List of Gothic brick buildings

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Copernicus' House in Toruń, Poland, built under the rule of the Teutonic Order
File:Arras, La Grande Place 035d.jpg
"House of the three Lepards" in Arras, northern France

Brick Gothic in a narrow sense is applied for a kind of Gothic architecture widespread in the Northern Germany, Denmark, Poland and the Baltic states. It is also called Baltic Brick Gothic or North German Brick Gothic. But the distribution and the range of varieties of Gothic brick buildings are much wider.

Preface

Localizations

Northern belt:

A bit different from the countries around the Baltic Sea is the style of Gothic brick buildings in the very northwest of Germany, the Netherlands and Flanders, including the Belgian and the French part of that landscape. Nevertheless, there is a continuous belt from the Strait of Dover to Lake Peipus. The latitude extent of this region increases eastward, spreading to the Finnish Lakeland and the foot of the Carpates in Poland), almost making the belt a triangle.

Four Southern regions:Far south of it, there are three more regions of Gothic brick architecture.

The Bavarian style is very different from the northern German styles. The French and Italian styles are much more different from the German and Dutch ones, and as well different from each other.

Borderline styles

In all these regions, the distinction of Gothic from the preceding Brick Romanesque and succeeding Brick Renaissance is not always sharp. Often, Romanesque buildings were altered or added to in the Gothic style, others were begun while the Romanesque style prevailed, but completed in a Gothic fashion due to the slow building process. Such buildings can be classed equally with both styles.

Cultural and political contexts

The distribution of northeastern Brick Gothic is similar but not identical with the sphere of influence of the Hanseatic League, with a preponderance in the younger cities east of the Elbe. Besides urban representative buildings, cathedrals and churches, monasteries of the Mendicant Orders and other communities, especially the Cistercians and the Premonstratensians, played an important role. In Prussia, Lavia and Estonia, the Teutonic Knights erected brick Ordensburgen. But also their opponents, Poland and Lithuania took over that style.

This list will never be complete. It does not attempt to list all of the thousands of Brick Gothic buildings that exist or once existed. Instead, it aims to list significant structures, buildings that are considered especially important for stylistic, functional, or other reasons. The main criterion is a building's being listed in art historical survey works on Brick Gothic[1] and/or that its outstanding role has been referred to in individual scientific publications.

The dates given here refer to the present extant Gothic structures. Predecessors or post-Gothic alterations are not normally mentioned, but can be assessed by following up the literature. The most influential structures are indicated by bold print. Romanesque and Renaissance structures are not listed. Similarly, Gothic Brick structures from outside the Baltic or North German regions, e.g. the Danubian ones, are included, as the traditional terminology was quite ideological. Neogothic edifices are also not listed.

Lists

Belarus

– See also Belarusian Gothic -

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Hnesna (DE) Church of Saint Michael[2][3] 1524–1527 tower old, nave rebuilt in Gothic Revival style
Hniezna. Гнезна (2007).jpg
Kreva Kreva Castle Early 14th century Partially built of fieldstones
Lida Lida Castle 14th century Stone with brick superstructure
Kamianiec Tower 1276–1289 Border stronghold, one of the earliest brick constructions in the region
Mir Mir Castle Late 15th to early 16th UNESCO World Heritage Site. Major Renaissance alterations
Synkavichy(SV) St. Michael 16th century fortified church
Царква Сьв. Міхаіла Архангела ў Сынкавічах, foto 3.jpg

Belgium

Most of the Gothic brick architecture in Belgium can be found in West Flanders, the rest in a narrow strip along the border with the Netherlands. Many Gothic brick churches in the Province of Limburg have been lost in the nineteenth century, as they were displaced by Gothic Revival churches.

Place Building Time of construction Notes Picture
Assenede Sint-Pieter en Sint-Martinuskerk[4] oldest parts Romanesque, northern aisle new
Balen
(Province of Antwerp)
Sint-Andrieskerk (NL)
Bocholt Sint-Laurenskerk only the nave
Bruges Belfry
Old St. John's Hospital
Church of Our Lady
St. Salvator's Cathedral
Various houses of citizens
Damme Town hall Brabantine Gothic, façade to the market place in stone
Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Hemelvaartkerk[5] Gothic & Baroque
Huyse de Grote Sterre
Diksmuide Belfort[6]
Herentals Begijnhofkerk Sint-Catharina[7] 1614
Hoogstraten Sint-Katharinakerk (NL) 1525–1550
Ieper St Martin's Cathedral only parts in brick
Kasterlee Sint-Willibrorduskerk (NL) tower old, nave Gothic Revival
Maldegem St-Barbarakerk (NL) crossing tower & choir
Meeuwen
(Province of Limburg)
Sint-Martinuskerk (NL)[8]
Moerbeke Church of Abbot St-Anthony
(kerk Sint Antonius Abt)[9]
14th–15th century
Peer Sint-Trudokerk (NL) only the tower in brick
Poperinge Sint-Bertinuskerk (NL)
Sint-Jankerk[10] 13th–15th century stabilized and a bit altered in the 19th century
Poperinge - Sint-Janskerk.jpg
Onze-Lieve-Vrouwkerk[11]
near Roeselare Rumbeke Castle Gothic, Renaissance & Baroque
Steenkerke Sint-Laurentiuskerk
Veurne Sint-Niklaaskerk (NL)
Sint-Walburgakerk (NL)
Zuienkerke Sint-Michielskerk[12]

Denmark

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Aarhus Cathedral End of 14th century to 1500
Church of Our Lady Mid-13th century to 1500
Haderslev Church of St. Mary Mid-14th century to 1440
Haderslev Domkirke.jpg
Odense Saint Canute's Cathedral
Odense - Sankt Knuds kirke 2005-07-16.jpeg
Ribe Cathedral Built in 12th and 13th century of tufa, sandstone and granite (Romanesque), later additions of brick
Roskilde Cathedral 12th to 13th century UNESCO World Heritage Site. Essentially Romanesque but incorporating Gothic features. Among earliest large-scale brick edifices in northern Europe.
Roskilde domkirke west fassade.jpg
Næstved St. Peter's Church 12th to 14th century Built on the site of an earlier Romanesque church, the Gothic church has scarcely been altered since 1375.
Skt. Peders Kirke - Næstved.jpg

England

In England, the use of bricks for pretentious buildings began later than in continental Europe. And the collective of Gothic brick buildings differs, almost no religious buildings and very few urban ones.

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Barsham (Norfolk) East Barsham Manor Norfolk rebuilt in the 1920s and 1930s
Burnham-on-Crouch (Essex) Creeksea Place Elizabethan architecture
Colchester (Essex) Layer Marney Tower 1520 tallest Tudor gatehouse in Britain
Layer marney21.jpg
Warwickshire Compton Wynyates 1481 Tudor architecture
Compton Wynyates.jpg
Guildford (Surrey) Sutton Place 1525 Tudor architecture
Entrance facade at Sutton Place - geograph.org.uk - 1556942.jpg
near Henley-on-Thames (Oxfordshire) Greys Court Elizabethan architecture, partly stone with layers of brick, partly brick
Greys Court.jpg
Richmond upon Thames (London) Hampton Court Palace Elizabethan architecture
City of Westminster (London) St James's Palace 1531–1536 Tudor architecture
St Jamess Palace.jpg
Manchester Hough End Hall Elizabethan architecture
Morley Saint Peter (Norfolk) Morley Old Hall about 1600 Tudor architecture photo wanted
north of Newbury (Berkshire) Shaw House Elizabethan architecture
Shaw House.jpg
Oxborough (Norfolk) Oxburgh Hall Elizabethan architecture
Oxburgh Hall 2.jpg
Prestbury (Cheshire) Normans Hall partly timber-framed, partly brick photo wanted
Ramsbury (Wiltshire) Littlecote House Elizabethan architecture, partly in bricks
Rochester (Kent) Eastgate House Elizabethan architecture, partly brick, partly half-timbered
Eastgate House, Rochester High St.JPG
Sevenoaks District (Kent) Otford Palace 1537 ruins
Shottesbrooke (Berkshire) Shottesbrooke Park House 16th century Tudor architecture
Shottesbrooke Park - geograph.org.uk - 604889.jpg
near Tasburgh (Norfolk) Rainthorpe Hall Elizabethan architecture
Cheshire West and Chester Willaston Old Hall Elizabethan architecture
Willaston Old Hall - geograph.org.uk - 2282882.jpg
Whitchurch-on-Thames (Oxfordshire) Hardwick House before 1526 Tudor architecture
Woking (Surrey) Woking Palace 13th century & 1503 ruins
Woking Palace, near Old Woking - geograph.org.uk - 40278.jpg

Estonia

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Tartu Cathedral 15th century Destroyed in Livonian War, east part of ruin now houses Tartu University Museum. Towers were originally 66 m high (now 22 m).
St. John Early 14th century Numerous terracotta sculptures covering both the interior and the exterior.

