List of LGBT characters in modern written fiction

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This is a list of LGBT characters in modern written fiction. The historical concept and definition of sexual orientation varies and has changed greatly over time; for example the word "gay" wasn't used to describe sexual orientation until the mid 20th century. A number of different classification schemes have been used to describe sexual orientation since the mid-19th century, and scholars have often defined the term 'sexual orientation' in divergent ways. Indeed, several studies have found that much of the research about sexual orientation has failed to define the term at all, making it difficult to reconcile the results of different studies.[1][2][3] However, most definitions include a psychological component (such as the direction of an individual's erotic desire) and/or a behavioral component (which focuses on the sex of the individual's sexual partner/s). Some prefer to simply follow an individual's self-definition or identity. See homosexuality and bisexuality for criteria that have traditionally denoted lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people.

In a historical sense, literature as we understand it is a fairly new innovation, and the current concept of homosexuality is even fresher from the cultural oven. It's no great surprise, then, that gay literature — or even gay characters in literature — are so relatively new as to still be shiny. Nonetheless, there are gay characters that broke barriers and became cultural touchstones... —Kilian Meloy[4]

Items listed here must have verifiable third-party sources commenting on the sexuality of the character(s) in question, and additional explanation may be necessary. Additionally, only notable/significant characters from a given work (which may have multiple LGBT characters) need to be listed here.


Work Year Author Character name(s) Notes References
Carmilla 1872 Le Fanu, SheridanSheridan Le Fanu Carmilla Lesbian. Carmilla is considered the first lesbian vampire story. [5][6][7]
Father Goriot/Lost Illusions/A Harlot High And LowPère Goriot
Illusions perdues
Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes
Balzac, Honoré deHonoré de Balzac Jacques Collin a.k.a. Vautrin a.k.a. Trompe-la-Mort Gay. Appears in a total of five novels of Balzac's La Comédie humaine, two are cameo appearances; often considered the first openly homosexual character in French literature. [8][9][10][11]
Picture of Dorian GrayThe Picture of Dorian Gray 1890 Wilde, OscarOscar Wilde Basil Hallward Gay [12][13]
Picture of Dorian GrayThe Picture of Dorian Gray 1890 Wilde, OscarOscar Wilde Dorian Gray Bisexual [4]
Sins of the Cities of the Plain The Sins of the Cities of the Plain 1881 Anonymous Jack Saul Gay. Jack is a male prostitute for other men, and also crossdresses; Sins is one of the earliest pieces of English-language pornography to explicitly and near-exclusively concern homosexuality. [14]
Teleny, or The Reverse of the Medal 1893 Anonymous; attributed to Oscar Wilde René Teleny
Camille de Grieux
Gay. Teleny and de Grieux engage in a passionate sexual/romantic affair; Teleny is one of the earliest pieces of English-language pornography to explicitly and near-exclusively concern homosexuality. [15][16][17]


