Linguolabial consonant

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Linguolabials or apicolabials[1] are consonants articulated by placing the tongue tip or blade against the upper lip, which is drawn downward to meet the tongue. They represent one extreme of a coronal articulatory continuum which extends from linguolabial to subapical palatal places of articulation. Cross-linguistically, linguolabial consonants are very rare, though they do not represent a particularly exotic combination of articulatory configurations, unlike click consonants or ejectives. They are found in a cluster of languages in Vanuatu, in the Kajoko dialect of Bijago in Guinea-Bissau, as well as in Umotína (a recently extinct Bororoan language of Brazil), and as paralinguistic sounds elsewhere. They are also relatively common in disordered speech, and the diacritic is specifically provided for in the extensions to the IPA.

File:Linguolabial stop.png
Sagittal section of linguolabial stop

The linguolabial consonants are transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet by adding the "seagull" diacritic, U+033C  ̼ COMBINING SEAGULL BELOW, to the corresponding alveolar consonant, or with the apical diacritic, U+033A  ̺ COMBINING INVERTED BRIDGE BELOW, on the corresponding bilabial consonant.[2]

List of consonants

(two transcriptions)
Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
linguolabial nasal Araki m̈ana [n̼ana] "laugh"[3]
voiceless linguolabial plosive Tangoa [t̼et̼e] "butterfly"[4]
voiced linguolabial plosive Kajoko dialect of Bijago [nɔ̀-d̼ɔ́ːɡ] "stone"[5]
n̼d̼ m̺b̺ prenasalized voiced linguolabial plosive Vao [nan̼d̼ak] "bow"[4]
θ̼ ɸ̺ voiceless linguolabial fricative Big Nambas [ˈinɛθ̼] "he is asthmatic"
ð̼ β̺ voiced linguolabial fricative Tangoa [ð̼atu] "stone"[4]
linguolabial lateral approximant (common in disordered speech)
ɬ̼ voiceless linguolabial lateral fricative (in disordered speech)
ɮ̼ voiced linguolabial lateral fricative (in disordered speech)
ʙ̺ linguolabial trill
(uses lower lip)
Coatlán Zapotec r̼ʔ mimesis for a child's fart[6]
(blowing a raspberry)
ǀ̼ or ʇ̼ ʘ̺ linguolabial click Coatlán Zapotec ǀ̼ʔ mimesis for a pig drinking water[6]

Sound shifts

In Vanuatu, some of the Santo–Malekula languages have shifted historically from labial to dental consonants via an intermediate linguolabial stage, which remains in other Santo and Malekula languages. In Nese, for example, labials have become linguolabial before nonrounded vowels; in Tolomako, this has gone further, so that *bebe 'butterfly' (/t̼et̼e/ in Tangoa, above) has become /tete/ in Tolomako, and *tama 'father' (Tangoa /tan̼a/) has become /tana/.

See also


  1. The term apicolabial is older, but Ladefoged and Maddieson point out that often these sounds are not apical.
  2. Pullum & Ladusaw, Phonetic Symbol Guide, 1996:256. They note that the apical diacritic was added to the IPA after the linguolabial diacritic, and would have made the latter unnecessary.
  3. See p.270 of Lua error in package.lua at line 80: module 'strict' not found.. See also entry m̈ana in Araki-English online dictionary.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996, p. 19.
  5. Olson et al. 2009, p. 523.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Rosemary Beam de Azcona, Sound Symbolism. Available at


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  • Maddieson, Ian. 1989. Linguo-labials. In VICAL 1: Oceanic Languages, Part II: Papers from the Fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Auckland, New Zealand, January 1988, ed. by R. Harlow & R. Hooper, 349–375. Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand.
  • Olson, Kenneth S., D. William Reiman, Fernando Sabio & Filipe Alberto da Silva. 2009. The voiced linguolabial plosive in Kajoko. Chicago Linguistic Society (CLS) 45(1), 519–530.