Finland

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Espoo Cathedral Parts in Brick Gothic
Halikko Holy (Saint) Bridget Church Portico in Brick Gothic
Hämeenlinna Häme Castle 14th and 15th century, on earlier fieldstone foundations Brick castle
Hattula Holy Cross Church Northernmost Brick Gothic building
Porvoo Cathedral
Porvoon Tuomiokirkko.jpg
Turku Cathedral
Turku cathedral 26-Dec-2004.jpg
Saint Mary's Church (Finnish: Maarian kirkko)

France

Northern region with French Flanders

Department Place Building Time of construction Notes Image
Nord Arnèke Église Saint-Martin (images) 100px
Bailleul,
town hall
[13]
Bellfry (FR) (images) 15th century destroyed in 1918,
rebuilt a bit simpler in 1929
100px
Gothic hall survived the bombings of 1918
Bergues Bellfry (FR) 14th–16th century destroyed in 1944,
almost identically rebuilt in 1961 (images)
100px
Saint-Martin Church (FR) (images) 100px
Blaringhem Saint-Martin Church only the tower and parts of the nave are in bricks,
pseudo-basilica[14]
100px
Bourbourg Saint-John-Baptiste Church (FR) partly in bricks (images) 100px
Dunkerque Bellfry (FR) (images) Dunkerque Belfort.JPG
Saint-Eloi Church (FR) (images) 100px
Esquelbecq Saint-Folquin Church (images) 100px
Hazebrouck Saint-Éloi Church (images) 100px
Houtkerque Église Saint-Antoine (images) 100px
Morbecque Saint-Firmin Church (FR) 100px
Oost-Cappel Église Saint-Nicolas [15] only northern aisle Oost-Cappel, église Saint Nicolas foto3 2013-05-11 13.01.jpg
Saint-Georges-sur-l'Aa Saint-Georges Church Saint-Georges-sur-l'Aa - Eglise.jpg
Saint-Jans-Cappel Tower of St John Baptiste 1557 Gothic/Renaissance[16] 100px
Samer Saint-Martin Church (FR) 100px
Steenvoorde Saint-Peter's Church [17] 100px
Watten Abbey Notre-Dame du Mont (FR) ruins (images) 100px
Saint-Gilles Church (images) 100px
Zutkerque Saint-Martin Church 100px
Pas de Calais Arras House of the three Lepards (FR) 1467 100px
Calais Église Notre-Dame partly in brick (images) 100px
Tour du Guet 100px
Ham-en-Artois Église Saint-Sauveur (FR)[18] partly in brick (images) 100px
Hesdin Église Notre-Dame[19] before 1554 Renaissance portal of 1585
(Wikimedia has no images of the Gothic phase.)
Somme Beaucamps-le-Jeune Église Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption (images) 100px

Central France, south of Orleans

In the Loir-et-Cher department, there is a small group of Gothic brick buildings. One of them even is among the most famous buildings of France, though not for its bricks.

Place Building Time of construction Notes Image
Blois Blois Castle 1440–1501 wings of Charles VIII and Louis XII,
Flamboyant style and onset of the Brick-and-Stone style[20]
Lassay-sur-Croisne Château du Moulin (FR) 15th century
Chaumont-sur-Tharonne St-Étienne (st Steven's Church) 15th century
Saint-Viâtre Saint-Viâtre Church (FR) early 16th century southern façade of the transept
Souvigny-en-Sologne Saint-Martin Church (FR) 16th century western part of the nave center|100px
Vouzon St-Peter's Church (FR) 15th–16th century tower: stone and mosaic of bricks

Southern France around Toulouse

Department Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Haute-Garonne Toulouse Toulouse Cathedral (images)
Façade de la cathédrale Saint-Étienne de Toulouse.jpg
Couvent des Cordeliers (FR) (images) ruins
Jacobine Convent (FR) (images)
Saint Nicolas Church
Notre-Dame du Taur (FR)
Notre-Dame de la Dalbade (FR) (images)
Hôtel Vinhas[21]
Rue Croix-Baragnon, house n° 15 (images) Romano-Gothic
Rue Croix-Baragnon, house n° 19 much altered
Auterive (FR) Saint-Paul's Church (FR)
Daux Eglise Saint-Barthélémy (images) de Daux
Grenade (FR) Our-Lady's-Assumption Church* (FR)
Villefranche de Lauragais (FR) Our-Lady's-Assumption Church*
Tarn Albi Cathedral of Saint-Cecile (images)
Palais de la Berbie (FR) (images) in the Cité Épiscopale (FR)
Albi palais berbie.JPG
Gaillac Abbaye Saint-Michel (FR) (images)
Église Saint-Pierre (FR) (images)
Lavaur Cathedral Saint-Alain
Saint-Francis Church (FR)
Rabastens Église Notre-Dame-du-Bourg (FR)
Tarn-et-Garonne Montauban Église Saint-Jacques (FR)
Beaumont-de-Lomagne Our-Lady's-Assumption Church*
Finhan Église Saint-Martin Gothic Revival modifications
Ariège Pamiers Cathédrale Saint-Antonin (images)
Église Notre-Dame-du-Camp[22] (images) 1343, 1466 built on a Romanesque predecessor (portal of the 12th century), later reconstructions in 1672, 1769, 1773
Tour des Cordeliers (images)
Tour de l'hôtel des Monnaies
Gers The department of Gers has a significant number of buildings in Southern French Gothic style, built in stone, such as the cathedrals of Condom and Lectoure. Its brick buildings are found in the southwest, near to Toulouse region.
Gimont Our-Lady's-Assumption Church*
Lombez Saint-Mary's Cathedral
Simorre Église Notre-Dame (FR)

(*) "Our-Lady's-Assumption Church" = Église Notre-Dame-de-l'Assomption

Germany

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Altentreptow Petrikirche (St. Peter) Mid-13th to 1st half 14th century Hall church
Demminer Tor, (Demmin Gate) about 1450
Neubrandenberger Tor (Neubrandenburg Gate) about 1450
Anklam Marienkirche (St. Mary) 2nd half 13th to late 14th century Hall church; planned with two towers, not completed, thus asymmetric
MarienkircheAnklam.JPG
Steintor (stone gate) 13th/14th century
Steintor Anklam.JPG
Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas) 14th century Heavily damaged 1945, ruin restored, reconstruction in progress
Barth Marienkirche
Dammtor (Dam Gate)
Bergen auf Rügen St. Marienkirche (St Mary) Started 1180, consecrated 1193, renovated 1380 and after 1445 Former monastic church of Benedictine or Cistercian nuns; basilica
Marienkirche in Bergen auf Rügen.jpg
Bützow Stiftskirche (abbey church) Mid-13th to 2nd half 14th century Hall church
Bad Doberan Doberan Minster Begun 1291, consecrated 1368 Former Cistercian monastic church; basilica
Franzburg Town church
Friedland Marienkirche (DE) (St. Mary) Hall church
St.-Nikolai-Kirche (St. Nicholas) ruin since WW.II
Wiekhaus (wall-bound house) "Fischerburg" (Fisherman's Castle)
Anklamer Tor (… Gate) (DE)
Neubrandenburger Tor (… Gate) (DE)
Greifswald Marienkirche (St. Mary) 1330 to early 15th century Hall church
Collegiate Church St. Nicholas (no cathedral) Mid 14th to 1st quarter 15th century Basilica
Greifswalddom2.JPG
St.-Jacobi-Kirche (St. James) First mentioned 1280, renovation circa 1400 Early Gothic hall church
House Markt 11 Probably after 1400 One of the most richly decorated Bürgerhäuser in North Germany
Greifswald - Marktplatz 1.jpg
near Greifswald Eldena Abbey Begun 1225, provisionally completed 1265, added to until 1350 Former Cistercian monsatery; now ruin; favourite motif of Caspar David Friedrich
Klosterruine Eldena2.jpg
Güstrow Cathedral St. Marien, St. Johannes Evangelist und St. Cecilia (St Mary, John the Evangelist and Cecilia) Early 13th to late 15th century Hall church
Guestrow Dom.jpg
Marienkirche (St. Mary) Gothic brick basilica
Malchin St. Maria und St. Johannes (St. Mary and John) From 1397 Basilica
Marlow Town church 13th & 15th century nave mainly Romanesque, tower Gothic
Neubrandenburg Marienkirche (St. Mary) 2nd half 13th century
St. Johannes (St. John) 1st half 14th century Hall church, former Franciscan monastery
Town fortifications, e.g. Stargard Gate, Treptow Gate, New Gate After 1300 until early 15th century
Ribnitz-Damgarten St.-Bartholomäus-Kirche (St.-Barthomomew's), Damgarten In 15th century Brick Gothic enlargement of a Romanesque stone building. The tower is Gothic Revival.
Rostocker Tor, Damgarten
Klosterkirche (Church of the former moonastry), Ribnitz
Marienkirche, Ribnitz
Rostock Marienkirche (St. Mary) Two building phases, after 1290 and after 1398 Basilica; main church of Rostock
Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas) Present form after 1400
Petrikirche (St. Peter) Between 2nd quarter 14th and early 15th century
City Hall Core around 1230, Gothic facade after 1300 Since 1729 mostly obscured by Baroque structure
Kloster zum Heiligen Kreuz (Monastery of the Holy Cross) 1st half 14th century Former Cistercian nunnery
Jakobikirche (St. James) Damaged in World War II, demolished 1960
House Kröpeliner Straße Late 15th century Former parsonage (now library)
Kerkhoff House 3rd quarter 15th century Bürgerhaus (now registry office)
Kerkhoffhaus.jpg
City gates (incl. Steintor, Kröpelin Gate) 13th to 16th century
Schwerin Cathedral Circa 1280 to ca. 1420 Basilica
Stralsund Historic Centre UNESCO World Heritage Site
Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas) About 1270 to early 15th century Main church of Stralsund
Stralsund St Nikolai.jpg
City Hall Several stages in 13th and 14th centuries Most important profane urban building in Stralsund
Marienkirche (St. Mary) 1382/84 to late 15th century Second largest brick church in Hanseatic region, basilica
Stralsund Marienkirche 2006.jpg
Jakobikirche (St. James) Present structure started after 1300, altered after 1400 Basilica
Johanniskloster (Abbey of St. John) Early 14th century Former Franciscan monastery; hall church
Wulflam House (Wulflamhaus)
Katharinenkloster (Abbey of St. Catherine) 2nd half 13th century Former Dominican monastery
Wismar Historic Centre UNESCO World Heritage Site
Georgenkirche (St. George) Oldest part about 1300, completed in 15th century One of the most important and most monumental structures in Baltic region
Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas) Present structure started after 1380, completed 2nd half 15th century Basilica
Marienkirche (St. Mary) Begun after 1339, completed in 15th century After World War II damage dynamited in 1960, only tower survives. Was reputed to be one of the most beautiful churches in north Germany
Alter Schwede Circa 1380 Private House (now restaurant)
WismarAlterSchwede.jpg
Archidiakonat (Archdeacons's House) Mid 15th century Private house
Wassertor (Water Gate) 3rd quarter 15th century
Bad Sülze Town church
Tribsees Thomaskirche
Mühlentor (Mill Gate)
Steintor (Stone Gate)
Wolgast Petrikirche (St. Peter) 1280–1350 Basilica
Zarrentin Monastery
  • Church primarily Romanesque in stone about 1240,
    Brick Gothic enlargements about 1310 and 1460
  • Convent building 15th century or earlier

Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Bordesholm Bordesholm Abbey church (DE) 1309–1332 Former Augustine monastery
Cismar Cismar Abbey 13th century Former Benedictine monastery
Eutin St.-Michaelis-Kirche (St. Michael) 1st third 13th century, altered in 14th and 15th centuries
Flensburg Heiliggeistkirche (Church of the Holy Ghost) (DE)
Marienkirche (DE)
Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas) (DE) Two phases, between 1390 and 1480
Nordertor (Northern gate) (DE)
Former Franciscan monastery (DE)
Apotheke (chemistry) Südermarkt 12 1490
  • Oldest profane building of Flensburg
  • Painted but not plastered
Hamburg St. Petri (St. Peter)
St. Katharinen (St. Catherine)
St. Jacobi (St. James)
Lauenburg (Elbe) Maria-Magdalenen-Kirche (DE)
Lübeck Historic Centre UNESCO World Heritage Site
Marienkirche (St. Mary) From 1251, completed late 14th century Basilica; most influential Brick Gothic building
City Hall Main building 1340–50, so-called Langes Haus 1298–1308, Kriegsstubenbau 1442–44 One of the most important profane buildings in Brick Gothic
Cathedral Foundation laid in 1173 by Henry the Lion, consecrated 1247, Gothic alterations from 1266 until 15th century
Lübeck Dom-von-Westen 070311.jpg
Holstentor 1466–78, major additions later
Burgtor
Petrikirche (St. Peter) Several phases, late 13th to 15th century
Germany Luebeck St Petri Turm.jpg
Jakobikirche (St. James) After 1276 to 1334
Aegidienkirche (St. Aegidius) 1st half 14th century
Katharinenkirche (St. Catherine) 1300–1330 Former Franciscan monastic church
Heiligen-Geist-Hospital (Hospital of the Holy Spirit) Circa 1276 bis 1286
Burgkloster After 1276 to 1401 Former Dominican monastery, modern additions
St.-Annen-Kloster Lübeck (Monastery of St. Anne) Former Augustinian nunnery, damaged by fire in 1843
Kanzleigebäude (Chancellery) Built 1484, enlarged 1588 and 1614
Meldorf Sankt-Johannis-Kirche (St. John) 1230–1300
Schleswig St.-Petri (Cathedral) (St. Peter) 1275–1320
Schleswig WT2005.jpg

Brandenburg, Berlin and Saxony-Anhalt

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Bad Wilsnack Wunderblutkirche St. Nikolai (Church of the Holy Blood) Main pilgrimage in North Germany
Berlin St. Marienkirche (St. Mary)
MarKirche 1a.jpg
Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas)
Graues Kloster (Grey Abbey) End of 13th century Former Franciscan abbey; ruined since World War II
Brandenburg St.-Katharinenkirche (St. Catherine) Two phases after 1401
Cathedral St. Peter and Paul Main period of construction 1165–1240 First brick church in Margraviate of Brandenburg
Former Marienkirche (St. Mary) Built circa 1220, demolished 1722 Formerly important pilgrimage church
Chorin Chorin Abbey Former Cistercian monastery
Doberlug-Kirchhain Dobrilugk Abbey Former Cistercian monastery
Frankfurt (Oder) Marienkirche (St. Mary) 1253–1367, choir completed 1367, additions in 15th century
Town hall Begun 1253, altered in 14th century
Havelberg Cathedral St. Marien (St. Mary) 1150–1170 in stone, 1280–1330 mixed
  • originally a Romanesque basilica in stone with flat ceilings
  • After destruction by a fire in 1279, the nave was rebuilt in Gothic style in a mixture of brick and stone, most impressive in the northern wall.
  • The adjacent convent buildings are of pure Brick Gothic.
Jüterbog Town hall
Mönchenkloster (monastery)
Jüterbog-Zinna Zinna Abbey Mainly from 1220 Former Cistercian monastery
Lehnin Lehnin Abbey From end of 12th century, consecrated 1262 or 1270
Prenzlau Marienkirche (St. Mary)
Salzwedel Church St. Marien; St. Katharinen
Local courthouse (former town hall)
Fortifications(Steintor, Neuperver Tor)
Stendal Marienkirche (St. Mary) ((DE)
St. Nikolaus (St. Nicholas) (DE) 1423 to mid-15th century called "Dom", former collegiate church, never been a cathedral
Town hall Gothic part early 15th century

Fortifications:

  • Tangermünder Tor (gate)
  • Uenglinger Tor (gate)
Tangermünde Town hall Circa 1430
Stephanskirche (St. Stephen) 14th century
Fortifications 14th to 15th century
Tangermünde Elbtor.jpg

Lower Saxony and Bremen

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Apen St. Nicholas Church (DE) 1238 early Gothic
Aschendorf (Papenburg) St. Amandus Church(DE) in Aschendorf
Bardowick Cathedral St. Peter and Paul 1389–1485
Bassum Stiftskirche (Abbey Church) (DE) basically Romance,
completed in Gothic style,
hall church
Bederkesa, Municipality of Geestland Bederkesa Castle (DE) first section before 1460 Late Gothic and Renaisssance
Berne St. Aegidius' Church (DE) 13th century early Gothic, traverse roofs
Bunde, Germany Reformed village church (DE)
Braunschweig Liberei (library) 1413–1422 Oldest surviving library building north of the Alps
Bremen St. Martini (St. Martin) Late Gothic
convent church St. John's re-catholized in early 19th century
village church St. John's (DE) in Arsten suburb, Obervieland
City hall 1405–1410; 1608–1612 altered in style of Weser Renaissance
Bremen-rathaus.jpg
Blomendal House (Burg/Haus Blomendal (DE))[23] 1353 several alterations in Baroque, Rococo and historistical styles
BurgBlomendal.jpg
Dorum St.-Urbanus Church (DE) 1510 late Gothic hall choir at an older aisleless nave
Ebstorf Ebstorf Abbey 14th century Premonstratensian, later Benedictine monastery
Esens (East Frisia) St.-Aegydius Church (DE) in Stedesdorf
St. Nicholas Church (DE) in Werdum
Fürstenau Börstel Abbey Mid-13th century onwards Former Cistercian nunnery
Hagen im Bremischen Hagen Castle (DE: Burg zu Hagen) 1502–1507 Post of the Archbishops of Bremen
Hanover Marktkirche (market church) 14th century
Hinte reformed village church (DE) 15th century late Gothic with an older – Romanesque – bell house
Groß Midlum Church (DE)
Hude Hude Abbey 13th century Now ruin
Ihlow (Ostfriesland) Bangstede Church (DE) 13th century Romanesque/Gothic
Ochtelbur Church (DE) 13th century Romanesque/Gothic
Riepe Church (DE) late Gothic
Simonswolde Church (DE) 13th century Romanesque/Gothic
St. Nicholas Church (DE) in Weene 13th century Romanesque/Gothic
Jemgum in Rheiderland St.-Sebastian Church (DE) in Hatzum
Krummhörn Grimersum Church (DE) in Grimersum 13th century Romanesque/Gothic
(DE) in Uttum 13th century nave Romanesque, tower Gothic
Rhauderfehn (DE) in Backemoor 13th century nave Romanesque, tower Gothic
Leer (East Frisia) Harderwykenburg Circa 1450 Fortified house, whitewashed
Lilienthal Abbey church St. Mary's[24] 1250–1262 early Gothic
Lüneburg St. Johannis (St. John) 1300–1370
Town hall 1st half to end 13th century
Michaeliskirche Circaum 1375
Nikolaikirche (St. Nicholas) 1407–1440
Marienhafe Marienkirche (St. Mary) 13th century Formerly triple-naved church with 80-m tower doubling as landmark for shipping, in 1829 tower reduced and part of church demolished for financial reasons
Norden, East Frisia Ludgeri Church (DE) 15th century Choir, transept and separate belfry of an originally Romanesque building
Stade St. Wilhadi (DE) 14th century hall church
St. Wilhadi, facade.jpg
Verden Cathedral 1290–1323 and 1473–1490 Romanesque predecessor from 12th century
Walsrode Chapel of Walsrode Abbey 1483 Reconstruction after a fire caused by a lightning in 1482 no photo of the chapel available
Wienhausen Wienhausen Abbey 13th and 14th century Cistercian nunnery
Wildeshausen Town hall 13th–15th century

North Rhine-Westphalia

In North Rhine-Westphalia, Brick Gothic is concentrated west of the Rhine north of Cologne (Köln) and in western Münsterland. The regional style, including the colour of the bricks (very dark or very pale, but almost never red), is very similar to neighbouring regions of the Netherlands – where most historical churches have been displaced by Gothic Revival buildings.

