Lisdexamfetamine

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Lisdexamfetamine
Lisdexamfetamine structure.svg
Lisdexamfetamine molecule ball.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2S)-2,6-diamino-N-[(2S)-1-phenylpropan-2-yl]hexanamide
Clinical data
Trade names Tyvense, Elvanse, Venvanse, Vyvanse
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a607047
Licence data US FDA:link
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: B3
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Legal status
Routes of
administration
Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 96.4%[1]
Metabolism Hydrolysis by enzymes in red blood cells initially.
Subsequent metabolism follows Amphetamine#Pharmacokinetics.
Onset of action 2 hours[2][3]
Biological half-life ≤1 hour (prodrug molecule)
9–11 hours (dextroamphetamine)
Duration of action 12 hours[2][3]
Excretion Renal: ~2%
Identifiers
CAS Number 608137-32-2 YesY[IUPHAR]
ATC code N06BA12 (WHO)
PubChem CID: 11597698
IUPHAR/BPS 7213
DrugBank DB01255 YesY
ChemSpider 9772458 YesY
UNII H645GUL8KJ YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL1201222 YesY
Synonyms Vyvanse
Chemical data
Formula C15H25N3O
Molecular mass 263.378 g/mol
 NYesY (what is this?)  (verify)
30mg Vyvanse capsules

Lisdexamfetamine (contracted from L-lysine-dextroamphetamine) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and dextroamphetamine prodrug of the phenethylamine class and amphetamine class that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and binge eating disorder.[4][5] Its chemical structure consists of dextroamphetamine coupled with the essential amino acid L-lysine. Lisdexamfetamine itself is inactive and acts as a prodrug to dextroamphetamine upon cleavage of the lysine portion of the molecule.

Lisdexamfetamine can be prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 6 and up as well as adults – as a part of a treatment program that may include other measures (i.e., psychological, educational, social). The safety and the efficacy of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in children three to five years old have not been established.[6]

Lisdexamfetamine is a Class B/Schedule II substance in the United Kingdom and a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States (DEA number 1205) [7] and the aggregate production quota for 2014 is 23,750 kilograms of anhydrous acid or base.[8] Lisdexamfetamine is currently in Phase II trials in Japan for ADHD.

Uses

Medical

Long-term amphetamine exposure at sufficiently high doses in some animal species is known to produce abnormal dopamine system development or nerve damage,[9][10] but, in humans with ADHD, pharmaceutical amphetamines appear to improve brain development and nerve growth.[11][12][13] Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia.[11][12][13]

Reviews of clinical stimulant research have established the safety and effectiveness of long-term continuous amphetamine use for the treatment of ADHD.[14][15][16] Randomized controlled trials of continuous stimulant therapy for the treatment of ADHD spanning two years have demonstrated treatment effectiveness and safety.[14][16] Two reviews have indicated that long-term continuous stimulant therapy for ADHD is effective for reducing the core symptoms of ADHD (i.e., hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity), enhancing quality of life and academic achievement, and producing improvements in a large number of functional outcomes[note 1] across nine outcome categories related to academics, antisocial behavior, driving, non-medicinal drug use, obesity, occupation, self-esteem, service use (i.e., academic, occupational, health, financial, and legal services), and social function.[15][16] One review highlighted a nine-month randomized controlled trial in children with ADHD that found an average increase of 4.5 IQ points, continued increases in attention, and continued decreases in disruptive behaviors and hyperactivity.[14] Another review indicated that, based upon the longest follow-up studies conducted to date, lifetime stimulant therapy that begins during childhood is continuously effective for controlling ADHD symptoms and reduces the risk of developing a substance use disorder as an adult.[16]

Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems;[17] these functional impairments involve impaired dopamine neurotransmission in the mesocorticolimbic projection and norepinephrine neurotransmission in the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the prefrontal cortex.[17] Psychostimulants like methylphenidate and amphetamine are effective in treating ADHD because they increase neurotransmitter activity in these systems.[18][17][19] Approximately 80% of those who use these stimulants see improvements in ADHD symptoms.[20] Children with ADHD who use stimulant medications generally have better relationships with peers and family members, perform better in school, are less distractible and impulsive, and have longer attention spans.[21][22] The Cochrane Collaboration's reviews[note 2] on the treatment of ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults with pharmaceutical amphetamines stated that while these drugs improve short-term symptoms, they have higher discontinuation rates than non-stimulant medications due to their adverse side effects.[24][25] A Cochrane Collaboration review on the treatment of ADHD in children with tic disorders such as Tourette syndrome indicated that stimulants in general do not make tics worse, but high doses of dextroamphetamine could exacerbate tics in some individuals.[26]

Individuals over the age of 65 were not commonly tested in clinical trials of lisdexamfetamine for ADHD.[4] Lisdexamfetamine is being investigated for possible treatment of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia and excessive daytime sleepiness.[27]

Vyvanse capsules are available in doses of 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg, 50 mg, 60 mg, and 70 mg of the active ingredient, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate.[28] Vyvanse capsules contain several inactive ingredients, including microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, and magnesium stearate.[28] The capsule shells contain gelatin and titanium dioxide, and may contain FD&C Red 3, FD&C Yellow 6, FD&C Blue 1, black iron oxide, and yellow iron oxide.[28]

Performance-enhancing

Cognitive

In 2015, a systematic review and a meta-analysis of high quality clinical trials found that, when used at low (therapeutic) doses, amphetamine produces modest yet unambiguous improvements in cognition, including working memory, long-term episodic memory, inhibitory control, and some aspects of attention, in normal healthy adults;[29][30] these cognition-enhancing effects of amphetamine are known to be partially mediated through the indirect activation of both dopamine receptor D1 and adrenoceptor α2 in the prefrontal cortex.[18][29] A systematic review from 2014 found that low doses of amphetamine also improve memory consolidation, in turn leading to improved recall of information.[31] Therapeutic doses of amphetamine also enhance cortical network efficiency, an effect which mediates improvements in working memory in all individuals.[18][32] Amphetamine and other ADHD stimulants also improve task saliency (motivation to perform a task) and increase arousal (wakefulness), in turn promoting goal-directed behavior.[18][33][34] Stimulants such as amphetamine can improve performance on difficult and boring tasks and are used by some students as a study and test-taking aid.[18][34][35] Based upon studies of self-reported illicit stimulant use, 5–35% of college students use diverted ADHD stimulants, which are primarily used for performance enhancement rather than as recreational drugs.[36][37][38] However, high amphetamine doses that are above the therapeutic range can interfere with working memory and other aspects of cognitive control.[18][34]

Physical

Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and athletic performance-enhancing effects, such as increased endurance and alertness;[39][40] however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies.[41][42] In healthy people at oral therapeutic doses, amphetamine has been shown to increase muscle strength, acceleration, athletic performance in anaerobic conditions, and endurance (i.e., it delays the onset of fatigue), while improving reaction time.[39][43][44] Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and effluxion of dopamine in the central nervous system.[43][44][45] Amphetamine and other dopaminergic drugs also increase power output at fixed levels of perceived exertion by overriding a "safety switch" that allows the core temperature limit to increase in order to access a reserve capacity that is normally off-limits.[44][46][47] At therapeutic doses, the adverse effects of amphetamine do not impede athletic performance;[39][43] however, at much higher doses, amphetamine can induce effects that severely impair performance, such as rapid muscle breakdown and elevated body temperature.[48][49][43]

