List of emperors of Japan

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Timeline of Emperors of Japan

This list of Emperors of Japan presents the traditional order of succession.[1] Records of the reigns of the Emperors of Japan are compiled according to the traditional Japanese calendar. In the nengō system which has been in use since the late-seventh century, years are numbered using the Japanese era name and the number of years which have taken place since that nengō era started.[2]

The sequence, order and dates of the first 28 Emperors of Japan, and especially the first 16, are based on the Japanese calendar system.[3]

Emperors of Japan

No. Portrait Personal name Reign Posthumous name Notes
Legendary Emperors (660 BC – 269 AD)
1 Emperor Jimmu.jpg Kamu-yamato Iware-biko no Mikoto 00340660–585 BC Emperor Jimmu   Traditional dates; claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu[4]
2 Suizei thumb 1.jpg Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto 00491581–549 BC Emperor Suizei   Traditional dates;[5] 3rd son of Jimmu;[6] presumed legendary
3 Tennō Annei thumb.jpg Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto 00451549–511 BC Emperor Annei   Traditional dates;[7] son and heir of Suizei;[6] presumed legendary
4 Tennō Itoku thumb.jpg Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto 00490510–476 BC Emperor Itoku   Traditional dates;[7] 2nd son of Annei;[6] presumed legendary
5 Tennō Kōshō thumb.jpg Mimatsuhiko Kaeshine no Mikoto 00525475–393 BC Emperor Kōshō   Traditional dates;[8] son and heir of Itoku;[6] presumed legendary
6 Tennō Kōan thumb.jpg Oho Yamato Tarashihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto 00608392–291 BC Emperor Kōan   Traditional dates;[9] 2nd son of Kōshō;[6] presumed legendary
7 Tennō Kōrei thumb.jpg Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto 00710290–215 BC Emperor Kōrei   Traditional dates;[10] son and heir of Kōan;[6] presumed legendary
8 Tennō Kōgen thumb.gif Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto 00786214–158 BC Emperor Kōgen   Traditional dates;[11] son and heir of Kōrei;[6] presumed legendary
9 Tennō Kaika thumb.jpg Waka Yamato Nekohiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto 00843157–98 BC Emperor Kaika   Traditional dates;[12] 2nd son of Kōgen;[6] presumed legendary
10 Emperor Sujin.jpg Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto 0090397–30 BC Emperor Sujin Traditional dates;[13] first emperor of plausible historicity[14]
11 Emperor Suinin.jpg Ikume Irihiko Isachi no Mikoto 0097129 BC–70 AD Emperor Suinin Traditional dates[15]
12 Emperor Keikō.jpg Oho Tarashihiko Oshirowake no Mikoto 9007171–130 Emperor Keikō Traditional dates[16]
13 Emperor Seimu.jpg Waka Tarashihiko 9131131–191 Emperor Seimu Traditional dates[17]
14 Tennō Chūaii thumb.gif Tarashi Nakatsuhiko no Mikoto 9192192–200 Emperor Chūai Traditional dates[18]
0145 Empress OKINAGA TARASI.JPG Okinaga Tarashihime no Mikoto 90201201–269 Empress Jingū Traditional dates;[19] served as regent for Emperor Ōjin; not counted among the officially numbered Emperors
Kofun period (269–539)
15 Emperor Ōjin.jpg Honda no Sumeramikoto / Ōtomowake no Mikoto / Homutawake no Mikoto 90270270–310 Emperor Ōjin Traditional dates;[20] deified as Hachiman
16 Nintoku-tennō detail.jpg Ō Sazaki no Mikoto 90313313–399 Emperor Nintoku Traditional dates[21]
17 No image.png Isaho Wake no Mikoto 90400400–405 Emperor Richū Traditional dates[22]
18 No image.png Tajihi Mizuha Wake no Mikoto 90406406–410 Emperor Hanzei Traditional dates[23]
19 Emperor Ingyō.jpg Wo Asazuma Wakugo no Sukune 90411411–453 Emperor Ingyō Traditional dates[24]