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Bergheim Aachener Tor (Aachen Gate) (DE)
Aachener Tor.jpg
Geretzhoven Castle (DE) 14th century interior relaunch in the 1920s
incorporated village of Gesch:
Ss. Cosmas and Damian Church (DE)
1493 + 1553
  • partly several layers of bricks alternant with a layer of stone
  • enlarged 1553 in Gothic and in 1887 in Gothic revival style.
incorporated village of Niederaußem:
Church of St. Johann Baptist (DE)
oldest parts Romanesque, Gothic enlargement in the 16th century, now a pseudo-basilica with three parallel ridges
incorporated village of Pfaffendorf:
St-Pancrace-Church (DE)
1505 Gothic enlargement of an older church, 1860 Gothic Revival alterations
Paffendorf Castle (DE) 1531–1546 enlarged in 1745–1753, Gothic Revival alterations in 1861–1865
incorporated village of Quadrath:
St-Laurence Church (DE)
1532–1535 later enlargements
incorporated village of Thorr:
"Römerturm" ("Roman Tower") (DE)
about 1500 relic of the old parish church
Bocholt St.-Agnes Chapel[25] before 1447
  • bombed in WWII, rebuilt in 1953
  • was temporarily the church of the evangelical parish
Brüggen Brüggen Castle Altered
Dülmen Lüdinghauser Tor (gate) (DE)
Emmerich St. Martini (DE)
Erkelenz St.-Lambert Church (DE) tower
Erkenlenz Castle (DE) Guelders fortification
Geldern St. Mary Magdalene (DE), hall church
Haag Castle (DE)
Tower of Langendonk Castle (DE) ruin
Walbeck Castle (DE)
St.-Nicholas Church in Walbeck[26] 15th century
Gaesdonck (DE) Church of the seven Pains of St Mary (DE)
Geilenkirchen Trips Castle (DE) 15th century
Holy Cross Church in Süggerath (DE)
Goch St. Mary Magdalene Church (DE) new tower (moderately modern) after a recent collaps
St. Johns's Convent (DE)
Haus zu den fünf Ringen (House of the Five Rings) (DE)
Steintor (Stonegate) (DE)
Graefenthal Monastery (DE)
Grefrath Uda Castle (DE) only one tower is still upright
Kamp-Lintfort Kamp Abbey, late Gothic, hall church
Eyll Church of St. Mary's Ascention.[27]
Kerken St.-Dionysos Church[28]
in Nieukerk,
1421–1453 much enlarged in Gothic style
St. Peter und Paul[29]
in Aldekerk
basically early 15th century several changes in 1863 to 1880 in Gothic revival style
Kleve Unterstadtkirche of St-Mary's Conception (DE) hall church with two naves
Stiftskirche St-Mary's Assumption (DE)
Krefeld Linn Castle (DE) Romanesque & Gothic
Linnich St. Martinus Church (DE) brick nave, older Romanesque stone tower
near Hamminkeln Marienthal Abbey (DE)
Nettetal Bocholt Castle (DE)
Straelen Ss.-Peter-and-Paul Church (DE) hall church
Wachtendonk St. Michael Church[30] since 1360 or 1380
Wegberg St. Peter und Paul (DE) 1856/57 enlarged in Gothic Revival style, northern ailse added

Bavaria

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Dingolfing St. John's Church (St. Johannes (DE)) 1467–1502
Herzogsburg (Duke's Castle)
  • painted but not plastered
  • sopisticated tracery of shaped bricks
Donauwörth Our Dear Lady's Minster (Liebfrauenmünster (DE)) 1444–1467 Nave nowadays outside plastered, 1577–1607 Lutheran
Ingolstadt Our Lovely Dear Lady's Minster (Münster Zur Schönen Unserer Lieben Frau (DE)) 1425–1525
Landshut St. Martin's Church 1385–1500
St. Judok's Church (St. Jodok (DE)) c. 1350–1450
Church of the Holy Ghost (Heiliggeistkirche (DE)) 1407–1461 nowadays used as exposition hall
Ländtor
Munich (München) Frauenkirche 1468–1488 the largest hall church and second largest Gothic brick church of the world (volume without the upper the storeys of the towers and without the roof of the nave about 160,000 m³)
Lion's Tower (Löwenturm (DE)) fortified domicile
Straubing St. James' Church (St. Jakob (DE)) 1400–1512

Italy

Emilia-Romagna

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Bazzano (Valsamoggia) Rocca dei Bentivoglio[31][32] (IT)
Bologna Basilica of San Francesco 1236–1263
Basilica of San Giacomo Maggiore
Basilica di Santa Maria dei Servi
BO-chiesadeiservi.jpg
San Martino
San Petronio Basilica The world's largest Gothic brick church (volume about 260,000 m³)
1107 - Bologna - Facciata di San Petronio - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 9-Feb-2008.jpg
Palazzo d'Accursio the city hall
Bologna - Palazzo d'Accursio - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 5-3-2005 2.jpg
Palazzo della Mercanzia (IT) a guild hall
Busseto, (PA) Collegiata di San Bartolomeo Apostolo
Chiesa e convento di Santa Maria degli Angeli
Castell'Arquato Rocca Viscontea Castle(IT), Castle mainly bricks
Cento| Castle La Rocca di Cento, 13th–15th century[33] Gothic & Renaissance
Cesena Cesena Cathedral on the border of Romanesque and Gothic styles
Cotignola, (RV) Church of San Francesco,[34] 15th century
Ferrara Sant'Antonio in Polesine, (IT)
Imola Church of San Domenico[35] (IT)
Mirandola, Italy (MO) Chiesa del Gesù e di San Francesco a Mirandola,[36][37] damaged by the earthquakes of 2012
Modena San Francesco Parish Church[38] 1244–1445
Parma San Francesco del Prato 13th–16th centuries
North of Parma Certosa di Paradigna (IT/DE) 1298–1385
Piacenza Palazzo Comunale
Basilica of Sant'Antonino
San Francesco Church[39]
San Giovanni in Canale[40]
Castel San Giovanni Chiesa di San Giovanni Battista [41]
Ravenna Campanile of the Church of San Michele in Africisco,[42] Church of 6th century, tower of 14th/15th century
Reggio Emilia (IT)
Rimini Church of Sant'Agostino (IT)
Chiesa di Sant'Agostino, Rimini Italy.JPG
Palazzo dell'Arengo (IT)
Palazzo del Podestà
Valconasso La Chiesa dell'Annunciazione di Valconasso[43] 1st half of 14th century
Vignola Rocca di Vignola (IT) 12th–15th centuries
Vigolzone Castello di Grazzano Visconti 1395

Lombardy

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Abbiategrasso (MI) Visconti Castle (IT)
Abbiategrasso-castello visconteo1.jpg
Brescia Chiesa di Sant'Agostino (IT)
Carpiano (CR) Saint Martin's Church (IT)
Crema (CR) Duomo di Crema
Cremona San Michele Vetere
Loggia dei Militi
Cremona- La Loggia dei Militi.jpg
Palazzo Cittanova (IT)
Cusago (CR) Abbazia Santa Maria Rossa (IT)
Lentate sul Seveso (MB) Oratorio di Santo Stefano (IT)
Lodi Chiesa di Sant Agnese (IT)
Duomo, Romanesque/Gothic
Chiesa di San Francesco (IT)
Mantua (Mantova) San Francesco
Ducal palace
Mantua2 BMK.jpg
Milan (Milano) Abbazia di Chiaravalle
Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio late Antiquity/Romanesque/early Gothic
Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio
Church of San Cristoforo sul Naviglio Late Gothic
San Marco, Milan
Santa Maria Assunta di Crescenzago[44]
Santa Maria del Carmine
Palazzo Borromeo
Sforza Castle Some parts, espacially Filarete Tower, are rather 19th century reconstructions than original.
Monza San Maria in Strada
Santa Maria Strada Monza.jpg
Duomo di Monza
Duomo di monza.jpg
only façade of stone
Pandino (CR) Pandino Castle (IT)
Pavia Santa Maria del Carmine
Convento dei Francescani (former Franciscan convent)[44]
Pozzuolo Martesana (MI) Chiesa di San Francesco (IT)
San Giuliano Milanese Abbazia dei Santi Pietro e Paolo in Viboldone
Sant'Angelo Lodigiano Castello Morando Bolognini (IT)
Siziano (PV) Abbazia di Campomorto[44]
Solaro (MI) Oratorio dei Santi Ambrogio e Caterina[44]

Piedmont

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Alba Chiesa di San Domenico[45] 13th/14th centuries
Asti Cathedral of St-Mary's Assumption
Santa Maria di Viatosto (IT) 15th century Romanesque & Gothic
Rossana Santa Maria Assunta[46][47] 14th century
Saluzzo Saluzzo Cathedral (IT)
Vercelli Basilica di Sant'Andrea Romanesque/Gothic mixture, façade of stone

