List of German field marshals

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Field marshal (German: Generalfeldmarschall) was the highest military rank in Germany for seventy-five years.[1][lower-alpha 1] Although the rank had existed since 1631 under a different name,[2] it was re-created in 1870 for Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia and Emperor Frederick III for the purpose of making them senior to other generals.[2] It became the most prestigious and powerful rank an officer could reach until it was abolished in 1945.[1]

In total more than 100 generals have become field marshals, between 1806 and 1945. The vast majority of the people promoted field marshal won major battles in wars surrounding the their century. Field marshals played a compelling and influential role in military matters,[3] were tax-exempt, members of the nobility,[3] equal to government officials,[3] under constant protection or escort,[3] and had the right to directly report to the royal family.[3]

Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony (1806–1918)

Name Date of promotion Birth and Death Image Reference
Hans Georg von Arnim-Boitzenburg 21 June 1631 1583–1641 Hans Georg von Arnim.jpg [4]
Rudolf Graf von Marzin 19 October 1638 1585–1645 Rudolf von Morzin.jpg [5]
Joachim Rüdiger of Goltz 28 August 1681 Unknown
[6]
Heino Heinrich Graf von Flemming 8 September 1688 1632–1706
Jeremias of Chauvet 10 May 1693 Unknown
[7]
Christoph August of Wackerbarth 17 April 1730 Unknown
[8]
Johann Adolf II, Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels 26 November 1735 1685–1746 Johann Adolf II Saxe-Weissenfels.jpg [9]
Johann Georg, Chevalier de Saxe 27 July 1763 1704–74 Johann George Chevalier de Saxe.jpg [10]
Albert of Saxony 14 June 1888 1828–1902 Nicola Perscheid - König Albert von Sachsen vor 1902.jpg [11]

Brandenburg-Prussia and the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1870)

