Lever
Lever, one of the six simple machines  

Levers can be used to exert a large force over a small distance at one end by exerting only a small force over a greater distance at the other.


Classification  Simple machine 
Industry  Construction 
Weight  Mass times gravitational acceleration 
Fuel source  potential and kinetic energy {mechanical energy } 
Components  fulcrum or pivot, load and effort 
A lever (/ˈliːvər/ or US /ˈlɛvər/) is a machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum. A lever is a rigid body capable of rotating on a point on itself. It is one of the six simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists. The word entered English about 1300 from Old French, in which the word was levier. This sprang from the stem of the verb lever, meaning "to raise". The verb, in turn, goes back to the Latin levare, itself from the adjective levis, meaning "light" (as in "not heavy"). The word's ultimate origin is the ProtoIndoEuropean (PIE) stem legwh, meaning "light", "easy" or "nimble", among other things. The PIE stem also gave rise to the English word "light".^{[1]} A lever amplifies an input force to provide a greater output force, which is said to provide leverage. The ratio of the output force to the input force is the mechanical advantage of the lever.
Contents
Early use
The earliest remaining writings regarding levers date from the 3rd century BC and were provided by Archimedes. 'Give me a place to stand, and I shall move the Earth with it' is a remark of Archimedes who formally stated the correct mathematical principle of levers (quoted by Pappus of Alexandria). The distance required to do this might be exemplified in astronomical terms as the approximate distance to the Circinus galaxy (roughly 3.6 times the distance to the Andromeda Galaxy)  about 9 million light years.^{[citation needed]}
It is assumed that in ancient Egypt, constructors used the lever to move and uplift obelisks weighing more than 100 tons.^{[by whom?]}
Force and levers
A lever is a beam connected to ground by a hinge, or pivot, called a fulcrum. The ideal lever does not dissipate or store energy, which means there is no friction in the hinge or bending in the beam. In this case, the power into the lever equals the power out, and the ratio of output to input force is given by the ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to the points of application of these forces. This is known as the law of the lever.
The mechanical advantage of a lever can be determined by considering the balance of moments or torque, T, about the fulcrum,
where M_{1} is the input force to the lever and M_{2} is the output force. The distances a and b are the perpendicular distances between the forces and the fulcrum.
The mechanical advantage of the lever is the ratio of output force to input force,
This relationship shows that the mechanical advantage can be computed from ratio of the distances from the fulcrum to where the input and output forces are applied to the lever, assuming no losses due to friction, flexibility or wear.
Classes of levers
Levers are classified by the relative positions of the fulcrum, effort and resistance (or load). It is common to call the input force the effort and the output force the load or the resistance. This allows the identification of three classes of levers by the relative locations of the fulcrum, the resistance and the effort:^{[2]}
 Class 1: Fulcrum in the middle: the effort is applied on one side of the fulcrum and the resistance (or load)on the other side, for example, a seesaw, a crowbar or a pair of scissors. Mechanical advantage may be greater or less than 1.
 Class 2: Resistance(or load) in the middle: the effort is applied on one side of the resistance and the fulcrum is located on the other side, for example, a wheelbarrow, a nutcracker, a bottle opener or the brake pedal of a car. Mechanical advantage is always greater than 1.
 Class 3: Effort in the middle: the resistance(or load) is on one side of the effort and the fulcrum is located on the other side, for example, a pair of tweezers or the human mandible. Mechanical advantage is always less than 1.
These cases are described by the mnemonic fre 123 where the f
ulcrum is in the middle for the 1st class lever, the r esistance is in the middle for the 2nd class lever, and the e ffort is in the middle for the 3rd class lever.Law of the lever
The lever is a movable bar that pivots on a fulcrum attached to a fixed point. The lever operates by applying forces at different distances from the fulcrum, or a pivot.
Assuming the lever does not dissipate or store energy, the power into the lever must equal the power out of the lever. As the lever rotates around the fulcrum, points farther from this pivot move faster than points closer to the pivot. Therefore a force applied to a point farther from the pivot must be less than the force located at a point closer in, because power is the product of force and velocity.^{[3]}
If a and b are distances from the fulcrum to points A and B and the force F_{A} applied to A is the input and the force F_{B} applied at B is the output, the ratio of the velocities of points A and B is given by a/b, so we have the ratio of the output force to the input force, or mechanical advantage, is given by
This is the law of the lever, which was proven by Archimedes using geometric reasoning.^{[4]} It shows that if the distance a from the fulcrum to where the input force is applied (point A) is greater than the distance b from fulcrum to where the output force is applied (point B), then the lever amplifies the input force. On the other hand, if the distance a from the fulcrum to the input force is less than the distance b from the fulcrum to the output force, then the lever reduces the input force.
The use of velocity in the static analysis of a lever is an application of the principle of virtual work.
Virtual work and the law of the lever
A lever is modeled as a rigid bar connected to a ground frame by a hinged joint called a fulcrum. The lever is operated by applying an input force F_{A} at a point A located by the coordinate vector r_{A} on the bar. The lever then exerts an output force F_{B} at the point B located by r_{B}. The rotation of the lever about the fulcrum P is defined by the rotation angle θ in radians.
Let the coordinate vector of the point P that defines the fulcrum be r_{P}, and introduce the lengths
which are the distances from the fulcrum to the input point A and to the output point B, respectively.
Now introduce the unit vectors e_{A} and e_{B} from the fulcrum to the point A and B, so
The velocity of the points A and B are obtained as
where e_{A}^{⊥} and e_{B}^{⊥} are unit vectors perpendicular to e_{A} and e_{B}, respectively.
The angle θ is the generalized coordinate that defines the configuration of the lever, and the generalized force associated with this coordinate is given by
where F_{A} and F_{B} are components of the forces that are perpendicular to the radial segments PA and PB. The principle of virtual work states that at equilibrium the generalized force is zero, that is
Thus, the ratio of the output force F_{B} to the input force F_{A} is obtained as
which is the mechanical advantage of the lever.
This equation shows that if the distance a from the fulcrum to the point A where the input force is applied is greater than the distance b from fulcrum to the point B where the output force is applied, then the lever amplifies the input force. If the opposite is true that the distance from the fulcrum to the input point A is less than from the fulcrum to the output point B, then the lever reduces the magnitude of the input force.
This is the law of the lever, which was proven by Archimedes using geometric reasoning.^{[5]}
Using a Rope as a Lever
This section is written like a manual or guidebook. (December 2015)

