted, Habs Seek Reaume", Montreal Gazette, June 6, 1963, p22
  16. Bedwell, Don, "Extremes: Supersonic Gamble", Aviation History, May 2012, p. 14.
  17. The Warren Commission Report: Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy (Government Printing Office, 1964) p23
  18. John Lewis Gaddis, Cold War Statesmen Confront the Bomb: Nuclear Diplomacy Since 1945 (Oxford University Press, 1999) p211
  19. "We Plan 2 Shots At Mars In '64", Miami News, June 6, 1963, p1
  20. Christopher Sandford, Keith Richards: Satisfaction (Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2004) pp53-54
  21. Goodspeed, Hill, "Where Naval Aviation History is Manifest," Naval History, June 2011, p. 33.
  22. "Griffith Regains Crown", Oakland Tribune, June 9, 1963, p47
  23. "Titan II — Historical Overview", by Dr. Rick W. Sturdevant, in High Frontier: The Journal for Space Missile Professionals (Fall 2004) p14
  24. Stephen Dorril, M16: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (Simon and Schuster, 2002) p688
  25. Daniel M. Masterson, Militarism and Politics in Latin America: Peru from Sánchez Cerro to Sendero Luminoso (Greenwood Publishing Group, 1991) p197
  26. Melvyn P. Leffler, For the Soul of Mankind: The United States, the Soviet Union, and the Cold War (Macmillan, 2007) p182-183
  27. UCF 50 Years 1963-2013
  28. "Wallace Bars Negroes; 'Bama Guard Federalized", Miami News, June 11, 1963, p1
  29. "Governor Wallace Gives Up Struggle; Negroes Enroll At University", Tuscaloosa (AL) , June 11, 1963, p1
  30. Stephan Thernstrom and Abigail Thernstrom, America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible (Simon and Schuster, 1999) p137
  31. Diego Gambetta, Making Sense Of Suicide Missions (Oxford University Press, 2005) p173
  32. William M. Hammond, Public Affairs the Military and the Media, 1962-1968 (Government Printing Office, 1989) p40
  33. "Thích Quảng Đức (1897-1963)", in Historical Dictionary of the War in Vietnam, by Ronald B. Frankum, Jr. (Scarecrow Press, 2011) p448
  34. "Transplanting Of Lung Apparently Successful", Tucson (AZ) Daily Citizen, June 13, 1963, p1
  35. "Barnett To Free Killer Who Had Lung Transplant", Miami News, June 26, 1963, p3A
  36. "Lung Transplantation - Experimental Background and Early Clinical Experience", by J. D. Hardy, in The Transplantation and Replacement of Thoracic Organs: The Present Status of Biological and Mechanical Replacement of the Heart and Lungs, David K. C. Cooper, et al., eds (Springer, 1996) p431
  37. Kris Hollington, Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes: The Assassins Who Changed History (Macmillan, 2008) pp68-72
  38. "Mississippi Negro Leader Slain", Miami News, June 12, 1963, p1
  39. "Deltan Facing Murder Charge", Laurel (MS) Leader-Call, June 24, 1963, p1
  40. "Jury convicts racist of 30-year old murder", Winnipeg Free Press, February 6, 1994, pA-4
  41. "Byron De La Beckwith Dies; Killer of Medgar Evers Was 80", New York Times, January 23, 2001
  42. imdb.com
  43. Hamish Lindsay, Tracking Apollo to the Moon (Springer, 2001)
  44. "Johnson, Thomas Francis (1909-1988)", in Political Corruption in America: An Encyclopedia of Scandals, Power, and Greed, Mark Grossman, ed. (ABC-CLIO, 2003) p195
  45. "SS Carmen [+1963]". Wrecksite. Retrieved 9 August 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  46. "Another Russian Man Hurdles Through Space", Miami News, June 14, 1963, p1
  47. "Auchan's entry into Russia: prospects and research implications", by Graham H. Roberts, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Volume 33, Number 1 (2005) p50
  48. "Russ Orbit 'Space Sister'", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 17, 1963, p1
  49. Hamish Lindsay, Tracking Apollo to the Moon (Springer, 2001) pp86-88
  50. "Ben-Gurion Quits Both Israel Posts", Milwaukee Sentinel, June 17, 1963, p2
  51. Eric H. Arnett, Nuclear Weapons After the Comprehensive Test Ban: Implications for Modernization and Proliferation (Oxford University Press, 1996) p62
  52. Ann Rowe Seaman, America's Most Hated Woman: The Life and Gruesome Death of Madalyn Murray O'Hair (Continuum International, 2005) p68; "High Court Rules Against Bible Reading In Schools", Miami News, June 17, 1963, p1