Name Date of promotion Birth and Death Image Reference
Otto Christoph von Sparr 20 June 1657 1599–1668
[12]
John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau 24 January 1670 1627–93 John George II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau.jpg [12]
Georg von Derfflinger 18 February 1670 1606–95 Georg von Derfflinger.png [12]
Alexander Hermann, Count of Wartensleben 23 March 1706 1650–1734 Alexander Hermann, Count of Wartensleben.jpg [13]
Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau 1712 1676–1747 Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau.jpeg [14]
Carl Philipp, Reichsgraf von Wylich und Lottum 1713 1650–1719 Wylich und Lottum, Karl Philipp Graf von (1650-1719).jpg [15]
Alexander zu Dohna-Schlobitten 1713 1661–1728 Dohna-Schlobitten, Alexander Burggraf und Graf zu (1661-1728)2.jpg [16]
Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer 1728 1654–1739 Dubislav Gneomar von Natzmer.jpg [17]
Albrecht Konrad Finck von Finckenstein 1733 1660–1735 Albr.Konr.Finckenstein.jpg [18]
Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow 1737 1678–1739 Friedrich Wilhelm von Grumbkow.PNG [17]
Kurt Christoph von Schwerin 1740 1684–1757 Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin.jpg [19]
Caspar Otto of Glasenapp 1741 Unknown
[20]
Samuel von Schmettau 1741 1684–1751 Samuel von Schmettau AGE V11 1803.jpg [21]
Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst 16 May 1742 1690–1747 65px [22]
Leopold II, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau 17 May 1742 1700-51 1700 Leopold.JPG [23]
Friedrich Wilhelm von Dossow 15 January 1745 1669–1758
[24]
Henning Alexander von Kleist 24 May 1747 1677–1747 Vonkleist.jpg [25]
Christoph Wilhelm von Kalckstein 24 May 1747 1677–1747 [25]
Dietrich of Anhalt-Dessau 24 May 1747 1702–1769 Dietrich von Anhalt-Dessau (1702-1769).jpg [25]
James Francis Edward Keith 18 September 1747 1696–1758 Generalfeldmarschall Keith (Pesne).jpg [26]
Hans von Lehwaldt 1751 1696–1758 Hans von Lehwaldt.jpg [27]
Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau 1757 1712–60 Prince Moritz of Anhalt-Dessau.jpg [28]
Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 15 November 1758 1721–92 Prinz Ferdinand Braunschweig.jpg [29]
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1787 1735–1806 BraunschweigLKWF.jpg [30]
Wichard Joachim Heinrich von Möllendorf 1793 1724–1816 65px [31]
Alexander von Knobelsdorff 20 May 1798 1723–99 Field Marshal von Knobelsdorff, German School of the 18th century.jpg [32]
Friedrich Adolf Graf von Kalckreuth 1807 1737–1818
[33]
Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher 19 October 1813 1742–1819 Blücher (nach Gebauer).jpg [34]
Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf 1821 1762–1823 Hermann Scherenberg-Friedrich Graf Kleist von Nollendorf.jpg [35]
Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg 1821 1759–1830 Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg.jpg [36]
August Neidhardt von Gneisenau 1825 1760–1831 George Dawe, Field Marshal August Neidhardt, Count of Gneisenau (1760–1831), 1818.jpg [37]
Hans Ernst Karl, Graf von Zieten 1839 1770–1848 Zieten-by-Kruger.jpg [38]
Karl Freiherr von Muffling 5 October 1847 1775–1851 WP Karl von Muffling.jpg [39]
Hermann von Boyen 7 October 1847 1771–1848 Boyen.jpg [40]
Karl Friedrich von dem Knesebeck 9 October 1847 1768–1848 Knesebeck.gif [41]
Karl Friedrich Emil zu Dohna-Schlobitten 14 March 1854 1784–1859 Friedrich Graf zu Dohna-Schlobitten.png [42]
Friedrich Graf von Wrangel 5 August 1856 1784–1877 Feldmarschall Friedrich von Wrangel.jpg [43]
Prince Friedrich Karl of Prussia 28 October 1870 1828–85 Friedrich Karl von Preussen.jpg [2]
Emperor Frederick III 28 October 1870 1831–88 Friedrich III as Kronprinz - in GdK uniform by Heinrich von Angeli 1874.jpg [2]

German Empire (1871–1918)