20 Emperor Ankō.jpg Anaho no Mikoto 90453453–456 Emperor Ankō Traditional dates[25]
21 Tennō Yūryaku detail.jpg Oho Hatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto 90456456–479 Emperor Yūryaku Traditional dates[26]
22 No image.png Shiraka Takehiro Kuni Oshi Waka Yamato Neko no Mikoto 90480480–484 Emperor Seinei Traditional dates[27]
23 Emperor Kenzō.jpg Ohoke no Mikoto 90485485–487 Emperor Kenzō Traditional dates[28]
24 Emperor Ninken.jpg Ohoshi (Ohosu) no Mikoto/ Shimano Iratsuko 90488488–498 Emperor Ninken Traditional dates[29]
25 No image.png Wohatsuse Wakasazaki 90498498–506 Emperor Buretsu Traditional dates[30]
26 Statue of Emperor Keitai.jpg Ōto/Hikofuto (Hikofuto no Mikoto/Ōdo no Sumera Mikoto) 90507507–531 Emperor Keitai Traditional dates[31]
27 No image.png Hirokuni Oshitake Kanahi no Mikoto 90531531–535 Emperor Ankan Traditional dates[32]
28 No image.png Takeo Hirokuni Oshitate no Mikoto 90535535–539 Emperor Senka Traditional dates[33]
Asuka period (539–710)
29 Emperor Kinmei.jpg Amekuni Oshiharuki Hironiwa no Sumera Mikoto 90539539–571 Emperor Kinmei Traditional dates;[34] all Emperors from Kinmei onwards are historically verifiable[35]
30 No image.png Osada no Nunakura no Futotamashiki no Mikoto 90572572–585 Emperor Bidatsu Traditional dates[36]
31 Yomeitenno.jpg Ooe/Tachibana no Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto 90585585–587 Emperor Yōmei Traditional dates[37]
32 No image.png Hatsusebe no (Wakasasagi) Mikoto 90587587–592 Emperor Sushun Traditional dates[38]
33 Empress Suiko.jpg Nukatabe/Toyomike Kashikiyahime 90592592–628 Empress Suiko Traditional dates;[39] first non-legendary female Emperor; Prince Shotoku acted as her regent
34 No image.png Tamura (Oki Nagatarashihi Hironuka no Sumera Mikoto) 90629629–641 Emperor Jomei Traditional dates[40]
35 Empress Kogyoku-Saimei.jpg Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 90642642–645 Empress Kōgyoku Traditional dates;[41] reigned twice
36 No image.png Karu (Ame Yorozu Toyohi no Sumera Mikoto) 90645645–654 Emperor Kōtoku Traditional dates[42]
37 Empress Kogyoku-Saimei.jpg Takara (Ame Toyotakaraikashi Hitarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 90655655–661 Empress Saimei Traditional dates;[43] second reign of Empress Kōgyoku
38 Hyakuninisshu 001.jpg Katsuragi/Nakano-ooe (Ame Mikoto Hirakasuwake no Mikoto/Amatsu Mikoto Sakiwake no Mikoto) 90661661–672 Emperor Tenji Traditional dates[44]
39 Emperor Kōbun.jpg Ōtomo 90672672 Emperor Kōbun Traditional dates;[45] usurped by Temmu; posthumously named (1870)
40 Emperor Tenmu.jpg Ōama/Ohoshiama/Ōsama (Ame no Nunahara Oki no Mahito no Sumera Mikoto) 90672672–686 Emperor Tenmu Traditional dates[46]
41 Hyakuninisshu 002.jpg Unonosarara (Takama no Harahiro no Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 90686686–697 Empress Jitō Traditional dates[47]
42 Monmu.gif Karu (Ame no Mamune Toyoohoji no Sumera Mikoto) 90697697–707 Emperor Monmu Traditional dates[48]
Nara period (710–794)
43 Empress Gemmei.jpg Ahe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Mishiro Toyokuni Narihime no Sumera Mikoto) 90707707–715 Empress Genmei Traditional dates[49]
44 Empress Genshō.jpg Hidaka/Niinomi (Yamatoneko Takamizu Kiyotarashi Hime no Sumera Mikoto) 90715715–724 Empress Genshō Traditional dates[50]
45 Emperor Shomu.jpg Obito (Ameshirushi Kunioshiharuki Toyosakurahiko no Sumera Mikoto) 90724724–749 Emperor Shōmu Traditional dates[51]
46 Empress Koken.jpg Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 90749749–758 Empress Kōken Traditional dates;[52] reigned twice