Contraindications

Pharmaceutical lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to amphetamine products or any of the formulation's inactive ingredients.[4] It is also contraindicated in patients who have used a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) within the last 14 days.[4][50] Amphetamine products are contraindicated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in people with a history of drug abuse, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in those currently experiencing arteriosclerosis, glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension.[51] The USFDA advises anyone with bipolar disorder, depression, elevated blood pressure, liver or kidney problems, mania, psychosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, seizures, thyroid problems, tics, or Tourette syndrome to monitor their symptoms while taking amphetamine.[51] Amphetamine is classified in US pregnancy category C.[51] This means that detriments to the fetus have been observed in animal studies and adequate human studies have not been conducted; amphetamine may still be prescribed to pregnant women if the potential benefits outweigh the risks.[52] Amphetamine has also been shown to pass into breast milk, so the USFDA advises mothers to avoid breastfeeding when using it.[51] Due to the potential for stunted growth, the USFDA advises monitoring the height and weight of children and adolescents prescribed amphetamines.[51] Prescribing information approved by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration further contraindicates anorexia.[53]

Side effects

Products containing lisdexamfetamine have a side effect profile comparable to those containing amphetamine.[4][48][49]

Physical

At normal therapeutic doses, the physical side effects of amphetamine vary widely by age and from person to person.[49] Cardiovascular side effects can include hypertension or hypotension from a vasovagal response, Raynaud's phenomenon (reduced blood flow to the hands and feet), and tachycardia (increased heart rate).[49][40][54] Sexual side effects in males may include erectile dysfunction, frequent erections, or prolonged erections.[49] Abdominal side effects may include abdominal pain, appetite loss, nausea, and weight loss.[49][55] Other potential side effects include blurred vision, dry mouth, excessive grinding of the teeth, nosebleed, profuse sweating, rhinitis medicamentosa (drug-induced nasal congestion), reduced seizure threshold, and tics (a type of movement disorder).[sources 1] Dangerous physical side effects are rare at typical pharmaceutical doses.[40]

Amphetamine stimulates the medullary respiratory centers, producing faster and deeper breaths.[40] In a normal person at therapeutic doses, this effect is usually not noticeable, but when respiration is already compromised, it may be evident.[40] Amphetamine also induces contraction in the urinary bladder sphincter, the muscle which controls urination, which can result in difficulty urinating.[40] This effect can be useful in treating bed wetting and loss of bladder control.[40] The effects of amphetamine on the gastrointestinal tract are unpredictable.[40] If intestinal activity is high, amphetamine may reduce gastrointestinal motility (the rate at which content moves through the digestive system);[40] however, amphetamine may increase motility when the smooth muscle of the tract is relaxed.[40] Amphetamine also has a slight analgesic effect and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opioids.[40]

USFDA-commissioned studies from 2011 indicate that in children, young adults, and adults there is no association between serious adverse cardiovascular events (sudden death, heart attack, and stroke) and the medical use of amphetamine or other ADHD stimulants.[sources 2] However, amphetamine pharmaceuticals are contraindicated in individuals with cardiovascular disease.[sources 3]

Psychological

At normal therapeutic doses, the most common psychological side effects of amphetamine include increased alertness, apprehension, concentration, initiative, self-confidence, and sociability, mood swings (elated mood followed by mildly depressed mood), insomnia or wakefulness, and decreased sense of fatigue.[49][40] Less common side effects include anxiety, change in libido, grandiosity, irritability, repetitive or obsessive behaviors, and restlessness;[sources 4] these effects depend on the user's personality and current mental state.[40] Amphetamine psychosis (e.g., delusions and paranoia) can occur in heavy users.[48][49][63] Although very rare, this psychosis can also occur at therapeutic doses during long-term therapy.[48][49][64] According to the USFDA, "there is no systematic evidence" that stimulants produce aggressive behavior or hostility.[49]

Amphetamine has also been shown to produce a conditioned place preference in humans taking therapeutic doses,[24][65] meaning that individuals acquire a preference for spending time in places where they have previously used amphetamine.[65][66]