Name Date of promotion Birth and Death Image Reference
Bittenfeld, Karl Eberhard Herwarth vonKarl Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld 8 April 1871 1796–1884 Karl Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld (2).jpg [44]
Steinmetz, Karl Friedrich vonKarl Friedrich von Steinmetz 8 April 1871 1796–1877 Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz, 1895 illustration.jpg [45]
Moltke, Helmuth Karl Bernhard vonHelmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke 16 June 1870 1800–91 Helmuth Karl Bernhard von Moltke.jpg [46]
Albert of Saxony 11 July 1871 1828–1902 Nicola Perscheid - König Albert von Sachsen vor 1902.jpg [47]
Roon, Albrecht vonAlbrecht von Roon 1 January 1873 1803–79 65px [48]
Manteuffel, Edwin Freiherr vonEdwin Freiherr von Manteuffel 1873 1809–85 Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel by Adolphe Braun.png [49]
Blumenthal, Leonhard Graf vonLeonhard Graf von Blumenthal 15 March 1888 1810–1900 Generalfeldmarschall Leonhard Graf von Blumenthal.JPG [50]
Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony 15 March 1888 1832–1904 Georg von Sachsen 1895.jpg [11]
Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Albrecht of Prussia 19 June 1888 1837–1906 Prince Albrecht of Prussia in 1883.jpg [51]
Archduke Albrecht, Duke of Teschen 19 June 1888 1817–95 Albrecht Austria Teschen 1817 1895 marshal.jpg [52]
Franz Joseph I of Austria 27 February 1895 1830–1916 Franz Joseph 1898.jpg [53]
Waldersee, Alfred vonAlfred von Waldersee 6 May 1900 1832–1904 Graf von Waldersee Postkarte.jpg [54]
Haeseler, Gottlieb Graf vonGottlieb Graf von Haeseler 1 January 1905 1836–1919 Gottliebvonhaeseler.jpeg [55]
Hahnke, Wilhelm vonWilhelm von Hahnke 1 January 1905 1833–1912 Wilhelm von Hahnke.jpg [56]
Loë, Walter vonWalter von Loë 1 January 1905 1828–1908
[57]
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 9 September 1906 1850–1942 Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught.jpg [58]
Carol I of Romania 20 April 1909 1839–1914 Carol I King of Romania.jpg [59]
Schlieffen, Alfred vonAlfred von Schlieffen 1 January 1911 1833–1913 Alfred von Schlieffen 1906.jpg [60]
Constantine I of Greece 8 August 1911 1868–1923 King Constantine Ι of Greece, 1914, by Laszlo.jpg [61]
Hindenburg, Paul vonPaul von Hindenburg 2 November 1914 1847–1934 65px [62]
Bülow, Karl vonKarl von Bülow 27 January 1915 1846–1921 Karl von Bülow (ca. 1916).jpg [63]
Archduke Friedrich, Duke of Teschen 22 June 1915 1856–1936 65px [64]
Mackensen, August vonAugust von Mackensen 22 June 1915 1849–1945 Mackensen.jpg [65]
Ludwig III of Bavaria 26 June 1915 1845–1921 65px [66]
Hötzendorf, Franz Conrad vonFranz Conrad von Hötzendorf 1916 1852–1925 Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf (Hermann Torggler, 1915).jpg [67]
Ferdinand I of Bulgaria 18 January 1916 1861–1948 Zar Ferdinand Bulgarien.jpg [68]
William II of Württemberg 23 July 1916 1848–1921 65px [69]
Rupprecht, Crown Prince of Bavaria 1 August 1916 1869–1955 Rupprecht von Bayern.jpg [70]
Prince Leopold of Bavaria 1 August 1916 1846–1930 65px [71]
Albrecht, Duke of Württemberg 1 August 1916 1865–1939 AlbrechtHerzogWürttemberg.jpg [72]
Charles I of Austria 12 February 1917 1887–1922 Charles I of Austria.jpg [73]
Eichhorn, Hermann vonHermann von Eichhorn 18 December 1917 1848–1918 65px [74]
Woyrsch, Remus vonRemus von Woyrsch 18 December 1917 1847–1920 65px [75]

Weimar Republic (1918–33)

After the loss of the First World War, Germany was transformed into what became known as the Weimar Republic which worked according to the laws of the Treaty of Versailles.[76] Some of the newly imposed conditions was the demobilization of the German Army to 100,000 men,[77] a reduction of the German Navy,[77] and the abolishment of the German Air Force.[77] As a result of the new military laws, the Weimar Republic saw no field marshal promotions.

Nazi Germany (1933–45)