47 No image.png Ōi 90758758–764 Emperor Junnin Traditional dates[53] dethroned by Shōtoku; posthumously named (1870)
48 Empress Koken.jpg Abe (Yamatoneko no Sumera Mikoto) 90764764–770 Empress Shōtoku Traditional dates;[54] second reign of Empress Kōken
49 No image.png Shirakabe (Amemune Takatsugi no Mikoto) 90770770–781 Emperor Kōnin Traditional dates[55]
50 Emperor Kammu large.jpg Yamabe (Yamatoneko Amatsu Hitsugi Iyaderi no Mikoto) 90781781–806 Emperor Kanmu Traditional dates[56]
Heian period (794–1185)
51 No image.png Ate (Yamatoneko Ameoshikuni Takahiko no Mikoto) 90806806–809 Emperor Heizei Traditional dates[57]
52 Emperor Saga large.jpg Kamino 90809809–823 Emperor Saga Traditional dates[58]
53 No image.png Ōtomo 90823823–833 Emperor Junna Traditional dates[59]
54 No image.png Masara 90833833–850 Emperor Ninmyō Traditional dates[60]
55 Emperor Montoku.jpg Michiyasu 90850850–858 Emperor Montoku Traditional dates[61]
56 Emperor Seiwa.jpg Korehito 90858858–876 Emperor Seiwa Traditional dates[62]
57 Hyakuninisshu 013.jpg Sadaakira 90876876–884 Emperor Yōzei Traditional dates[63]
58 Tennō Kōkō.jpg Tokiyasu 90884884–887 Emperor Kōkō Traditional dates[64]
59 Emperor Uda large.jpg Sadami 90887887–897 Emperor Uda Traditional dates[65]
60 Emperor Daigo.jpg Atsuhito 90897897–930 Emperor Daigo Traditional dates[66]
61 No image.png Yutaakira 90930930–946 Emperor Suzaku Traditional dates[67]
62 Emperor Murakami.jpg Nariakira 90946946–967 Emperor Murakami Traditional dates[68]
63 No image.png Norihira 90967967–969 Emperor Reizei Traditional dates[69]
64 No image.png Morihira 90969969–984 Emperor En'yū Traditional dates[70]
65 Tennō Kazan detail.jpg Morosada 90984984–986 Emperor Kazan Traditional dates[71]
66 Emperor Ichijō.jpg Kanehito 90986986–1011 Emperor Ichijō Traditional dates[72]
67 Hyakuninisshu 068.jpg Okisada/Iyasada 910111011–1016 Emperor Sanjō Traditional dates[73]
68 No image.png Atsuhira 910161016–1036 Emperor Go-Ichijō Traditional dates[74]
69 No image.png Atsunaga/Atsuyoshi 910361036–1045 Emperor Go-Suzaku Traditional dates[75]
70 No image.png Chikahito 910451045–1068 Emperor Go-Reizei Traditional dates[76]
71 Emperor Gosanjō.jpg Takahito 910681068–1073 Emperor Go-Sanjō Traditional dates[77]
72 Emperor Shirakawa.jpg Sadahito 910731073–1087 Emperor Shirakawa Traditional dates[78]
73 No image.png Taruhito 910871087–1107 Emperor Horikawa Traditional dates[79]
74 Emperor Toba.jpg Munehito 911071107–1123 Emperor Toba Traditional dates[80]
75 Emperor Sutoku2.jpg Akihito 911231123–1142 Emperor Sutoku Traditional dates[81]
76 No image.png Narihito 911421142–1155 Emperor Konoe Traditional dates[82]
77 Emperor Go-Shirakawa2.jpg Masahito 911551155–1158 Emperor Go-Shirakawa Traditional dates[83]
78 Nijotenno.jpg Morihito 911581158–1165 Emperor Nijō Traditional dates[84]
79 No image.png Yorihito 911651165–1168 Emperor Rokujō Traditional dates[85]
80 Emperor Takakura.jpg Norihito 911681168–1180 Emperor Takakura Traditional dates[85]
81 Emperor Antoku.jpg Tokihito 911801180–1185 Emperor Antoku Traditional dates[86]
Kamakura period (1185–1333)
82 Emperor Go-Toba.jpg Takahira 911831183–1198 Emperor Go-Toba Traditional dates[87]
83 Emperor Tsuchimikado.jpg Tamehito 911981198–1210 Emperor Tsuchimikado Traditional dates[88]
84 Emperor Juntoku large.jpg Morihira/Morinari 912101210–1221 Emperor Juntoku Traditional dates[89]
85 No image.png Kanehira/Kanenari 912211221 Emperor Chūkyō Traditional dates;[90] posthumously named (1870)
86 Emperor Go-Horikawa.jpg Yutahito 912211221–1232 Emperor Go-Horikawa Traditional dates[91]
87 Emperor Shijō.jpg Mitsuhito/Toshihito 912321232–1242 Emperor Shijō Traditional dates[92]