Overdose

An amphetamine overdose can lead to many different symptoms, but is rarely fatal with appropriate care.[50][67] The severity of overdose symptoms increases with dosage and decreases with drug tolerance to amphetamine.[40][50] Tolerant individuals have been known to take as much as 5 grams of amphetamine in a day, which is roughly 100 times the maximum daily therapeutic dose.[50] Symptoms of a moderate and extremely large overdose are listed below; fatal amphetamine poisoning usually also involves convulsions and coma.[48][40] In 2013, overdose on amphetamine, methamphetamine, and other compounds implicated in an "amphetamine use disorder" resulted in an estimated 3,788 deaths worldwide (3,425–4,145 deaths, 95% confidence).[note 3][68]

Pathological overactivation of the mesolimbic pathway, a dopamine pathway that connects the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, plays a central role in amphetamine addiction.[69][70] Individuals who frequently overdose on amphetamine during recreational use have a high risk of developing an amphetamine addiction, since repeated overdoses gradually increase the level of accumbal ΔFosB, a "molecular switch" and "master control protein" for addiction.[71][72][73] Once nucleus accumbens ΔFosB is sufficiently overexpressed, it begins to increase the severity of addictive behavior (i.e., compulsive drug-seeking) with further increases in its expression.[71][74] While there are currently no effective drugs for treating amphetamine addiction, regularly engaging in sustained aerobic exercise appears to reduce the risk of developing such an addiction.[75][76] Sustained aerobic exercise on a regular basis also appears to be an effective treatment for amphetamine addiction;[sources 5] exercise therapy improves clinical treatment outcomes and may be used as a combination therapy with cognitive behavioral therapy, which is currently the best clinical treatment available.[75][77][78]

Overdose symptoms by system
System Minor or moderate overdose[48][40][50] Severe overdose[sources 6]
Cardiovascular
Central nervous
system
Musculoskeletal
Respiratory
  • Rapid breathing
Urinary
Other

Addiction

Addiction and dependence glossary[66][72][81]
addiction – a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences
addictive behavior – a behavior that is both rewarding and reinforcing
addictive drug – a drug that is both rewarding and reinforcing
dependence – an adaptive state associated with a withdrawal syndrome upon cessation of repeated exposure to a stimulus (e.g., drug intake)
drug sensitization or reverse tolerance – the escalating effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
drug withdrawal – symptoms that occur upon cessation of repeated drug use
physical dependence – dependence that involves persistent physical–somatic withdrawal symptoms (e.g., fatigue and delirium tremens)
psychological dependence – dependence that involves emotional–motivational withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and anhedonia)
reinforcing stimuli – stimuli that increase the probability of repeating behaviors paired with them
rewarding stimuli – stimuli that the brain interprets as intrinsically positive or as something to be approached
sensitization – an amplified response to a stimulus resulting from repeated exposure to it
tolerance – the diminishing effect of a drug resulting from repeated administration at a given dose
(edit | history)

Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use but is unlikely to arise from typical long-term medical use at therapeutic doses.[82][83][84] Compared to other amphetamine pharmaceuticals, lisdexamfetamine may have a lower liability for abuse as a recreational drug.[85] Drug tolerance develops rapidly in amphetamine abuse (i.e., a recreational amphetamine overdose), so periods of extended use require increasingly larger doses of the drug in order to achieve the same effect.[86][87]

Biomolecular mechanisms

Current models of addiction from chronic drug use involve alterations in gene expression in certain parts of the brain, particularly the nucleus accumbens.[88][89][90] The most important transcription factors[note 4] that produce these alterations are ΔFosB, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB).[89] ΔFosB plays a crucial role in the development of drug addictions, since its overexpression in D1-type medium spiny neurons in the nucleus accumbens is necessary and sufficient[note 5] for most of the behavioral and neural adaptations that arise from addiction.[71][72][89] Once ΔFosB is sufficiently overexpressed, it induces an addictive state that becomes increasingly more severe with further increases in ΔFosB expression.[71][72] It has been implicated in addictions to alcohol, cannabinoids, cocaine, methylphenidate, nicotine, opioids, phencyclidine, propofol, and substituted amphetamines, among others.[sources 7]

