Karmanasa River

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Karmanasa River
River
Country India
States Uttar Pradesh, Bihar
Source
 - location Sarodag, Kaimur district, Kaimur Range
 - elevation 350 m (1,148 ft)
Mouth Ganges
 - location Chausa
 - coordinates Lua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function "#coordinates" was not found.
Length 192 km (119 mi)

The Karmanasa River (Hindi: कर्मनाशा नदी) is a tributary of the Ganges. It originates in Kaimur district of Bihar and flows through the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Along the boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar it has the districts of Sonbhadra, Chandauli, Varanasi and Ghazipur on its left (UP side); and the districts of Kaimur and Buxar on its right (Bihar side).[1][2][3][4]

Disambiguation

Karmanasa is also the name of a river in the Garhwal Himalayas. [5]

Etymology

The name of the river means "destroyer of religious merit". There are several legends about it.[6]

According to one legend, the sage Vishvamitra through tapasya (penance, meditation and correct practices) acquired the power to create a whole new universe. When he set out to create a new universe it aroused consternation in Indra. However, he continued and after creating a copy of our universe, he started creating people, the first being Trishanku whom he decided to send up to rule his new universe. Indra stopped his progress. That is how Trishanku ended up suspended head down in mid-air. The Karmanasa was born out of the saliva dripping from his mouth.[7]

Course

The Karmanasa originates at a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) on the northern face of Kaimur Range near Sarodag in Kaimur district of Bihar.[1][8] It flows in a north-westerly direction through the plains of Mirzapur, then forms the boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and finally joins the Ganges near Chausa. The length of the river is 192 kilometres (119 mi), out of which 116 kilometres (72 mi) lies in Uttar Pradesh and the rest 76 kilometres (47 mi) forms the boundary between Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Total drainage area of the Karmnasa along with its tributaries is 11,709 square kilometres (4,521 sq mi).[8]

Tributaries

Its tributaries are the Durgavati, the Chandraprabha, the Karunuti, the Nadi and the Khajuri.[8]

Waterfalls

The Karmanasa reaches the plains by a succession of leaps, including two falls known as the Devdari and the Chhanpathar, which, from their height and beauty, are deserving of special notice.[9] Chhanpathar Falls is 100 feet (30 m) high.[10] Devdari Falls, at an edge of the Rohtas Plateau, along the course of the Karmanasa is 58 metres (190 ft) high.[11] However, Chandauli district administration mentions Devdari Fall as being on the Chandraprabha River.[12]

Dams and bridges

There are two dams across the Karmanasa – the Latif Shah bund and the Nuagarh dam. There also is a dam across the Chandraprabha.[13]

The Grand Trunk Road passes over a bridge on the Karmanasa.[14]

Archaeology

UP State Archaeology department after excavations has unearthed iron artifacts dated between 1200 – 1300 BC at Raja Nal Ka Tila site in Karmanasa river valley of north Sonebhadra. It throws new light on the history of iron-making in India.[15]

History

At one time it formed the boundary between the ancient Aryan colonies of the north and the still unsubdued aboriginal tribes of the east.[9]

The Karmanasa was the eastern boundary of Awadh. It also possibly was the western boundary of the Sena dynasty.[16][17]

At the Battle of Chausa, situated on the banks of the Karmanasa, on June 26, 1539, Sher Shah defeated the Mughal emperor Humayun and assumed the royal title of Farīd al-Dīn Shēr Shah.[18][19]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "RASHTRIYA SAM VIKASH YOJANA - Revised District Plan" (PDF). Rivers. District administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 10, 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  2. "Chandauli". Chandauli district administration. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  3. "Recent advances in Indo-Pacific prehistory: proceedings of the international .. By Virendra N. Misra, Peter Bellwood". p. 473. Google books. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. "Ghazipur". Ghazipur district administration. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  5. "Environmental studies for Vishnugad Pipalkoti Hydro Electric Project" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  6. Public Domain Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Karamnasa". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  7. "One - Myself". Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Hydrology and Water Resources of India By Sharad K. Jain, Pushpendra K. Agarwal, Vijay P. Singh". pp. 356-357. Google books. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  9. 9.0 9.1 Hunter, William Wilson. "The Imperial Gazetter of India (Volume 9), page 54 of 64". Mirzapur 45.5. Electronic Library. Retrieved 2010-06-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  10. Kapoor, Subodh. The Indian Encyclopaedia:. Google books. Retrieved 2010-06-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. K.Bharatdwaj. ".Physical Geography: Hydrosphere". p. 154. Google books. Retrieved 2010-05-14.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  12. "Tourism". Chandauli district administration. Retrieved 2010-06-28.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  13. "Naugarh falls short of water for irrigation". Times of India, Varanasi, 3 February 2010. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  14. Sir John Houlton, Bihar, the Heart of India, p. 180, Orient Longmans, 1949
  15. "Technology of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients By David Hatcher Childress". p. 80. Google books. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  16. "History of Delhi sultanate". p. 36. Google books. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  17. Pratiyogita Darpan June 2008. Google books. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  18. "Battle of Chausa". Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  19. "Encyclopaedia Of Bangladesh (Set Of 30 Vols.) By Nagendra Kr. Singh". p. 117. Google books. Retrieved 2010-05-05.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

External links