88 Emperor Go-Saga.jpg Kunihito 912421242–1246 Emperor Go-Saga Traditional dates[93]
89 Emperor Go-Fukakusa.jpg Hisahito 912461246–1260 Emperor Go-Fukakusa Traditional dates[94]
90 Emperor Kameyama.jpg Tsunehito 912601260–1274 Emperor Kameyama Traditional dates[95]
91 Emperor Go-Uda.jpg Yohito 912741274–1287 Emperor Go-Uda Traditional dates[96]
92 Emperor Fushimi.jpg Hirohito 912871287–1298 Emperor Fushimi Traditional dates[97]
93 Emperor Go-Fushimi.jpg Tanehito 912981298–1301 Emperor Go-Fushimi Traditional dates[98]
94 Emperor Go-Nijō.jpg Kuniharu 913011301–1308 Emperor Go-Nijō Traditional dates[99]
95 Tennō Hanazono detail.jpg Tomihito 913081308–1318 Emperor Hanazono Traditional dates[100]
96 Emperor Godaigo.jpg Takaharu 913181318–1339 Emperor Go-Daigo Traditional dates;[101] Southern Court
Northern Court (1331–1392)
0961 Emperor Kōgon.jpg Kazuhito 913311331–1333 Emperor Kōgon Traditional dates[102]
0962 Emperor Kōmyō.jpg Yutahito 913361336–1348 Emperor Kōmyō Traditional dates[103]
0962 No image.png Okihito 913481348–1351 Emperor Sukō Traditional dates[104]
0963 Emperor Go-Kōgon.jpg Iyahito 913521352–1371 Emperor Go-Kōgon Traditional dates[105]
0964 Emperor Go-En'yū detail.jpg Ohito 913711371–1382 Emperor Go-En'yū Traditional dates[106]
0964 Emperor Go-Komatsu.jpg Motohito 913821382–1392 Emperor Go-Komatsu Traditional dates;[107] reunified courts in 1392; see 100 below
Muromachi period and Azuchi–Momoyama period (1333–1603)
97 Emperor Go-Murakami.jpg Norinaga/Noriyoshi 913391339–1368 Emperor Go-Murakami Traditional dates;[108] Southern Court
98 No image.png Yutanari 913681368–1383 Emperor Chōkei Traditional dates;[109] Southern Court
99 Emperor Go-Kameyama.jpg Hironari 913831383–1392 Emperor Go-Kameyama Traditional dates;[110] Southern Court
100 Emperor Go-Komatsu.jpg Motohito 913921392–1412 Emperor Go-Komatsu Traditional dates;[111] reunified courts; see also entry in Northern Court section above
101 No image.png Mihito 914121412–1428 Emperor Shōkō Traditional dates[112]
102 Emperor Go-Hanazono.jpg Hikohito 914281428–1464 Emperor Go-Hanazono Traditional dates[113]
103 No image.png Fusahito 914641464–1500 Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado Traditional dates[114]
104 No image.png Katsuhito 915001500–1526 Emperor Go-Kashiwabara Traditional dates[115]
105 Emperor Go-Nara.jpg Tomohito 915261526–1557 Emperor Go-Nara Traditional dates[116]
106 Emperor Ogimachi2.jpg Michihito 915571557–1586 Emperor Ōgimachi Traditional dates[117]
107 Emperor Go-Yōzei2.jpg Kazuhito/Katahito 915861586–1611 Emperor Go-Yōzei Traditional dates[118]
Edo period (1603–1867)
108 Emperor Go-Mizunoo2.jpg Kotohito 916111611–1629 Emperor Go-Mizunoo
(Go-Minoo)
Traditional dates[119]
109 Meisho of Japan.jpg Okiko 916291629–1643 Empress Meishō Traditional dates[120]
110 Emperor Go-Kōmyō.jpg Tsuguhito 916431643–1654 Emperor Go-Kōmyō Traditional dates[121]
111 Emperor Go-Sai.jpg Nagahito 916551655–1663 Emperor Go-Sai Traditional dates[122]
112 Emperor Reigen.jpg Satohito 916631663–1687 Emperor Reigen Traditional dates[123]
113 Emperor Higashiyama.jpg Asahito/Tomohito 916871687–1709 Emperor Higashiyama Traditional dates[124]
114 Emperor Nakamikado.jpg Yasuhito/Yoshihito 917091709–1735 Emperor Nakamikado Traditional dates[125]
115 Emperor Sakuramachi.jpg Teruhito 917351735–1747 Emperor Sakuramachi Traditional dates[126]
116 Emperor Momozono.jpg Toohito 917471747–1762 Emperor Momozono Traditional dates[127]
117 Empress Go-Sakuramachi.jpg Toshiko 917621762–1771 Empress Go-Sakuramachi Traditional dates[128] Last female Emperor. Abdicated; died in 1813