ΔJunD, a transcription factor, and G9a, a histone methyltransferase enzyme, both directly oppose the induction of ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (i.e., they oppose increases in its expression).[72][89][94] Sufficiently overexpressing ΔJunD in the nucleus accumbens with viral vectors can completely block many of the neural and behavioral alterations seen in chronic drug abuse (i.e., the alterations mediated by ΔFosB).[89] ΔFosB also plays an important role in regulating behavioral responses to natural rewards, such as palatable food, sex, and exercise.[74][89][95] Since both natural rewards and addictive drugs induce expression of ΔFosB (i.e., they cause the brain to produce more of it), chronic acquisition of these rewards can result in a similar pathological state of addiction.[74][89] Consequently, ΔFosB is the most significant factor involved in both amphetamine addiction and amphetamine-induced sex addictions, which are compulsive sexual behaviors that result from excessive sexual activity and amphetamine use.[74][96][97] These sex addictions are associated with a dopamine dysregulation syndrome which occurs in some patients taking dopaminergic drugs.[74][95]

The effects of amphetamine on gene regulation are both dose- and route-dependent.[90] Most of the research on gene regulation and addiction is based upon animal studies with intravenous amphetamine administration at very high doses.[90] The few studies that have used equivalent (weight-adjusted) human therapeutic doses and oral administration show that these changes, if they occur, are relatively minor.[90] This suggests that medical use of amphetamine does not significantly affect gene regulation.[90]

Pharmacological treatments

As of May 2014 there is no effective pharmacotherapy for amphetamine addiction.[98][99][100] Reviews from 2015 and 2016 indicated that TAAR1-selective agonists have significant therapeutic potential as a treatment for psychostimulant addictions;[101][102] however, as of February 2016 the only compounds which are known to function as TAAR1-selective agonists are experimental drugs.[101][102] Amphetamine addiction is largely mediated through increased activation of dopamine receptors and co-localized NMDA receptors[note 6] in the nucleus accumbens;[70] magnesium ions inhibit NMDA receptors by blocking the receptor calcium channel.[70][103] One review suggested that, based upon animal testing, pathological (addiction-inducing) psychostimulant use significantly reduces the level of intracellular magnesium throughout the brain.[70] Supplemental magnesium[note 7] treatment has been shown to reduce amphetamine self-administration (i.e., doses given to oneself) in humans, but it is not an effective monotherapy for amphetamine addiction.[70]

Behavioral treatments

Cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the most effective clinical treatment for psychostimulant addictions.[78] Additionally, research on the neurobiological effects of physical exercise suggests that daily aerobic exercise, especially endurance exercise (e.g., marathon running), prevents the development of drug addiction and is an effective adjunct therapy (i.e., a supplemental treatment) for amphetamine addiction.[sources 5] Exercise leads to better treatment outcomes when used as an adjunct treatment, particularly for psychostimulant addictions.[75][77][104] In particular, aerobic exercise decreases psychostimulant self-administration, reduces the reinstatement (i.e., relapse) of drug-seeking, and induces increased dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) density in the striatum.[74][104] This is the opposite of pathological stimulant use, which induces decreased striatal DRD2 density.[74] One review noted that exercise may also prevent the development of a drug addiction by altering ΔFosB or c-Fos immunoreactivity in the striatum or other parts of the reward system.[76] Template:FOSB addiction table