  53. "ASCII CODE", in Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Jack Belzer, ed. (CRC Press, 1975) p28; "New Processing Machines Can Now Talk To One Another", Miami News, July 25, 1963, p12A
  54. Robert D. Loevy, The Civil Rights Act of 1964: The Passage of the Law That Ended Racial Segregation (SUNY Press, 1997) p354
  55. James W. Douglass, JFK and the Unspeakable: Why He Died and Why It Matters (Simon and Schuster, 2010) p66
  56. "Four Ballots— But No Pope", Miami News, June 20, 1963, p1
  57. "Space Twins Land Safely", Miami News, June 19, 1963, p1
  58. Wesley T. Huntress, Soviet Robots in the Solar System (Springer, 2011) p113
  59. "Hot Line Agreements (1963, 1971, 1984)", in Historical Dictionary Of Arms Control And Disarmament, by Jeffrey A. Larsen and James M. Smith (Scarecrow Press, 2005) p107
  60. David Kahn, The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet (Simon and Schuster, 1996) p715
  61. "Hotline", in Encyclopedia of the American Presidency, Michael A. Genovese, ed. (Infobase Publishing, 2010) p244
  62. "American-Eastern Merger Dead Issue", Miami News, June 21, 1963, p4A
  63. "The New Pope— Paul VI", Miami News, June 21, 1963, p1
  64. Hans Küng, My Struggle for Freedom: A Memoir (Continuum International, 2005) p329
  65. "Brezhnev Given Key Soviet Post", San Antonio Express And News, June 22, 1963, p1
  66. Jonathan Haslam, Russia's Cold War: From the October Revolution to the Fall of the Wall (Yale University Press, 2011) p215
  67. Avner Cohen, Israel and the Bomb (Columbia University Press, 1998) p153
  68. "Piersall Pulls Typical Antic", Kingsport (TN) News, June 24, 1963, p8
  69. "Piersall Helps Clown Himself Off Mets", El Paso Herald Post, July 23, 1963, pB-5
  70. Ron Briley, The Baseball Film in Postwar America: A Critical Study, 1948-1962 (McFarland, 2011) p144
  71. Michael Vinson Williams, Medgar Evers: Mississippi Martyr (University of Arkansas Press, 2011) p292
  72. Albert Abramson, The History of Television, 1942 to 2000 (McFarland, 2003) p99
  73. African States and Rulers, John Stewart, ed. (McFarland, 2006) p240
  74. "Landslide Wipes Out Village In Korea", Miami News, June 25, 1963, p1
  75. "JFK Shouts to Germany 'Ich Bin Ein Berliner'", UPI report in Billings (MT) Gazette, June 27, 1963, p1
  76. Philip A. Goduti, Kennedy's Kitchen Cabinet and the Pursuit of Peace: The Shaping of American Foreign Policy, 1961-1963 (McFarland, 2009) p217
  77. Moshe Lewin, The Soviet Century (Verso Books, 2005) p166
  78. Barry Miles, Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now (Macmillan, Oct 15, 1998) pp149-150
  79. "Fleurus - 1963". Maritime Museum of the Atlantic. Retrieved 9 August 2011.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  80. Kate Roberts, Minnesota 150: The People, Places, and Things That Shape Our State (Minnesota Historical Society, 2007) p32
  81. "Irish Stew For Kennedy", Miami News, June 27, 1963, p1
  82. "GOP's Lodge To Be Nominated For Viet Post", Oakland Tribune, June 28, 1963, p5
  83. "Khrushchev Says, 'I Like Wall'", European Stars And Stripes, June 30, 1963, p1
  84. Andreas W. Daum, Kennedy in Berlin (Cambridge University Press, 2007) p186
  85. "Universities: East Africa", A Historical Companion To Postcolonial Thought In English (Columbia University Press, 2005) Prem Poddar and David Johnson, eds., p489
  86. Larry Flynt and David Eisenbach, Ph.D., One Nation Under Sex: How the Private Lives of Presidents, First Ladies and Their Lovers Changed the Course of American History (Macmillan, 2011) p183-184; Barbara Leaming, Mrs. Kennedy: The Missing History of the Kennedy Years (Simon and Schuster, 2011) pp283-284
  87. Zvi Elpeleg, The Grand Mufti: Haj Amin al-Hussaini, Founder of the Palestinian National Movement (Routledge, 1993) p117
  88. John Follain, The Last Godfathers: Inside the Mafia's Most Infamous Family (Macmillan, 2009) p62
  89. "Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde", in Encyclopedia of the World's Zoos, Volume 3, Catharine E. Bell, ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2001) pp 1222-1223