118 Emperor Go-Momozono.jpg Hidehito 917711771–1779 Emperor Go-Momozono Traditional dates[129]
119 Emperor Kōkaku.jpg Morohito 917801780–1817 Emperor Kōkaku Traditional dates[130] Died in 1840
120 Emperor Ninkō.jpg Ayahito 918171817–1846 Emperor Ninkō
121 The Emperor Komei.jpg Osahito 918461846–1867 Emperor Kōmei Last instance of an Emperor with multiple era names
Modern Japan (from 1867)
122 Black and white photo of emperor Meiji of Japan.jpg Mutsuhito 918671867–1912 Emperor Meiji The first Emperor of the Empire of Japan
123 Emperor Taishō.jpg Yoshihito 919121912–1926 Emperor Taishō Crown Prince Hirohito served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926
124 Hirohito in dress uniform.jpg Hirohito 919261926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Served as Sesshō (Prince Regent) 1921–1926.
The last Emperor of the Empire of Japan
125 Emperor Akihito (2016).jpg Akihito 919891989–2019 N/A Abdicated at the end of 30 April 2019, first to abdicate in over 200 years. Referred to as Jōkō in Japanese, and as "Emperor Emeritus" in English.
126 Naruhito 920192019–present N/A Ascended on 1 May 2019. Referred to as Kinjō Tennō ("the Reigning Emperor") or Tennō Heika ("His Majesty the Emperor") in Japanese, and as "Emperor Naruhito" in English.[131]

See also

Notes

  1. Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric. (2005). "Traditional Order of Tennō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 962.
  2. Nussbaum, "Nengō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 704.
  3. A list of other Japanese calling themselves or being called emperors (追尊天皇, 尊称天皇, 異説に天皇とされる者, 天皇に準ずる者, 自称天皇) can be seen on the Japanese Wikipedia page 天皇の一覧 (List of Japanese monarchs).
  4. Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon (Nihon Ōdai Ichiran), pp. 1–3; Brown, Delmer M. (1979). Gukanshō, p. 249; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, pp. 84–88;
  5. Titsingh, pp. 3–4; Brown, pp. 250–251; Varley, pp. 88–89.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Brown, p. 248.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Titsingh, p. 4; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89.
  8. Titsingh, pp. 4–5; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90.
  9. Titsingh, p. 5; Brown, pp. 251–252; Varley, p. 90.
  10. Titsingh, pp. 5–6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90–92.
  11. Titsingh, p. 6; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92–93.
  12. Titsingh, pp. 6–7; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93.
  13. Titsingh, pp. 7–9; Brown, p. 253; Varley, pp. 93–95.
  14. Yoshida, Reiji. "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl," Japan Times. March 27, 2007; retrieved 2013-8-22.
  15. Titsingh, pp. 9–10; Brown, pp. 253–254; Varley, pp. 95–96.
  16. Titsingh, pp. 11–14; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96–99.
  17. Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Titsingh, pp. 14–15.
  18. Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Titsingh, p. 15.
  19. Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103; Titsingh, pp. 16–19.
  20. Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Brown, pp. 255–256; Varley, pp. 103–10.
  21. Brown, pp. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Titsingh, pp. 22–24.
  22. Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111; Titsingh, pp. 24–25.
  23. Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 25.
  24. Brown, pp. 257–258; Varley, p. 112; Titsingh, p. 26.
  25. Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Titsingh, p. 26.
