Lemonade

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Pitcher of freshly made lemonade

Lemonade is the name for a number of sweetened beverages found around the world, all characterized by lemon flavoring.

Most lemonade varieties can be separated into two distinct types: cloudy, and clear, each known simply as "lemonade" in countries where dominant.[1] Cloudy lemonade, generally found in North America and India, is a traditionally homemade drink made with lemon juice, water, and sweetened with cane sugar or honey.[2] Found in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand, clear lemonade is a lemon, or lemon-lime flavored, carbonated soft drink.

A popular variation is pink lemonade, made with added fruit flavors such as raspberry or strawberry among others, giving a distinctive pink color.[3] The "ade" suffix may also be applied to other similar drinks made with different fruits, such as limeade, orangeade, or cherryade.[4] Alcoholic varieties are known as hard lemonade.

In many European countries, the French word limonade has come to mean "soft drink," regardless of flavor.

History

The earliest written evidence of lemonade has been found in Egypt, dated to around 1000 AD, It is believed that the fruit was introduced from Asia around 700 AD.[5] Here, a wine made with lemons, dates, and honey was enjoyed by peasants, and bottles of lemon juice with sugar, known as qatarmizat were imported and consumed locally.[6]

In 1676, a company known as Compagnie de Limonadiers was founded in Paris.[7] Having been granted monopoly rights to sell lemonade, vendors roamed the streets serving the drink in cups from tanks on their backs.

The first reference found to a carbonated lemonade was in 1833.[8]

Varieties

American townspeople offering lemonade to the 1919 Transcontinental Motor Convoy

Cloudy lemonade

The predominant form of lemonade found in The US, Canada, and India, cloudy lemonade, also known as "traditional lemonade" in the UK and Australia, is typically non-carbonated and made with fresh lemon juice, however commercially produced varieties are also available. Generally served cold, cloudy lemonade may also be served hot as a remedy for congestion and sore throats,[9] frozen, or used as a mixer.

Children operating a lemonade stand in La Cañada, California, 1960

Traditionally, it is common for children in US and Canadian neighborhoods to start lemonade stands to make money during the summer months. The concept has become iconic of youthful summertime Americana to the degree that parodies and variations on the concept exist across media. References can be found in comics and cartoons such as Peanuts, and the 1979 computer game Lemonade Stand. Recently, the subject has attracted controversy as some unlicensed lemonade stands have been shut down due to health regulations.[10]

Pink lemonade

A popular variation of cloudy lemonade, pink lemonade is created by adding additional fruit juices or flavors to the recipe. Adding flavor, and a distinctive pink coloring, possible additions may include raspberries, strawberries, cherries, red grapefruit, grapes, cranberries, grenadine,[3] or the fruit of the Staghorn Sumac.[11] The invention of pink lemonade was credited to Henry E. "Sanchez" Allott as the inventor of pink lemonade in his obituary in The New York Times, saying he had dropped in red cinnamon candies by mistake.[12] Another theory, recorded by historian Joe Nickell in his book Secrets of the Sideshows, is that the drink was first invented in 1857 by Pete Conklin, when he made lemonade using water dyed pink from a horse rider's red tights.[13]

Clear lemonade

Popular in the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand, clear lemonade is a carbonated, lemon flavored soft drink. In countries where clear lemonade is dominant, American lemon-lime sodas such as Sprite are also referred to colloquially as lemonade.[dubious ]

Clear lemonade can be consumed on its own or as a mixer. Mixed with beer, clear lemonade is used to make shandy, it is also an important ingredient in the Pimm's Cup cocktail.

In Ireland, lemonade is available as a clear "white lemonade", as well as in red and brown varieties. Despite the three flavors, differences in taste between the three have been disputed.[14] Red lemonade is a popular mixer, especially with whiskey,[15] and has become the center of a popular urban myth. It has been believed that European Union authorities planned to ban the drink, when in fact they were only banning certain carcinogenic dyes.[16]

Other varieties

In India and Pakistan, where it is commonly known as limbu paani or nimbu paani, lemonade may also contain salt and/or ginger juice. Shikanjvi is a traditional lemonade from this region, and can also be flavored with saffron, and cumin.[17][18]

Limonana, a type of lemonade made from freshly squeezed lemon juice and mint leaves, is a widely popular summer drink in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.[19] Limonana was created in the early 1990s in Israel after an advertising agency promoted the then-fictitious product to prove the efficacy of advertising on public buses. The campaign generated so much consumer demand that restaurateurs and manufacturers began really producing the drink, which would become very popular.[20][21]

Switcha is a version of the drink made in the Bahamas and Turks & Caicos that can also be made with limes instead of lemons.

Citron pressé

The French soft drink citron pressé, being diluted down with water.

In France, it is common for restaurants to offer citron pressé, an unmixed version of lemonade in which the customer is given lemon juice, syrup and water separately to be mixed in their preferred proportions.[22] A Guardian article on British Francophiles commented that "it used to be that a gaggle of women drinking citron pressés would silently compete to see who could add the least sugar, thereby proving their ultra-refined taste for sourness."[23]

Limeade

Limeade is a variation of lemonade, substituting lemon juice or flavoring with lime. Like lemonade, both cloudy and clear varieties exist. It is especially popular in nations where limes are common, such as Guyana and Trinidad, as well as India, Pakistan, Thailand and throughout South-East Asia. A Thai-styled limeade tastes salty, and sometimes does not have any sugar.[24]

Most major beverage companies now offer their own brand of limeade, such as A.G. Barr of Glasgow and Newman's Own since 2004, with Minute Maid introducing a Cherry Limeade drink in response to the popularity of Limeade.[25] Sonic Drive-In also offers a cherry limeade.[26]

Health benefits

Like other citrus-fruit based products, lemonade has been promoted as healthful due to its high concentration of vitamin C. However, the drink's health benefits will be highly limited in many diets due to its very high sugar content.

Daily consumption of 120 ml (4 imp fl oz; 4 US fl oz) of lemon juice per day, when mixed with two litres of water, has been shown to reduce the rate of stone formation in people susceptible to kidney stones. Lemons contain the highest concentration of citric acid of any fruit, and this weak acid has been shown to inhibit stone formation.[27]

Lemon juice is also used as acne treatment, it eliminates and controls swelling, as fresh lemon juice kills micro-organisms that reduce the pimple outbreaks.[28]

In popular culture

Traditionally, it is common for children in US and Canadian neighborhoods to start lemonade stands to make money during the summer months selling homemade cloudy lemonade. The concept has become iconic of youthful summertime Americana to the degree that parodies and variations on the concept exist across media. References can be found in comics and cartoons such as Peanuts, and the 1979 computer game Lemonade Stand. Recently, the subject has attracted controversy as some unlicensed lemonade stands have been shut down due to health regulations.[10]

First coined by Christian anarchist writer Elbert Hubbard in a 1915 obituary for dwarf actor Marshall P. Wilder,[29] the phrase "When life gives you lemons, make lemonade" has come to encourage optimism in the face of adversity.

In April 2016, the American singer Beyoncé released a visual album entitled Lemonade. The album was given this title because her mother-in-law gave a speech using the quote "When life gives you lemons, make lemonade".

Gallery

See also

References

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External links