Khowar (کهووار), also known as Chitrali (چترالي) and Arniya, is an Indo-Aryan language of the Dardic branch.
It is spoken by the Kho people in Chitral in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in the Ghizer district of Gilgit-Baltistan (including the Yasin Valley, Phandar Ishkoman and Gupis), and in parts of Upper Swat. Speakers of Khowar have also migrated heavily to Pakistan's major urban centres with Peshawar, Islamabad, Lahore and Karachi, having sizeable populations. It is spoken as a second language in the rest of Gilgit and Hunza. There are believed to be small numbers of Khowar speakers in Afghanistan, China, Tajikistan and Istanbul.
Khowar is the predominant language of Chitral, and one of the 14 designated regional languages there.
Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically. The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.
Khowar may also have nasalized vowels and a series of long vowels /aː/, /eː/, /iː/, /oː/, and /uː/. Sources are inconsistent on whether length is phonemic, with one author stating "vowel-length is observed mainly as a substitute one. The vowel-length of phonological value is noted far more rarely." Unlike the neighboring and related Kalasha language, Khowar does not have retroflex vowels.
The phonemic status of /tsʰ/ is unclear in the sources
Khowar, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions.
The names of the days of the week, in Khowar, are compared with their equivalents in Shina, Sanskrit, and English.
- Standard Khowar
- Swati Khowar (Swat Kohistan)
- Lotkuhiwar (Lotkuh Valley)
- Gherzikwar (Ghizer Valley)
- Gilgiti Khowar (Gilgit-Baltistan), spoken by a few families in Gilgit city.
Khowar has been written in the Nasta'liq script since the early twentieth century. Prior to that, the language was carried on through oral tradition. Today Urdu and English are the official languages and the only major literary usage of Khowar is in both poetry and prose composition. Khowar has also been written in the Roman script since the 1960s.
These are not dedicated Khowar channels but play most programmes in Khowar.
- ↑ Khowar at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- ↑ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Khowar". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/dardestan-
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Edelman, D. I. (1983). The Dardic and Nuristani Languages. Moscow: Institut vostokovedenii︠a︡ (Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR). p. 210.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Bashir, Elena L. (1988), "Topics in Kalasha Syntax: An areal and typological perspective" (PDF), Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan: 37–40<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Bashir, Elena L., Maula Nigah and Rahmat Karim Baig, A Digital Khowar-English Dictionary with Audio<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- ↑ Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan (PDF), National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Bashir, Elena (2001) "Spatial Representation in Khowar". Proceedings of the 36th Annual Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society.
- Decker, D. Kendall (1992). Languages of Chitral. ISBN 969-8023-15-1.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- L'Homme, Erik (1999) Parlons Khowar. Langue et culture de l'ancien royaume de Chitral au Pakistan. Paris: L'Harmattan
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1936) "Iranian Elements in Khowar". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
- Badshah Munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher. Pakistan
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1947) "Some Features of Khowar Morphology". Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
- Morgenstierne, Georg (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S. K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84–98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267–72]
- Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. ISBN 0-923891-15-3.
- Decker, Kendall D. (1992). Languages of Chitral (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 5). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 257 pp. ISBN 969-8023-15-1.
- "Georg Morgenstierne". National Library of Norway. 2001. Retrieved 11 January 2009.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Strand, Richard F. (2011). "Khow`ar Lexicon". Retrieved 16 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Strand, Richard F. (2012). "The Sound System of Khow`ar". Retrieved 16 January 2012.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
- Chitrali, Rehmat Aziz. (2015). "The Khowar Language Text Editor". Retrieved 15 October 2015.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>