Tuscany

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Lucca Casa Barletti-Baroni 13th century
Guinigi Tower and Palace 14th century
Pisa Palazzo Agostini (IT)
Pistoia Ancient Bishops' Palace (IT) 12th–13th century prossibly originally plastered
Siena Basilica of San Domenico
Basilica of San Francesco
Palazzo Pubblico

Emilia-Romagna

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Bazzano (Valsamoggia) Rocca dei Bentivoglio[31][32] (IT)
Bologna Basilica of San Francesco
Basilica of San Giacomo Maggiore
Basilica di Santa Maria dei Servi
BO-chiesadeiservi.jpg
San Martino
San Petronio Basilica one of the three largest Gothic brick churches
1107 - Bologna - Facciata di San Petronio - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto, 9-Feb-2008.jpg
Palazzo d'Accursio the city hall
Bologna - Palazzo d'Accursio - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 5-3-2005 2.jpg
Palazzo della Mercanzia (IT) a guild hall
Busseto, (PA) Collegiata di San Bartolomeo Apostolo
Chiesa e convento di Santa Maria degli Angeli
Castell'Arquato Rocca Viscontea Castle(IT), Castle mainly bricks
Cento Castle La Rocca di Cento, 13th–15th century[33] Gothic & Renaissance
Cesena Cesena Cathedral on the border of Romanesque and Gothic styles
Cotignola, (RV) Church of San Francesco,[34] 15th century
Ferrara Sant'Antonio in Polesine, (IT)
Imola Church of San Domenico[35] (IT)
Mirandola, Italy (MO) Chiesa del Gesù e di San Francesco a Mirandola,[36][37] damaged by the earthquakes of 2012
Modena San Francesco Parish Church[38] 1244–1445
Parma San Francesco del Prato 13th–the 16th centuries
North of Parma Certosa di Paradigna (IT/DE) 1298–1385
Piacenza Palazzo Comunale
Basilica of Sant'Antonino
San Francesco Church[39]
San Giovanni in Canale[40]
Castel San Giovanni Chiesa di San Giovanni Battista [41]
Ravenna Campanile of the Church of San Michele in Africisco,[42] Church of 6th century, tower of 14th/15th century
Reggio Emilia (IT)
Rimini Church of Sant'Agostino (IT)
Chiesa di Sant'Agostino, Rimini Italy.JPG
Palazzo dell'Arengo (IT)
Palazzo del Podestà
Valconasso La Chiesa dell'Annunciazione di Valconasso[43] 1st half of 14th century
Vignola Rocca di Vignola (IT) 12th–15th centuries
Vigolzone Castello di Grazzano Visconti 1395

Veneto and Venezia Giulia

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Isola della Scala Torre scaligera 13th century in some parts mixed with stones
Montagnana Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta (IT) 1431–1502 with Renaissance additions
Town wall[48] Well preserved circle, some parts in brick, others in stone
Padua Basilica of Saint Anthony
Cappella degli Scrovegni
La Cappella degli Scrovegni.JPG
Pordenone Cathedral of St. Mark (Duomo) (IT)
Town hall
Portogruaro Town hall (IT)
Venice Ca' Foscari main façade of stone
Sant'Elena
Santi Giovanni
San Gregorio
Madonna dell'Orto
Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari
Basilica di Santa Maria dei Frari - Venezia.jpg
Verona Sant'Anastasia Church
Juliet's House (IT)
chiesa di San Tomaso[49] 1351, 1484
Chiesa San Fermo Maggiore [50] 10–11, gotico 14
Santi Nazaro e Celso[51] 14th
Sant'Eufemia,Church[52] 1275–1450
San Bernardino Church[53] 15th century
Chiesa di San Pietro Martire (IT)[54] 1283
Domus Mercatorum[55] 1301
Vicenza Palazzo Thiene only western wing
Villafranca di Verona Castello Scaligero (IT) 13th century tower and some other parts

Latvia

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Riga Historic Centre UNESCO World Heritage Site
Cathedral 13th century
St. Peter 13th to 15th century
St. Peter's Church.JPG
St James 13th century
St. John 15th century formerly Dominican
House of the Blackheads late 14th century onwards Destroyed in World War II and rebuilt in 1995
Turaida Castle 14th century

Lithuania

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Vilnius St. Anne's 1495–1500 Highly exceptional use of Late Gothic Flamboyant style
Vilnius.Sv.Onos baznycia.Saint Ann's church2.jpg
St. Francis 15th century and later repairs Belarusian type of Gothic
St. Nicholas Late 14th century The oldest surviving Latin church building in Lithuania
Mikalojus Church.jpg
Gediminas Tower and Upper Castle Early 15th century, many later alterations Built by Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas
Gediminas Tower in Vilnius (cropped).jpg
Kaunas Cathedral Construction from 1408 onwards Basilica, the largest Gothic church in Lithuania
Castle Construction from mid-14th century onwards The oldest brick castle in Lithuania
St. Gertrude 15th century? Belarusian type of Gothic
Gertrude's in Kaunas.jpg
Church of The Accession of The Holy Virgin Circa 1400 Former Franciscan, unique Latin cross layout
House of Perkūnas Late 15th century The other example of exceptional brick Flamboyant style
Medininkai Castle 13th century The only surviving enclosure type castle and the largest in Lithuania
Trakai Island Castle 14th - early 15th century Built by Grand Dukes of Lithuania Kęstutis and Vytautas.
Trakai-Troki.jpg
Peninsula Castle Late 14th century and later repairs Built by Grand Duke of Lithuania Kęstutis
Trakai old castle.jpg
Zapyškis St. John The Baptist church 1578 The only surviving rural Gothic church in Lithuania, Belarusian type of Gothic

Netherlands

Place Building Time of construction Notes Picture
Aardenburg
(Zeeuws-Vlaanderen)
Sint-Bavokerk (NL) Scheldt Gothic
Amersfoort Sint-Joriskerk (NL)
Onze Lieve Vrouwetoren
Pakhuis (ancient warehouse)
Amsterdam Oude Kerk brick and stone
Okerk2.jpg
Agnietenkapel (NL)
Nieuwe Kerk western nave and other parts
Appingedam Nicolaïkerk 15th century predecessor 1225
Arnhem Waalse kerk = Agnietenkapel (NL) 15th century
Barneveld Oude Kerk (NL) 12th or 13th century Romanesque & Gothic
Bedum :nl:Walfriduskerk slanting Romanesque stone tower
Breda Sint-Joostkapel] (NL)
Waalse kerk (NL) 1440
Deurne
(Noord-Brabant)
"Small Castle"(NL)
Delft Oude Kerk 1246 slanting tower
Chapel St-Hippolyte(NL) 1400
Eastern Gate
Deventer Lebuïnuskerk brick and stone
Broederenkerk (NL)
Doesburg Martinikerk 15th century
Dordrecht Grote Kerk
Edam Grote Kerk (NL)
Ede Oude Kerk (NL)
Eindhoven Mariënhage Abbey(NL)
Enkhuizen Westerkerk Mariënhage partly belts of sandstone
Zuiderkerk (NL) partly belts of sandstone
Gennep Kasteel Heijen Gothic & Renaissance
Kapel van St. Antonius Abt (Ven-Zelderheide)
Molenstraat 11
Goes Grote Kerk (NL) brick & stone
Town hall(NL) 15th, 16th & 18th centuries
Gouda Sint Janskerk only parts in brick
St.Janskerk.jpg
Grave (Maas) Protestant Church(NL)
Groningen Der Aa-kerk
Martinikerk
Harderwijk Sint-Catharinakerk 1502 restored in 1913
Ancient plague hospital previous chapel of the Friars' House
Vischpoort 14th century
2007-03-11 13.31 Harderwijk, stadspoort aan kant van Veluwemeer foto1.JPG
Hasselt Sint-Stephanuskerk (NL)
Helmond Helmond Castle (NL) about 1325
's-Hertogenbosch "De Moriaan" house (NL) 1220
Old St-James Church(NL) later changes
Hilversum Tower vof the Grote Kerk 1481
IJsselstein IJsselstein Castle (NL) 1418–1427 Campine Gothic
Sint-Nicolaaskerk Hervormde kerk (NL) tower renaissance
Kampen Bovenkerk mixed with stone
Broederkerk (NL)
Broederpoort (NL) altered to Renaissance
Koornmarktpoort
Kapelle (Zeeland) Geerteskerk (NL)
Leeuwarden Grote Kerk (NL)
Leiden Academiegebouw (NL)
Academiegebouw Universiteit Leiden.png
Hooglandse Kerk only its aisles
Pieterskerk Late Gothic
25446 Pieterskerk.jpg
Loppersum Petrus en Pauluskerk 1217–1530
Makkum (Frisia) Doniakerk (NL) 1680 nagotiek
Middelburg (Zeeland) Middelburg Abbey
Middelharnis Grote Kerk
Nijkerk Grote Kerk (NL) 1461
Nijmegen Sint-Stevenskerk (NL) only parts in brick
Kruittoren (Powder Tower) Sint-Stevenskerk
Roermond St. Christopher's Cathedral 1410
Roermond kathedraal.jpg
Rotterdam Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk choir
Sellingen church Early Gothic
Sneek Grote of Martinikerk (NL) 1300, 1498
Ten Boer Abbey church Romano-Gothic
Terheijden
(Noord-Brabant
Sint-Antonius Abtkerk (NL) 15th & 16th centuries
Utrecht Buurkerk
Utrecht Cathedral
DomTorenUtrechtNederland.jpg
Venlo Sint-Martinuskerk (NL) 1480
Vlissingen St James the Great Church hall church
Vliss StJacob.jpg
Weert Sint-Martinuskerk (NL) 1456 Campine Gothic
MartinuskerkWeertLimburgNederland.jpg
Winschoten Marktpleinkerk (Market Church) (NL) Romano-Gothic
Winsum (Groningen) Torenkerk (Tower Church) (NL) 12th century,
gothified in the 16th century
tower 1693
Winterswijk Jacobskerk (NL) nave 13th century especially the choir
Workum Grote of Sint-Gertrudiskerk (NL) 1515–1532
Zierikzee Nobelpoort (NL) 14th century
Zuidhavenpoort (Southport Gate) (NL)
Zuidlaren Church (NL) 1300–15th century
Zutphen Broederenkerk (NL) 14th century
Nieuwstadskerk (NL) 13e–15th century
Walburgiskerk 11e–16th century nave
Drogenapstoren (tower) (NL) 1444–1446 originally "Saltpoort"
Zwolle Grote of Sint-Michaëlskerk (NL) 1406–1466
Broerenkerk
Old Library at the Broerenkerkplein (NL)
De Librije.jpg