Name Date of promotion Birth and Death Image Reference
Blomberg, Werner vonWerner von Blomberg 20 April 1936 1878–1946 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-W0402-504, Generaloberst Werner von Blomberg.jpg [78]
Goering, HermannHermann Göring 4 February 1938 1893–1946 Hermann Goering - Nuremberg2.jpg [79]
Bock, Fedor vonFedor von Bock 19 July 1940 1880–1945 Wehrvonbockcopy1.jpg [80]
Brauchitsch, Walther vonWalther von Brauchitsch 19 July 1940 1881–1948 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-E00780, Walther von Brauchitsch.jpg [81]
Kesselring, AlbertAlbert Kesselring 19 July 1940 1885–1960 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R93434, Albert Kesselring.jpg [82]
Keitel, WilhelmWilhelm Keitel 19 July 1940 1882–1946 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H30220, Wilhelm Keitel.jpg [83]
Kluge, Günther vonGünther von Kluge 19 July 1940 1882–1944 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1973-139-14, Günther v. Kluge.jpg [84]
Leeb, Wilhelm Ritter vonWilhelm Ritter von Leeb 19 July 1940 1876–1956 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L08126, Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb.jpg [85]
List, WilhelmWilhelm List 19 July 1940 1880–1971 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S36487, Wilhelm List.jpg [86]
Milch, ErhardErhard Milch 19 July 1940 1892–1972 Milch.jpg [87]
Reichenau, Walther vonWalther von Reichenau 19 July 1940 1884–1942 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B05284, Walter v. Reichenau.jpg [88]
Rundstedt, Gerd vonGerd von Rundstedt 19 July 1940 1875–1953 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S37772, Gerd v. Rundstedt.jpg [89]
Sperrle, HugoHugo Sperrle 19 July 1940 1885–1953 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1987-121-30A, Hugo Sperrle.jpg [90]
Witzleben, Erwin vonErwin von Witzleben 19 July 1940 1881–1944 Bundesarchiv Bild 151-12-16, Volksgerichtshof, Erwin v. Witzleben.jpg [91]
Boehm-Ermolli, Eduard vonEduard von Böhm-Ermolli 31 October 1940 1856–1941 Boehm ermolli eduard FM 1856 1941.jpg [92]
Rommel, ErwinErwin Rommel 22 June 1942 1891–1944 Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1985-013-07, Erwin Rommel-2.jpg [93]
Kuechler, Georg vonGeorg von Küchler 30 June 1942 1881–1968 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R63872, Georg von Küchler.jpg [94]
Manstein, Erich vonErich von Manstein 1 July 1942 1887–1973 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H01757, Erich von Manstein.jpg [94]
Paulus, FriedrichFriedrich Paulus 31 January 1943 1890–1957 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B24575, Friedrich Paulus.jpg [94]
Busch, ErnstErnst Busch 1 February 1943 1885–1945 65px [95]
Kleist, Paul Ludwig Ewald vonPaul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist 1 February 1943 1881–1954 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1986-0210-503, General Ewald von Kleist.jpg [94]
Weichs, Maximilian vonMaximilian von Weichs 1 February 1943 1881–1954 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-056-1643-29A, Frankreich, Generäl v. Weichs.jpg [94]
Richthofen, Wolfram Freiherr vonWolfram Freiherr von Richthofen 16 February 1943 1895–1945 Bundesarchiv Bild 101I-452-0985-36, Russland, Generäle Löhr und W. v. Richthofen (cropped).jpg [94]
Model, WalterWalter Model 1 March 1944 1891–1945 Walter Model April 1943.jpg [96]
Schörner, FerdinandFerdinand Schörner 5 April 1945 1892–1973 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L29176, Ferdinand Schörner.jpg [97]
Greim, Robert Ritter vonRobert Ritter von Greim 25 April 1945 1892–1945 Bundesarchiv Bild 183-2004-1220-500, Robert Ritter v. Greim.jpg [98]