You understand what a Lever is. But can you use a rope as a lever? You can if you are using it as shown in the figure. Arrange a strong column at a steep angle, apply a firm attachment from the rope to the column and the object to be lifted, and apply the force horizontally, and get a great multiplier of force. If one combines the mechanical advantage of pulleys in the horizontal force applier, you could get even greater lifting force. Picture the application in the figure, and in this case, you could get great lift upward then add planks of wood to support the load at height, reset, and lift again, and add more blocking, and lift, repeat. This technology has been lost in history, as the use of winches with low friction wheeled pulleys and reduction gearing powered by steam and then electricity (along with steel cable replacing rope) took over this primitive technology.
See also
Notes
References
 ↑ Etymology of the word "lever" in the Online Etymological Dictionary
 ↑ Davidovits, Paul (2008). "Chapter 1". Physics in Biology and Medicine, Third edition. Academic Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780123694119.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ Uicker, John; Pennock, Gordon; Shigley, Joseph (2010). Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (4th ed.). Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 9780195371239.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ Usher, A. P. (1929). A History of Mechanical Inventions. Harvard University Press (reprinted by Dover Publications 1988). p. 94. ISBN 9780486143590. OCLC 514178. Retrieved 7 April 2013.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
 ↑ A. P. Usher, 1929, A History of Mechanical Inventions, Harvard University Press, (reprinted by Dover Publications 1968).
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Levers. 
Look up lever in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. 
 Lever at Diracdelta science and engineering encyclopedia
 A Simple Lever by Stephen Wolfram, Wolfram Demonstrations Project.
 Levers: Simple Machines at EnchantedLearning.com