Poland

Northern Poland

– Former territories of the House of the Griffins and of the Teutonic Order

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Bartoszyce St. John the Evangelist 14th-15th century
Braniewo St. Catherine Badly damaged in World War II, rebuilt afterwards
Braniewo - Bazylika mniejsza pw. św. Katarzyny.JPG
Brodnica St. Catherine 14th century
Chełmno St. Mary 1290–1333
St. Peter and Paul Built in 13th century, altered in 14th Former Dominican church
St. James and Nicholas Built in 13th and 14th century Former Franciscan church
Chełmno Church of St James and St Nicholas 1.jpg
Former Cistersian Nuns cloister with presumed Teutonic Knights fortifications 13th-14th century
City defensive walls with Grudziądzka gate 13th-16th century Almost completely preserved city defensive walls with 23 watchtowers and 1 gate
Chełmża Church of the Holy Trinity 13th-15th century Former cathedral - seat of Bishopric of Chełmno
Chojna Town hall 15th century
Chojna Kulturzentrum 01.jpg
St. Mary Mainly 1389–1459
Świecka Gate (Brama Świecka) 14th-15th century
Dobre Miasto Collegial Church
Kolegiata Dobre Miasto 1.JPG
Elbląg St. Nicholas 13th century, in 15th century converted from basilica to hall church burnt out 1945
Elbing1 Dom.jpg
Frombork Cathedral 1343–1383
Gdańsk St. Mary's Church 1343–1502 the second largest hall church and third largest Gothic brick church of the world (volume without the upper the storeys of the towers and without the roof about 140,000 m³ or less)
St. Catherine's probably 14th and 15th century
Brosen katarzyna.jpg
St. Nicholas 1348-early 15th century Dominican church
Brosen mikolaj.jpg
Church of Holy Trinity with former Franciscan monastery 1481–1514
St. George guildhall 1487-94
Gdańsk (DerHexer) 2010-07-12 072.jpg
Great Mill 14th century
Crane Gate 1442–1444
Pl gdansk zuraw dlugiepobrzeze2006.jpg
Gniew Teutonic Knights' castle Late 13th to 14th century
Poland Gniew - castle.jpg
Kamień Pomorski Cathedral of St. John Circa 1175, altered in 15th century Romanesque-Gothic Basilica
Kołobrzeg Cathedral of St. Mary 1288–1397
Kolobrzeg Basilica 2007-07.jpg
Kwidzyn Castle and Cathedral complex 14th and 15th century
Kwidzyn zamek.JPG
Lidzbark Warmiński Episcopal Castle One of the earliest brick buildings in the area
Zamek w Lidzbarku Warmińskim.jpg
Malbork Malbork Castle 1276 to late 14th century UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Teutonic Knights' castle of Marienburg is the largest non-religious Brick Gothic structure. Headquarter of the Teutonic Order since 1309. 1380s enlargements by Nikolaus von Fellenstein (see Neman, Russia).
Marienburg (1999).jpg
Nidzica Teutonic Knights' castle 14th and 15th century
Zamek w Nidzicy.jpg
Olsztyn Castle of the Cathedral Chapter 2nd half 14th century Teutonic Knights' castle; converted to a residential castle in 15th and 16th centuries
St. James Cathedral Before 1445 Late Gothic Hall church
Orneta Cathedral of St. John
Pelplin Cathedral 13th to 14th century, later alterations former Cistercian monastery
Pelplin bazylika.JPG
Radzyń Chełmiński Teutonic Knights' castle 13th and 14th century Ruin
Zamek - Radzyn Chelminski 002.jpg
Stargard Szczeciński St. Mary's 13th-century origins, 1388-1500 additions
Stargard Rynek2.JPG
Brama Młyńska (Mill Gate) 15th century One of only two survuving examples of such gates (see Waterpoort at Tweek)
Stargard Portowa.JPG
Szczecin Cathedral of St. James Several phases between 1375 and 1504
St. John 13th to 15th century, 19th-century renovations
City hall 15th century
PolandSzczecinOldCityHall.JPG
Sztum Ordensburg and town Early 14th century One of strongest Teutonic Knights' castles in the area. Much damage by fires in 1683 and 1945.
Toruń Historic Centre 13th to 15th century UNESCO World Heritage Site; churches, town hall, houses and granaries from 13th-15th century
Torun Merian 1641.jpg
Cathedral of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist 14th and 15th century Former parish church of Toruń's Old Town
Johns church in Toruń.jpg
St. Mary's Church 1350–1370 Former Franciscan hall church
St. James's church 1309-about 1340 Parish church of Toruń's New Town
Kosciol sw. Jakuba w Toruniu.jpg
Town hall 13th-14th century, rebuild in 17th century The oldest town hall tower in Central-Easter Europe in the type of Flemish belfries; many different functions in the one building (city council, archive, city court, cloth hall, shops); rebuild in 17th and 18th centuries
Teutonic Knights' castle 13th to early 15th century
City defensive walls with gates and watchtowers Half of 14th century to early 16th century One of the oldest and finest examples of city walls in Poland
House at 15 Kopernika Str. 15th century One of the best examples of Gothic brick house in Poland
CopernicusHouse.jpg

Central Poland

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Borysławice Zamkowe Castle c. 1425 Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, currently in ruins
Brochów Fortified church 1551–1561, 1596 Gothic-renaissance church established by Jan Brochowski and his family as a three-nave church with three side towers
PL Brochów.jpg
Brześć Kujawski St. Stanisław Church after 1332, 15th century
Bydgoszcz Bernardine Church 1552–1557 Late Gothic
Cathedral of St. Martin and St. Nicolas 1425–1502
Ciechanów Masovian Dukes Castle 14th century Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, currently in ruins
POL Ciechanów 1.JPG
Czersk Masovian Dukes Castle 1388–1410 Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, currently in ruins
Zamek książąt mazowieckich w Czersku 1.jpg
Czerwińsk Abbey Church 12th century Romanesque, the facade was rebuilt in gothic style in the second half of the 15th century
Czerwinsk1.jpg
Gate of Abbot Kula 1457
Czerwinsk8.jpg
Drzewica Church of St. Lucas 1321–1460
Maciej Drzewicki Castle 1527–1535 Gothic-renaissance, upper parts in brick, rest sandstone and brick, currently in ruins
Gniezno Cathedral 1342–1415, north tower completed 1512 The basilica type church, baroquified in the 17th century
Gostyń St. Margaret's Church 14th century
Koło Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (PL) 14th–15th century
Royal Castle before 1362 Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, currently in ruins
Konin St. Bartholomew's Church 14th century
Kruszwica Castle 1350–1355 Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, only the legendary Mouse Tower preserved
Liw Masovian Dukes Castle before 1429 Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, currently in ruins
Lubiń Abbey Church 15th-16th century Baroquified in the 18th century
Lubin kościół.jpg
Lublin Cracow Gate 14th century Partially rebuilt in the 18th century
Royal Castle 13th-14th century Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, inside the Castle Chapel profuse ruthenian frescos from the beginning of the 15th century, founded by Jogaila
Łęczyca Royal Castle 1357–1370
Zamek Królewski w Łęczycy.jpg
Łomża Cathedral 1504–1525 Late Masovian Gothic
Oporów Bishop Castle 1434–1449 Built for Władysław Oporowski, Bishop of Kujawy and Archbishop of Gniezno
Piotrków Trybunalski Royal Castle 1512–1519 Gothic-renaissance
Płock Masovian Dukes Castle 14th century
Plock Castle.JPG
Płock Cathedral towers 13th-14th century Romanesque cathedral, rebuilt several times
6 Plock 073.jpg
Poznań Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul 14th and 15th century One of the oldest churches in Poland and the oldest Polish cathedral, partially rebuilt in the 18th century
Katedra Poznań Front RB.jpg
Corpus Christi Church 1406, 1465–1470 Church founded by Jogaila, partially rebuilt in the 18th century
House of Psalterists 1518 Building founded by Jan Lubrański, bishop of Poznań
St. Mary's Church in summo 1431–1448 The first church was founded by Dobrawa of Bohemia in 965
Ostrów Tumski Poznań RB1.JPG
Przasnysz Church of St. John and St. Anne 1588–1618 Considered to be the last gothic church in Poland[56]
Rawa Mazowiecka Masovian Dukes Castle 14th century Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, currently in ruins
Sieradz Collegiate 1370 Baroquified in the 17th century
Szamotuły Collegiate 1423–1430
Środa Wielkopolska Church 15th century Partially rebuilt in the 16th century (attic)
Uniejów Archbishop Castle 1360–1365 Built for Jarosław Bogoria-Skotnicki, Archbishop of Gniezno
Warsaw St. John's Cathedral 14th century Completely destroyed by German artillery during the Warsaw Uprising,[57] rebuilt 1947-1957 in Masovian Brick Gothic
4 Warszawa 12.jpg
St. Mary's Church 1410–1411 Completely destroyed by German artillery during the World War II,[58] rebuilt 1947-1966
Warsaw Barbican 1548 reconstructed 1952–1954
Bridge Gate 1584, additions in 18th century Gothic-renaissance gate.
Wieluń Cracow Gate 14th century In the 19th century the town authorities adapted the building for a town hall
Włocławek Cathedral 14th and 15th century Rebuilt 1883-1901 in neo-Gothic style
Wloclawek katedra 1.jpg
Wschowa City Church 15th century Baroquified between 1720–1726
Żagań
(hist. Lower Silesia)
St Mary of the Assumption (PL) tower Gothic, nave Renaissance
Żary
(hist. Lower Silesia)
Church of Jesus' Heart (PL/DE)
Zielona Góra
(hist. Lower Silesia)
Saint Hedwig Cathedral (PL/DE) Renaissance & Baroque changes