Dependence and withdrawal

According to another Cochrane Collaboration review on withdrawal in individuals who compulsively use amphetamine and methamphetamine, "when chronic heavy users abruptly discontinue amphetamine use, many report a time-limited withdrawal syndrome that occurs within 24 hours of their last dose."[105] This review noted that withdrawal symptoms in chronic, high-dose users are frequent, occurring in up to 87.6% of cases, and persist for three to four weeks with a marked "crash" phase occurring during the first week.[105] Amphetamine withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, drug craving, depressed mood, fatigue, increased appetite, increased movement or decreased movement, lack of motivation, sleeplessness or sleepiness, and lucid dreams.[105] The review indicated that the severity of withdrawal symptoms is positively correlated with the age of the individual and the extent of their dependence.[105] Manufacturer prescribing information does not indicate the presence of withdrawal symptoms following discontinuation of amphetamine use after an extended period at therapeutic doses.[106][107][108]

Toxicity and psychosis

In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity, or damage to dopamine neurons, which is characterized by dopamine terminal degeneration and reduced transporter and receptor function.[109][110] There is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans.[111][112] However, large doses of amphetamine may indirectly cause dopaminergic neurotoxicity as a result of hyperpyrexia, the excessive formation of reactive oxygen species, and increased autoxidation of dopamine.[sources 8] Animal models of neurotoxicity from high-dose amphetamine exposure indicate that the occurrence of hyperpyrexia (i.e., core body temperature ≥ 40 °C) is necessary for the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.[110] Prolonged elevations of brain temperature above 40 °C likely promote the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in laboratory animals by facilitating the production of reactive oxygen species, disrupting cellular protein function, and transiently increasing blood–brain barrier permeability.[110]

A severe amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may involve a variety of symptoms, such as delusions and paranoia.[63] A Cochrane Collaboration review on treatment for amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, and methamphetamine psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely.[63][115] According to the same review, there is at least one trial that shows antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis.[63] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.[64][51]

Interactions

  • Acidifying Agents: Drugs that acidify the urine, such as ascorbic acid, increase urinary excretion of amphetamines thus decreasing the half-life time of lisdexamfetamine in the body.[4]
  • Alkalinizing Agents: Drugs that alkalinize the urine, such as sodium bicarbonate, decrease urinary excretion of amphetamines thus increasing the half-life time of lisdexamfetamine in the body.[4]
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors: Concomitant use of MAOIs and central nervous system stimulants such as lisdexamfetamine can cause hypertensive crisis.[4]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

Pharmacodynamics of amphetamine in a dopamine neuron
v · t · e
A pharmacodynamic model of amphetamine and TAAR1
via AADC
The image above contains clickable links
Amphetamine enters the presynaptic neuron across the neuronal membrane or through DAT. Once inside, it binds to TAAR1 or enters synaptic vesicles through VMAT2. When amphetamine enters the synaptic vesicles through VMAT2, dopamine is released into the cytosol (yellow-orange area). When amphetamine binds to TAAR1, it reduces postsynaptic neuron firing rate via potassium channels and triggers protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, resulting in DAT phosphorylation. PKA-phosphorylation causes DAT to withdraw into the presynaptic neuron (internalize) and cease transport. PKC-phosphorylated DAT may either operate in reverse or, like PKA-phosphorylated DAT, internalize and cease transport. Amphetamine is also known to increase intracellular calcium, an effect which is associated with DAT phosphorylation through a CAMKIIα-dependent pathway, in turn producing dopamine efflux.

Lisdexamfetamine is an inactive prodrug that is converted in the body to dextroamphetamine, a pharmacologically active compound which is responsible for the drug’s activity.[116] After oral ingestion, lisdexamfetamine is broken down by enzymes in red blood cells to form L-lysine, a naturally occurring essential amino acid, and dextroamphetamine.[4] The conversion of lisdexamfetamine to dextroamphetamine is not affected by gastrointestinal pH and is unlikely to be affected by alterations in normal gastrointestinal transit times.[4][117]

The optical isomers of amphetamine, i.e., dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine, are TAAR1 agonists and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 inhibitors that can enter monoamine neurons;[118][119] this allows them to release monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin, among others) from their storage sites and the presynaptic neuron, as well as prevent the reuptake of these neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft.[118][119]