See also

Notes

  1. In 1940 Hermann Göring was promoted to Reichsmarschall, a rank higher than that of field marshal and was the only one to hold this rank. This was done so as to make Göring superior to other field marshals and recognize him as the second man in Hitler's Reich.[99]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hakim 1995, pp. 100, 105.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Wawro 1997, p. 310.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Snyder 1976, p. 111.
  4. Irmer 2005, pp. 5, 35.
  5. Guthrie 2003, p. 48.
  6. Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 790.
  7. Glozier & Onnekink 2007, p. 209.
  8. Phillips 1871, p. 943.
  9. Long 1844, p. 360.
  10. Carlyle 2002, p. 709.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Riley 2014, p. 232.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Citino 2005, p. 428.
  13. Gruyter 2006, p. 355.
  14. Paret & Morgan 2014, p. 391.
  15. König 1789, p. 434.
  16. Johannes 2004, p. 34.
  17. 17.0 17.1 MacDonogh 2001, p. 436.
  18. Colby & Williams 1906, p. 620.
  19. Tucker 2009, p. 239.
  20. Ohm & Boehlke & Boehlke 1997, p. 6.
  21. Lund 1999, p. 182.
  22. Alexeevna 2007, p. 236.
  23. Siebigk 1883, pp. 352, 356.
  24. Siebigk 1883, pp. 364, 365.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 Anton Balthasar König, Henning Alexander von Kleist,Biographisches Lexikon aller Helden und Militärpersonen: T. G-L, A. Wever, 1789, pp. 275–276. Accessed 26 September 2015.
  26. MacKillop & Murdoch 2003, p. 103.
  27. Siebigk 1883, pp. 166, 167.
  28. Ross 1997, p. 134, 135.
  29. Ballard 2011, p. 54.
  30. Debrett 1836, p. 151.
  31. Stoker 2014, p. 52.
  32. Bruce & Stanard 1958, p. 88.
  33. Phillips 1871, p. 378.
  34. Leggiere 2014, p. 535.
  35. Siebigk 1883, p. 127.
  36. Droysen 1851, p. 158.
  37. Gneisenau & Marston 1815, pp. 1, 8.
  38. Veve 1992, p. 30.
  39. Muffling 1997, p. 174.
  40. Parkinson 2000, p. 259.
  41. Jensen & Rothstein 2000, p. 110.
  42. Siborne 1895, p. 96.
  43. Röhl 1996, p. 274.
  44. Chisholm & Garvin 1926, p. 405.
  45. Hughes 2009, p. 423.
  46. Heal 2012, p. 206.
  47. Maitland 1762, p. 24.
  48. Large 2007, p. 2.
  49. Marrs 2010, p. 25.
  50. Darmstaedter 2008, p. 414.
  51. Burke 2012, p. 17.
  52. Hakim 1995, p. 65.
  53. Murad 1968, p. 61.
  54. Clarke 2000, p. 12.
  55. Ross 1997, p. 452.
  56. Hahnke 2012, p. 47.
  57. Steinberg 2011, p. 407.
  58. Browne 2013, p. 105.
  59. Roberts & Tucker 2005, pp. 666, 667.
  60. Ehlert 2014, pp. 1, 2.
  61. Vatikiotis 2014, p. 1.
  62. Hargreaves 2010, p. 20.
  63. Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 243.
  64. Riley 2013, p. 471.
  65. Sandler 2002, p. 523.
  66. Pawly 2012, p. 63.
  67. Rothenburg 1976, p. 143.
  68. Tague 2011, p. 359.
  69. Blumberg 1990, p. 238.
  70. Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 1007.
  71. Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 687.
  72. Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 82.
  73. Wheatcroft & Keegan, 2014. p. 62.
  74. Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 390.
  75. Pope & Wheal 2007, p. 476.
  76. Kershaw 2008, p. 96.
  77. 77.0 77.1 77.2 Kershaw 2008, pp. 80, 90, 92.
  78. Tague 2011, p. 62.
  79. Alford 2003, p. 67.
  80. Wheeler-Bennett 1967, p. 497.
  81. Biesinger 2006, p. 288.
  82. Kesselring 1970, p. 64.
  83. Goldensohn 2010, p. 157.
  84. Biesinger 2006, p. 510.
  85. Mineau 2004, p. 109.
  86. Williamson 2006, p. 109.
  87. Wright 2009, p. 110.
  88. Tague 2011, p. 28.
  89. Wood 2014, p. 35.
  90. Frankel 2004, p. 14.
  91. Mitcham 2006, p. 14.
  92. Roberts & Tucker 2005, p. 216.
  93. Breuer 2002, p. 131.
  94. 94.0 94.1 94.2 94.3 94.4 94.5 Matthews 2013, p. 349.
  95. Tague 2011, p. 326.
  96. Mitcham 2007, p. 200.
  97. Pawly 2012, p. 289
  98. Wistrich 1982, p. 84
  99. Fellgiebel 2000, p. 198.

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