Eastern Poland

– Former Podlachian and Polesian (Brest Litovskian) Voivodeships –

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Kodeń Church of the Holy Ghost (PL) 1530
Kodeń church1.JPG
Supraśl Orthodox Monastery
- Church of the Annunciation
1503–1511

Southwestern Poland

Silesian, Opole and Lower Silesian Voivodeships –

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Legnica Our-Dear-Lady's Church (PL) 1386 Protestant (Augsburg Confession) parish
Cathedral Ss.-Peter-and-Paul (PL) 1330–1378
  • wooden predecessor
  • 1892 original brick walls covered with a skin of new bricks
  • 1945 re-catholized
St.peter and st. paul cathedral in legnica.jpg
Nysa Basilica of St. James and St. Agnes some decorations in stone
Racibórz Church of the Holy Ghost[60] 14th century profanized in 1810, nowadays it houses the municipal museum
Kościół św. Ducha (obecnie muzeum miejskie) w Raciborzu 6.JPG
St-James Church (PL/DE) 1285 after a fire in 1637 restored in Renaissance and Baroque styles, damages of World War II repaired 1946/47
Środa Śląska St-Andrew's Church 13th century & 1388 changes in 1670 and 1830
Town Hall 15th century
StRatuszSrodaSlaska.jpg
Wrocław Cathedral of St. John 1234–1341, later repairs 98 m high towers
Poland Wroclaw Cathedral 2007.jpg
Church of the Holy Cross 1288-first half of the 14th century
Church of St. Elisabeth 1309–1387
Church of St. Mary Magdalen 1355–1360
City hall 13th century, 15th-century alterations, 19th-century additions
Error creating thumbnail: File missing
St. Martin Church 13th century,
Church of St. Barbara 15th century,
Church of St. Maria In Arena 1334-75,
Church of St. Adalbert 1250-1487,
Church of St. Martin 1300-1569,
Church of St. Vincent XIV-XVc,
Church of St. Stanislav, Vaclav and Dorothy 1351-1401,
Church of Corpus Christi XVc,
Church of John of Capistrano 1462 - 1505,
Church of St. Giles (PL/FR/DE) 1220s[61]
Wroclaw Arsenal 1459,

Southern Poland

Lesser Poland and Subcarpathian Voivodeships –

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Biecz Corpus Christi Church c. 1326-1480
Kosciol Biecz.JPG
Bell Tower 15th century Upper parts - mannerist sgraffito decorations
Bochnia St. Nicolas' Church 1440–1445
Chęciny Chęciny Castle 13th or 14th century Upper parts in brick, rest limestone. Destroyed by Swedish-Brandenburgian forces during the Deluge, currently in ruins
Dębno Jakub Dembiński Castle 15th century
Debno (js).jpg
Kraków Barbican of Kraków 1498–1499
Barbakan Krakow z ulicy Basztowej 2.jpg
Collegium Maius 15th century
Collegium Maius 07.JPG
Corpus Christi Church 1385–1405
Church of the Trinity 14th and 15th century, rebuilt after 1850 fire Former Dominican church
Kraków - Trinity Church 01.jpg
Florian Gate Early 14th century Upper parts in brick, rest limestone
St. Catherine Church 1342–1426
Krakow kosciol sw Katarzyny 20070930 1522.jpg
Old Synagogue 1407 or 1492
St. Mary's Basilica 1321–1331, 14th-15th century Hall church
Kraków - St. Mary Church 01.JPG
Town Hall Tower End of the 13th century
Wawel Castle 13th-16th century Wawel is an architectural complex erected over many centuries atop a limestone outcrop. This is a place of great significance for the Polish people. The Royal Castle with an armoury and the Cathedral are situated on the hill. The Gothic Wawel Castle was built at the behest of Casimir III the Great and consists of a number of structures situated around the central courtyard. In the 14th century it was rebuilt by Jogaila and Jadwiga of Poland.
Kraków - Wawel from Kopiec Krakusa.jpg
Wawel Cathedral 1320–1364 Upper parts in brick, rest limestone
Wawel cathedral.PNG
Nowy Sącz Church of St. Margaret 13th and 14th century
  • Upper parts in brick, lower in sandstone
  • Southernmost building of northern/Baltic Brick Gothic region
Oświęcim St. Mary's Church 14th century
Paczków Fortified church 14th century
Sandomierz Cathedral 1360 Partially rebuilt in 1670 (facade)
Sandomierz Katedra1.jpg
Długosz House 1476
Dom J. Dlugosza w Sandomierzu3.jpg
Opatów Gate 14th century
Royal Castle 14th century Partially rebuilt in 1520 in renaissance style by Benedykt Sandomierski
Szydłów St. Ladislaus' Church c. 1355
Szydlow church 20060619 1235.jpg
Tarnów Cathedral 14th century Rebuilt 1889-1897 in neo-Gothic style
Mikołajowski House 15th century, 1524
Tarnów, centrum města, ulice za kostelem.JPG
Town Hall 14th century Rebuilt in the renaissance style in the 16th century
Wiślica Długosz House 1460
Wislica Dom Dlugosza 20070825 1509.jpg
Minor Basilica 1350 Two nave church, upper parts in brick, lower in limestone

Russia

Historical Russia

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Novgorod Kremlin Chamber of Facets 1433 1441 decorated with frescos (nowadays almost lost)

Kaliningrad exclave

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Kaliningrad Königsberg Cathedral 14th century
Kaliningrad cathedral.JPG
Juditten Church
in Mendeleyevo
Late 13th century
Rodniki Arnau Church Late 14th century
Druzhba Allenburg Church 15th century
Neman Teutonic Knight's castle of Ragnit 1397–1409 One of the strongest castles of the Teutonic Order. Now ruined. Built by Nikolaus von Fellenstein (see Malbork)
Ruine der Ordensburg Ragnit.jpg
Vesyoloye Teutonic Knight's castle of Balga Circa 1239 Ruin
Zamok balga may2006.JPG

Sweden

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Balingsta Parish, southwest of Uppsala Vik Castle Circa 1450, 17th and 19th century alterations
Viks slott.jpg
Danmark Parish, southeast of Uppsala Danmark Church 14th and 15th century
Helsingborg St. Mary (Swedish: Sankta Maria kyrka)
Sankta Maria kyrka (Helsingborg, Sweden).jpg
Lena Parish, north of Uppsala Lena Church Circa 1300, possibly consecrated in 1303 18th century alterations including plastering of the exterior walls and addition of a burial vault
Lund St. Peter's Priory Church (Swedish: Sankt Peters klosterkyrka) Circa 1300
Malmö St. Peter (Swedish: Sankt Petri kyrka)
Ronneby Holy Cross Church (Swedish: Heliga Kors kyrka)
Sigtuna St. Mary (Swedish: Mariakyrkan) Mid 13th century
Skänninge Vårfrukyrkan ("Church of Our Lady")
Skepptuna Parish, Stockholm County Skepptuna Church 13th to 15th centuries
Skokloster north of Sigtuna Skokloster Church (originally a convent church: Sko klosters kyrka "Sko Convent Church") 13th century Near Skokloster Castle
Söderköping St. Lawrence's Church (Swedish: S:t Laurentii kyrka)
Sölvesborg St. Nicholas' Church (Swedish: S:t Nicolai kyrka) 13th century
Stockholm Riddarholmen Church (Swedish: Riddarholmskyrkan) Late 13th century, major 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th and 19th century alterations Burial church for many of the Swedish monarchs
Storkyrkan (St. Nicholas) 13th to 15 th century, major 18th century external alterations Outside altered into baroque stucco structure in 1736-1742 to make it more similar to the Royal Palace nearby, which was being constructed at that time after a big fire in 1697. Brick gothic interior is however preserved - it contains late gothic monumental sculpture of St. George and the dragon by Bernt Notke. It is the wedding and coronation church of many Swedish royalties
Stockholm-Storkyrkan (St.Georg).jpg
Strängnäs Strängnäs Cathedral 1296 onwards
Tensta Parish, north of Uppsala Tensta Church 13th century Houses the earliest deliberate portrait (a fresco by Johannes Rosenrod) in Swedish art history
Tensta-kyrka.jpg
Tuna Parish, northeast of Uppsala Tuna Church Circa 1300
Uppsala Uppsala Cathedral 1287–1435, major 18th and 19th century alterations External appearance largely 19th century
Uppsala domkyrka view01sml.jpg
Holy Trinity Church (Swedish: Helga trefaldighets kyrka) Late 13th to 15th century
Vadstena House of Mårten Skinnare Late Middle Ages, 18th century alterations The roof was lowered and the crow-stepped gables removed in the 18th century.
Former royal palace, then part of Vadstena Abbey and later a hospital Mid 13th century, 14th century alterations When handed over to the abbey in 1346 the building was "humbled" and the roof was lowered.
Västerås Västerås Cathedral 13th century, 14th and 15th century extensions and later alterations Burial place of Eric XIV of Sweden
Växjö Växjö Cathedral 13th century, later alterations
Vendel Parish, north of Uppsala Vendel Church Late 13th and early 14th century, possibly consecrated in 1310
Ystad St. Mary's Church (Swedish: Sankta Maria kyrka) 13th to 15th century
Franciscan Monastery Church (St. Peter) (Swedish: S:t Petri kyrka) Late 13th to 15th century