  26. Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Titsingh, pp. 27–28.
  27. Brown, p. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Titsingh, pp. 28–29.
  28. Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Titsingh, pp. 29–30.
  29. Titsingh, p. 30; Brown, p. 259-260; Varley, p. 117.
  30. Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Titsingh, p. 31.
  31. Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Titsingh, p. 31–32.
  32. Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Brown, p. 261; Titsingh, p. 33.
  33. Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Titsingh, p. 33–34.
  34. Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Titsingh, p. 34–36.
  35. Hoye, Timothy. (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds, p. 78; excerpt, "According to legend, the first Japanese emperor was Jinmu. Along with the next 13 emperors, Jinmu is not considered an actual, historical figure. Historically verifiable Emperors of Japan date from the early sixth century with Kinmei."
  36. Varley, pp. 124–125; Brown, pp. 262–263; Titsingh, p. 36–37.
  37. Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Titsingh, p. 37–38.
  38. Brown, p. 263; Varley, p. 126; Titsingh, p. 38–39.
  39. Brown, pp. 263–264; Varley, pp. 126–129; Titsingh, pp. 39–42.
  40. Brown, pp. 264–265; Varley, pp. 129–130; Titsingh, pp. 42–43.
  41. Brown, pp. 265–266; Varley, pp. 130–132; Titsingh, pp. 43–47.
  42. Brown, pp. 266–267; Varley, pp. 132–133; Titsingh, pp. 47–50.
  43. Brown, p. 267; Varley, pp. 133–134; Titsingh, pp. 50–52.
  44. Brown, p. 268; Varley, p. 135; Titsingh, pp. 52–56.
  45. Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 56–58.