Lisdexamfetamine was developed with the goal of providing a long duration of effect that is consistent throughout the day, with reduced potential for abuse. The attachment of the amino acid lysine slows down the relative amount of dextroamphetamine available to the blood stream. Because no free dextroamphetamine is present in lisdexamfetamine capsules, dextroamphetamine does not become available through mechanical manipulation, such as crushing or simple extraction. A relatively sophisticated biochemical process is needed to produce dextroamphetamine from lisdexamfetamine.[117] As opposed to Adderall, which contains roughly equal parts of racemic amphetamine and dextroamphetamine salts, lisdexamfetamine is a single-enantiomer dextroamphetamine formula.[116][120] Studies conducted show that lisdexamfetamine dimesylate may have less abuse potential than dextroamphetamine and an abuse profile similar to diethylpropion at dosages that are FDA-approved for treatment of ADHD, but still has a high abuse potential when this dosage is exceeded by over 100%.[117]

Physical and chemical properties

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is a water-soluble (792 mg/mL) powder with a white to off-white color.[28]

Comparison to other formulations

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is one marketed formulation delivering dextroamphetamine. The following table compares the drug to other amphetamine pharmaceuticals.

Amphetamine base in marketed amphetamine medications
drug formula molecular mass
[note 8]
amphetamine base
[note 9]
amphetamine base
in equal doses
doses with
equal base
content
[note 10]
(g/mol) (percent) (30 mg dose)
total base total dextro- levo- dextro- levo-
dextroamphetamine sulfate[122][123] (C9H13N)2•H2SO4
368.49
270.41
73.38%
73.38%
22.0 mg
30.0 mg
amphetamine sulfate[124] (C9H13N)2•H2SO4
368.49
270.41
73.38%
36.69%
36.69%
11.0 mg
11.0 mg
30.0 mg
Adderall
62.57%
47.49%
15.08%
14.2 mg
4.5 mg
35.2 mg
25% dextroamphetamine sulfate[122][123] (C9H13N)2•H2SO4
368.49
270.41
73.38%
73.38%
25% amphetamine sulfate[124] (C9H13N)2•H2SO4
368.49
270.41
73.38%
36.69%
36.69%
25% dextroamphetamine saccharate[125] (C9H13N)2•C6H10O8
480.55
270.41
56.27%
56.27%
25% amphetamine aspartate monohydrate[126] (C9H13N)•C4H7NO4•H2O
286.32
135.21
47.22%
23.61%
23.61%
lisdexamfetamine dimesylate[127] C15H25N3O•(CH4O3S)2
455.49
135.21
29.68%
29.68%
8.9 mg
74.2 mg
amphetamine base suspension[note 11][55] C9H13N
135.21
135.21
100%
76.19%
23.81%
22.9 mg
7.1 mg
22.0 mg

History, society, and culture

Lisdexamfetamine was developed by New River Pharmaceuticals, who were bought by Shire Pharmaceuticals shortly before lisdexamfetamine began being marketed. It was developed for the intention of creating a longer-lasting and less-easily abused version of dextroamphetamine, as the requirement of conversion into dextroamphetamine via enzymes in the red blood cells increases its duration of action, regardless of the route of ingestion.[128] The drug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is the first prodrug of its kind.

On 23 April 2008, Vyvanse received FDA approval for the adult population.[129] In a randomized, double-blind, four-week phase III trial in adult patients with ADHD, dosages of 30, 50 or 70 mg/day of oral lisdexamfetamine caused a significantly greater improvement in ADHD-Rating Scale total score than placebo.[130] On 19 February 2009, Health Canada approved 30 mg and 50 mg capsules of lisdexamfetamine for treatment of ADHD.[131] On 8 February 2012, Vyvanse received FDA approval for maintenance treatment of adult ADHD.[132] In February 2014, Shire announced that two late-stage clinical trials had shown that Vyvanse was not an effective treatment for depression.[133] Lisdexamfetamine was granted approval in a number of European countries for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents over the age of 6 years, as well as adults who are continuing treatment from childhood, after a positive outcome of the regulatory procedure.[134] Shire also recently announced receipt of a positive result from a European decentralised procedure for lisdexamfetamine for adult patients with ADHD in the United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark, expanding the indication of lisdexamfetamine to include newly diagnosed adult patients.[135]