Ukraine

Place Building Main period of construction Special features Image
Łuck Lubart's Castle (Polish: Zamek w Łucku, Ukrainian: Луцький замок) 14th and 15th century
Zimno Zymne Monastery (Polish: Monaster Zaśnięcia Matki Bożej w Zimnem, Ukrainian: Зимненський монастир) after 1495

See also

Bibliography

  • Hans Josef Böker: Die mittelalterliche Backsteinarchitektur Norddeutschlands. Darmstadt 1988. ISBN 3-534-02510-5
  • Angela Pfotenhauer, Florian Monheim, Carola Nathan: Backsteingotik. Monumente-Edition. Monumente-Publikation der Deutschen Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2000, ISBN 3-935208-00-6
  • Ernst Badstübner (Bearb.): Handbuch der Kunstdenkmäler in Polen. Bearbeitet von Slawomir Brzezicki. München 2005. ISBN 3-422-03109-X
  • Hans-Christian Feldmann (ed.): Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. München 2000. ISBN 3-422-03081-6
  • Gerhard Vinken (ed.): Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler. Brandenburg. München 2000. ISBN 3-422-03054-9
  • Johannes Habich (ed.): Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler. Hamburg und Schleswig-Holstein. München 1994. ISBN 3-422-03033-6
  • Michael Antoni (ed.): Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler. West- und Ostpreußen. München 1993. ISBN 3-422-03025-5
  • Gerd Weiß (ed.): Handbuch der deutschen Kunstdenkmäler. Bremen und Niedersachsen. München 1992. ISBN 3-422-03025-5
  • Marianne Mehling (ed.): Knaurs Kulturführer in Farbe Polen. München 1995. ISBN 3-426-26492-7
  • Marianne Mehling (ed.): Knaurs Kulturführer in Farbe Estland, Lettland, Litauen. München 1993. ISBN 3-426-26608-3
  • Marianne Mehling (ed.): Knaurs Kulturführer in Farbe: Finnland. München 1988. ISBN 3-426-26248-7

References

  1. e.g. Angela Pfotenhauer, Florian Monheim, Carola Nathan: Backsteingotik. Monumente-Edition. Monumente-Publikation der Deutschen Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2000, ISBN 3-935208-00-6; Hans Josef Böker: Die mittelalterliche Backsteinarchitektur Norddeutschlands. Darmstadt 1988. ISBN 3-534-02510-5
  2. Roman Aranazy, Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolite (Residences in former districts of the (Polish) republic today (in Polish), 1993, S. 209, Hniezna
  3. radzima.org – touristical presentation of Hnezna
  4. De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed,Parochiekerk Sint-Pieter en Sint-Martinus (ID: 76102)
  5. De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed, Parochiekerk Onze-Lieve-Vrouw-Hemelvaart (ID: 78708)
  6. inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be, Stadhuis (Diksmuide - WOI) (ID: 94380)
  7. De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed, Begijnhofkerk Sint-Catharina (ID: 47015)
  8. De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed Parochiekerk Sint-Martinus (ID: 72451)
  9. De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed, Parochiekerk Sint-Antonius abt (ID: 34245)
  10. De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed, Parochiekerk Sint-Jan (ID: 31213)
  11. Onze-Lieve-Vrouwkerk Poperinge
  12. De Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed, Sint-Michielskerk (ID: 58088)
  13. Beffois & patrimoine: Bailleul
  14. Ministère de la Culture (France), Médiathèque de l'architecture et du patrimoine, Blaringhem – église Saint-Martin – buffet d'orgue, tribune d'orgue, vue générale
  15. Église-saint-Nicolas, Oost-Cappel
  16. fondation-patrimoine, ÉGLISE SAINT JEAN-BAPTISTE DE SAINT JANS CAPPEL
  17. http://steenvoordoise.e-monsite.com/pages/l-eglise-saint-pierre.html
  18. http://www.patrimoine-religieux.fr/eglises_edifices/62-Pas-de-Calais/62407-Ham-en-Artois/136993-EgliseSaint-Sauveur
  19. L’Eglise Notre-Dame
  20. Josiane Sartre, Châteaux "brique et pierre" en France: essai d'architecture
  21. Anne-Laure Napoléone, Les Maisons Gothiques de Toulouse (Template:S mini- et Template:S mini- siècles)
  22. patrimoines.midipyrenees, église Notre-Dame-du-Camp
  23. Bremish database of monuments, Haus Blomendal
  24. http://www.klosterkirche-lilienthal.de/Willkommen.html
  25. Evangelische Liebfrauengemeinde St.-Agnes-Kapelle am Schonenberg
  26. http://www.walbeck.net/seiten/das-dorf/pfarrkirche-st-nikolaus/
  27. www.lokalkompass.de, Mariä Himmelfahrt Kirche Eyll (Kamp-Lintfort)
  28. http://www.peterpaul-aldekerk.de/pfarrgemeinde/kirchen/st-dionysius-nieukerk
  29. http://www.peterpaul-aldekerk.de/pfarrgemeinde/kirchen/pfarrkirche-st-peter-und-paul
  30. Parish St Mary, history of St. Micheal Church, Wachtendonk, in German
  31. 31.0 31.1 http://www.roccadeibentivoglio.it/
  32. 32.0 32.1 GM Rocca di Bentivoglio
  33. 33.0 33.1 http://www.comune.cento.fe.it/sportellicomunali/iat/pagina93.html Comune di Cento, L'antica Rocca di Cento
  34. 34.0 34.1 San Francescochiesa romana gotica del XV secolo dedicata a San Francesco
  35. 35.0 35.1 http://visitareimola.it/portfolio/chiesa-dei-ss-nicolo-e-domenico/
  36. 36.0 36.1 Vigilfuoco, Chiesa del Gesù e di San Francesco a Mirandola
  37. 37.0 37.1 Mirandola (MO) - Visita dei media nella zona rossa
  38. 38.0 38.1 Visit Modena, San Francesco Parish Church
  39. 39.0 39.1 Tripadvisor, Chiesa di San Francesco, Piacenza
  40. 40.0 40.1 http://www.comune.piacenza.it/benvenuti/citta/cosavedere/chiese/chiesa-di-san-giovanni-in-canale
  41. 41.0 41.1 http://www.beweb.chiesacattolica.it/edificios/edificio/39401/Chiesa+di+San+Giovanni+Battista
  42. 42.0 42.1 Church of San Michele in Africisco
  43. 43.0 43.1 http://www.valco15.it/Storia%20della%20Chiesa%20di%20Valconasso.html
  44. 44.0 44.1 44.2 44.3 architecture in Lombardy (in Italian, illustrated)
  45. http://langhe.net/sight/alba-la-chiesa-di-san-domenico/
  46. Val Varaita – Comune di Rossana
  47. http://www.piemonteis.org/?p=194 ww.piemonteis.org – La chiesa di Rossana, gemma gotica tra le montagne
  48. Montagnana – La ciittà murata
  49. http://www.verona.net/it/monumenti/chiesa_san_tomaso.html
  50. http://www.verona.net/it/monumenti/chiesa_san_fermo_maggiore.html
  51. http://www.verona.net/it/monumenti/chiesa_san_nazaro_e_celso.html
  52. http://www.verona.net/it/monumenti/chiesa_santa_eufemia.html
  53. http://www.verona.net/it/monumenti/chiesa_san_bernardino.html
  54. http://www.verona.net/it/monumenti/chiesa_san_giorgetto.html
  55. http://www.verona.net/it/monumenti/domus_mercatorum.html
  56. "Przasnysz-zabytki". www.powiat-przasnyski.info (in polski). Retrieved 2009-12-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  57. Maria Irena Kwiatkowska, Krystyna Kozłowska (1978). Katedra św. Jana (St. John's Cathedral) (in polski).<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles> pp. 241-242
  58. "kościół p.w. Nawiedzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny". warszawa1939.pl (in polski). Retrieved 2009-12-17.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  59. "Geschichte". www.monaster-suprasl.pl (in Deutsch). Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-17. Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (help)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  60. Kraków-Czestochowa Upland, The Church of the Holy Spirit in Racibórz
  61. www.szlakikulturowe.dolnyslask.pl, Saint Giles’s Church and the Tower of the Chapter House