  46. Brown, pp. 268–269; Varley, pp. 135–136; Titsingh, pp. 58–59.
  47. Brown, pp. 269–270; Varley, pp. 136–137; Titsingh, pp. 59–60.
  48. Brown, pp. 270–271; Varley, pp. 137–140; Titsingh, pp. 60–63.
  49. Brown, p. 271; Varley, p. 140; Titsingh, pp. 63–65.
  50. Brown, p. 271–272; Varley, pp. 140–141; Titsingh, pp. 65–67.
  51. Brown, pp. 272–273; Varley, pp. 141–143; Titsingh, pp. 67–73.
  52. Brown, pp. 274–275; Varley, p. 143; Titsingh, pp. 73–75.
  53. Brown, p. 275; Varley, pp. 143–144; Titsingh, pp. 75–78.
  54. Brown, p. 276; Varley, pp. 144–147; Titsingh, pp. 78–81.
  55. Brown, p. 276–277; Varley, pp. 147–148; Titsingh, pp. 81–85.
  56. Brown, pp. 277–279; Varley, pp. 148–150; Titsingh, pp. 86–95.
  57. Brown, pp. 279–280; Varley, p. 151; Titsingh, pp. 96–97.
  58. Brown, pp. 280–282; Varley, pp. 151–164; Titsingh, pp. 97–102.
  59. Brown, p. 282–283; Varley, p. 164; Titsingh, pp. 103–106.
  60. Brown, pp. 283–284; Varley, pp. 164–165; Titsingh, pp. 106–112.
  61. Brown, pp. 285–286; Varley, p. 165; Titsingh, pp. 112–115.
  62. Brown, pp. 286–288; Varley, pp. 166–170; Titsingh, pp. 115–121.
  63. Brown, pp. 288–289; Varley, pp. 170–171; Titsingh, pp. 121–124.
  64. Brown, p. 289; Varley, pp. 171–175; Titsingh, pp. 124–125.
  65. Brown, p. 289–290; Varley, pp. 175–179; Titsingh, pp. 125–129.
  66. Brown, pp. 290–293; Varley, pp. 179–181; Titsingh, pp. 129–134.
  67. Brown, pp. 294–295; Varley, pp. 181–183; Titsingh, pp. 134–138.
  68. Brown, pp. 295–298; Varley, pp. 183–190; Titsingh, pp. 139–142.
  69. Brown, p. 298; Varley, pp. 190–191; Titsingh, pp. 142–143.
  70. Brown, pp. 299–300; Varley, pp. 191–192; Titsingh, pp. 144–148.
  71. Brown, pp. 300–302; Varley, p. 192; Titsingh, pp. 148–149.
  72. Brown, pp. 302–307; Varley, pp. 192–195; Titsingh, pp. 150–154.
  73. Brown, p. 307; Varley, p. 195; Titsingh, pp. 154–155.
  74. Brown, pp. 307–310; Varley, pp. 195–196; Titsingh, pp. 156–160.
  75. Brown, pp. 310–311; Varley, p. 197; Titsingh, pp. 160–162.
  76. Brown, pp. 311–314; Varley, pp. 197–198; Titsingh, pp. 162–166.
  77. Brown, pp. 314–315; Varley, pp. 198–199; Titsingh, pp. 166–168.
  78. Brown, pp. 315–317; Varley, pp. 199–202; Titsingh, pp. 169–171.
  79. Brown, pp. 317–320; Varley, p. 202; Titsingh, pp. 172–178.
  80. Brown, pp. 320–322; Varley, pp. 203–204; Titsingh, pp. 178–181.
  81. Brown, pp. 322–324; Varley, pp. 204–205; Titsingh, pp. 181–185.
  82. Brown, pp. 324–326; Varley, p. 205; Titsingh, pp. 186–188.
  83. Brown, p. 326–327; Varley, pp. 205–208; Titsingh, pp. 188–190.
  84. Brown, pp. 327–329; Varley, pp. 208–212; Titsingh, pp. 191–194.
  85. 85.0 85.1 Brown, pp. 329–330; Varley, p. 212; Titsingh, pp. 194–195.
  86. Brown, pp. 333–334; Varley, pp. 214–215; Titsingh, pp. 200–207.
  87. Brown, pp. 334–339; Varley, pp. 215–220; Titsingh, pp. 207–221.
  88. Brown, pp. 339–341; Varley, pp 220; Titsingh, pp. 221–230.
  89. Brown, pp. 341–343, Varley, pp. 221–223; Titsingh, pp. 230–238.
  90. Brown, pp. 343–344; Varley, pp. 223–226; Titsingh, pp. 236–238.
  91. Brown, pp. 344–349; Varley, pp. 226–227; Titsingh, pp. 238–241.
  92. Varley, p. 227; Titsingh, pp. 242–245.
  93. Varley, pp. 228–231; Titsingh, pp. 245–247.
  94. Varley, pp. 231–232; Titsingh, pp. 248–253.
  95. Varley, pp. 232–233; Titsingh, pp. 253–261.
  96. Varley, pp. 233–237; Titsingh, pp. 262–269.
  97. Varley, pp. 237–238; Titsingh, pp. 269–274.
  98. Varley, pp. 238–239; Titsingh, pp. 274–275.
  99. Varley, p. 239; Titsingh, pp. 275–278.
  100. Varley, pp. 239–241; Titsingh, pp. 278–281.
  101. Varley, pp. 241–269; Titsingh, pp. 281–286, and Titsingh, p. 290–294.
  102. Titsingh, pp. 286–289.
  103. Titsingh, pp. 294–298.
  104. Titsingh, pp. 298–301.
  105. Titsingh, pp. 302–309.
  106. Titsingh, pp. 310–316.
  107. Titsingh, pp. 317–327.
  108. Varley, pp. 269–270 | Titsingh, p. .
  109. Titsingh, p. .
  110. [Titsingh, p. ]–320.
  111. Titsingh, pp. 320–327.
  112. Titsingh, pp. 327–331.
  113. Titsingh, pp. 331–351.
  114. Titsingh, pp. 352–364.
  115. Titsingh, pp. 364–372.
  116. Titsingh, pp. 372–382.
  117. Titsingh, pp. 382–402.
  118. Titsingh, pp. 402–409.
  119. Titsingh, pp. 410–411.
  120. Titsingh, pp. 411–412.
  121. Titsingh, pp. 412–413.
  122. Titsingh, p. 413.
  123. Titsingh, pp. 414–415.
  124. Titsingh, pp. 415–416.
  125. Titsingh, pp. 416–417.
  126. Titsingh, pp. 417–418.
  127. Titisngh, pp. 418–419.
  128. Titsingh, p. 419.
  129. Titsingh, pp. 419–420.
  130. Titsingh, pp. 420–421.
  131. "Japan's emperor thanks country, prays for peace before abdication". Nikkei Asian Review. Retrieved 30 April 2019.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>

References

External links