In January 2015, lisdexamfetamine was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of binge eating disorder in adults.[27][136][137]

Brand names

Lisdexamfetamine is sold as Tyvense (IE), Elvanse (UK), Venvanse (BR), Vyvanse (CA, US).[138]

Clinical research

A review of clinical trials that used lisdexamfetamine as an add-on therapy with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) for treatment-resistant depression indicated that this is no more effective than the use of an SSRI or SNRI alone.[139] This observation is consistent with previous findings that serotonin–norepinephrine–dopamine reuptake inhibitors (SNDRIs) demonstrate no additional efficacy over SSRIs and SNRIs for the treatment of major depressive disorder.[139]

Notes

  1. The ADHD-related outcome domains with the greatest proportion of significantly improved outcomes from long-term continuous stimulant therapy include academics (~55% of academic outcomes improved), driving (100% of driving outcomes improved), non-medical drug use (47% of addiction-related outcomes improved), obesity (~65% of obesity-related outcomes improved), self esteem (50% of self-esteem outcomes improved), and social function (67% of social function outcomes improved).[15]

    The largest effect sizes for outcome improvements from long-term stimulant therapy occur in the domains involving academics (e.g., grade point average, achievement test scores, length of education, and education level), self-esteem (e.g., self-esteem questionnaire assessments, number of suicide attempts, and suicide rates), and social function (e.g., peer nomination scores, social skills, and quality of peer, family, and romantic relationships).[15]

    Long-term combination therapy for ADHD (i.e., treatment with both a stimulant and behavioral therapy) produces even larger effect sizes for outcome improvements and improves a larger proportion of outcomes across each domain compared to long-term stimulant therapy alone.[15]
  2. Cochrane Collaboration reviews are high quality meta-analytic systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials.[23]
  3. The 95% confidence interval indicates that there is a 95% probability that the true number of deaths lies between 3,425 and 4,145.
  4. Transcription factors are proteins that increase or decrease the expression of specific genes.[91]
  5. In simpler terms, this necessary and sufficient relationship means that ΔFosB overexpression in the nucleus accumbens and addiction-related behavioral and neural adaptations always occur together and never occur alone.
  6. NMDA receptors are voltage-dependent ligand-gated ion channels that requires simultaneous binding of glutamate and a co-agonist (D-serine or glycine) to open the ion channel.[103]
  7. The review indicated that magnesium L-aspartate and magnesium chloride produce significant changes in addictive behavior;[70] other forms of magnesium were not mentioned.
  8. For uniformity, molecular masses were calculated using the Lenntech Molecular Weight Calculator.[121] and were within 0.01g/mol of published pharmaceutical values.
  9. Amphetamine base percentage = molecular massbase / molecular masstotal. Amphetamine base percentage for Adderall = sum of component percentages / 4.
  10. dose = (1 / amphetamine base percentage) × scaling factor = (molecular masstotal / molecular massbase) × scaling factor. The values in this column were scaled to a 30 mg dose of dextroamphetamine. Due to pharmacological differences between these medications (e.g., differences in the release, absorption, conversion, concentration, differing effects of enantiomers, half-life, etc), the listed values should not be considered equipotent doses.
  11. This product (Dyanavel XR) is an oral suspension (i.e., a drug that is suspended in a liquid and taken by mouth) that contains 2.5 mg/mL of amphetamine base.[55] The amphetamine base contains dextro- to levo-amphetamine in a ratio of 3.2:1,[55] which is approximately the ratio in Adderall. The product uses an ion exchange resin to achieve extended release of the amphetamine base.[55]

Reference notes

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