Work Year Author Character name(s) Notes References
Advise and Consent 1959 Drury, AllenAllen Drury Brigham Anderson Bisexual. Married US senator Anderson is blackmailed over a secret wartime homosexual affair for which he is unapologetic. [18][19]
Affinity 1999 Waters, SarahSarah Waters Margaret Prior
Selina Dawes
Lesbian [20]
Alex Delaware series 1985-2014 Kellerman, JonathanJonathan Kellerman Milo Sturgis Gay [21]
Along the Journey River 1996 LaFavor, CaroleCarole LaFavor Renee LaRoche Lesbian [22]
American Psycho 1991 Ellis, Bret EastonBret Easton Ellis Luis Carruthers Gay. In love with the male protagonist, but later marries Courtney. [23]
Annie on My Mind 1982 Garden, NancyNancy Garden Annie Kenyon
Liza Winthrop
Lesbian [24]
Arrows of the Queen 1987 Lackey, MercedesMercedes Lackey Keren Lesbian. Life bonded to Ylsa and then Sherrill. [25]
Beauty of Men The Beauty of Men 1996 Holleran, AndrewAndrew Holleran Lark
Gay [26]
Beebo Brinker Chronicles The Beebo Brinker Chronicles 1957-60 Bannon, AnnAnn Bannon Beebo Brinker
Beth Ayers/Cullison
Laura Landon
Lesbian [27]
Blood of the Fold
Temple of the Winds
Goodkind, TerryTerry Goodkind Berdine
Lesbian. The two Mord-Sith are in a relationship with each other. [28]
Blue Place The Blue Place 1998 Griffith, NicolaNicola Griffith Aud Torvingen Lesbian [29]
Boy Culture 1995 Rettenmund, MatthewMatthew Rettenmund X
Gay. X (narrator's pseudonym) has sexual and romantic relationships with Andrew, Joe and other men. [4]
Breakfast on Pluto 1998 McCabe, PatrickPatrick McCabe Patrick "Pussy" Braden Transgender. Braden is an Irish trans woman. [30][31]
Brideshead Revisited 1945 Waugh, EvelynEvelyn Waugh Sebastian Flyte
Anthony Blanche
Brokeback Mountain "Brokeback Mountain" (short story) 1997 Proulx, AnnieAnnie Proulx Jack Twist
Ennis del Mar
Gay. Jack and Ennis have a long term sexual and romantic relationship despite both being married to women and fathering children. Jack also has sexual relationships with other men and a woman, while Ennis does not. Critics have described both men as gay or variably Jack as bisexual and Ennis as heterosexual. [32][33]
Captain Underpants series 1997-2015 Pilkey, DavDav Pilkey Harold Hutchins Gay [34]
CharioteerThe Charioteer 1953 Renault, MaryMary Renault Laurie Odell
Ralph Lanyon
Gay [35][36]
Chocolates for BreakfastChocolates for Breakfast 1956 Moore, PamelaPamela Moore Courtney Farrell
Barry Cabot
Bisexual. Courtney develops a crush on her female boarding school teacher, and later has a sexual relationship with Barry Cabot, her mother's bisexual friend who is in a relationship with a man. [37][38]
City and the PillarThe City and the Pillar 1946 Vidal, GoreGore Vidal Jim Willard
Ronald Shaw
Paul Sullivan
Gay [39][40]
City of GodCity of God: A Novel of the Borgias 1979 Holland, CeceliaCecelia Holland Nicholas Dawson Gay. Nicholas has "a penchant for other men", including the gruff but handsome Stefano Baglione, a heterosexual man who has sex with Nicholas for money. [41][42]
Confessions of Danny SlocumThe Confessions of Danny Slocum 1980 Whitmore, GeorgeGeorge Whitmore Danny Slocum Gay [4]
Dancer from the Dance 1978 Holleran, AndrewAndrew Holleran Anthony Malone
Andrew Sutherland
Gay [43][44]
Dave Brandstetter Mysteries 1970–91 Hansen, JosephJoseph Hansen Dave Brandstetter Gay [45]
Dune 1965 Herbert, FrankFrank Herbert Vladimir Harkonnen Gay. Harkonnen's sexual preference for men is implied in Dune and Children of Dune (1976), and presented more explicitly in the Prelude to Dune prequel trilogy (1999-2001) by Brian Herbert and Kevin J. Anderson. [46][47][48]
Ethan of Athos 1986 Bujold, Lois McMasterLois McMaster Bujold Dr. Ethan Urquhart Gay. Obstetrician Ethan is from a future society on the planet Ethos where male homosexuality is the norm and most inhabitants have never even seen a woman in person. [49][50][51]
Fairly Honourable DefeatA Fairly Honourable Defeat 1970 Murdoch, IrisIris Murdoch Simon Foster
Axel Nillson
Gay [52]
Fire from Heaven
The Persian Boy
Renault, MaryMary Renault Alexander the Great Bisexual. Alexander is involved in a romantic sexual relationship with Hephaistion, and then the Persian slave Bagoas, but is also married three times and fathers a son. [4]
Fire from Heaven
The Persian Boy
Renault, MaryMary Renault Hephaistion
Gay. Both men are involved in romantic sexual relationships with Alexander the Great. [4]
Fire's Stone The Fire's Stone 1990 Huff, TanyaTanya Huff Darvish Shayrif Hakem Bisexual [53]
Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe 1987 Flagg, FannieFannie Flagg Idgie Threadgoode Lesbian. Has a long-term romantic relationship with another woman, and sexual encounters with one other woman. [54]
Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe 1987 Flagg, FannieFannie Flagg Ruth Jamison Bisexual. Married to a man and bears his child but subsequently has long-term romantic relationship with another woman. [54]
Front RunnerThe Front Runner 1974 Warren, Patricia NellPatricia Nell Warren Harlan Brown
Billy Sive
Vince Matti
Jacques LaFont
Gay [4]
Giovanni's Room 1956 Baldwin, JamesJames Baldwin David
Gay [4]
God Against the Gods A God Against the Gods
Return to Thebes
Drury, AllenAllen Drury Akhenaten
Bisexual. Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten is married to Nefertiti, but his romance with his brother Smenkhkara contributes to his downfall. [55]
Gut Symmetries 1997 Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson Alluvia (Alice) Fairfax
Bisexual. Alice has romantic and sexual relationships with both Stella and Stella's husband Jove. [56]
Hallucinating Foucault 1996 Duncker, PatriciaPatricia Duncker Paul Michel
The Protagonist
Gay. Openly homosexual writer, said to have many male lovers, including relationship with male main character/narrator. [57][58]
Happy Endings Are All Alike 1978 Scoppettone, SandraSandra Scoppettone Jaret Tyler
Peggy Danziger
Lesbian [29]
Harry Potter series 1997–2007 Rowling, J. K.J. K. Rowling Albus Dumbledore Gay. Though not stated explicitly in the novels series, author Rowling said in interviews that the character is gay. [59][60][61][62][63]
Hotel New Hampshire The Hotel New Hampshire 1981 Irving, JohnJohn Irving Frank Berry Gay [64]
HoursThe Hours 1998 Cunningham, MichaelMichael Cunningham Richard Brown
Louis Waters
Gay [65]
HoursThe Hours 1998 Cunningham, MichaelMichael Cunningham Clarissa Vaughan
Lesbian [29]
Illusionist The Illusionist (Le rempart des Béguines) 1951 Mallet-Joris, Françoise Françoise Mallet-Joris Hélène Noris
Tamara Soulerr
Bisexual. Tamara has a romantic relationship with both Hélène and her father; Hélène prefers men after the fair ends. [29]
  • Invisible Life
  • Just As I Am
  • Abide With Me
  • Any Way the Wind Blows
Harris, E. LynnE. Lynn Harris Raymond Tyler, Jr.
Basil Henderson
Bisexual. Raymond is torn between his girlfriend Nicole and his married male lover; Basil leaves his fiancée Yancey at the altar and pursues a gay lifestyle. [4][66][67]
Kay Scarpetta novels 1994-2003 Cornwell, PatriciaPatricia Cornwell Lucy Farinelli Lesbian. Has romantic relationships and casual sexual encounters with other women. [68]
Kiss of the Fur Queen 1998 Highway, TompsonTompson Highway Gabriel Okimasis Gay. "As the story progresses the focus turns to Gabriel’s sexuality. As he confronts his homosexuality, in a time when this was not overly accepted, he descends into promiscuity and prostitution with constant flashbacks of the abuse he suffered at the hands of the priests. This part of the novel is so beautifully written but so hard to endure." [69][70]
Kiss of the Spider Woman 1976 Puig, ManuelManuel Puig Luis Molina Gay [71][72]
Last Herald Mage The Last Herald Mage trilogy 1989–91 Lackey, MercedesMercedes Lackey Vanyel Ashkevron
Gay. In the series, Vanyel has two sexual relationships, both with male partners. [73]
Less Than Zero
Imperial Bedrooms
Ellis, Bret EastonBret Easton Ellis Clay Bisexual [23]
Lord John series 1998–2011 Gabaldon, DianaDiana Gabaldon Lord John Grey Gay. Lord John has sexual and romantic relationships with various men, though he has had sex with and married women to appease societal expectations of him. [74][75]
Maurice 1913–14
Forster, E. M.E. M. Forster Maurice Hall
Clive Durham
Alec Scudder
Gay [4][77][78]
Men from the Boys The Men from the Boys
Where the Boys Are
Men Who Love Men
Mann, William J.William J. Mann Jeff O'Brien
Lloyd Griffith
David Javitz
Henry Weiner
Luke West
Gay [4]
Mr. Benson 1983 Preston, JohnJohn Preston Mr. Benson Gay [4]
Myra Breckinridge 1968 Vidal, GoreGore Vidal Myra Transgender [79][80]
Nearly Roadkill 1996 Bornstein, KateKate Bornstein and Caitlin Sullivan Scratch, Winc Transgender [81]
Nightrunner The Nightrunner series 1996-2014 Flewelling, LynnLynn Flewelling Seregil i Korit
Alec i Amasa
Ilar i Sontir
Bisexual. Seregil and Alec are committed lovers but both have had experiences with women in the past; Ilar is one of Seregil's former lovers. [82]
Now and Then 1995 Corlett, WilliamWilliam Corlett Christopher Metcalfe Gay. Main character has a sexual/romantic relationship as a boy with another boy at school; later has sexual and romantic relationships with other men. [83]
Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit 1985 Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson Jeanette Lesbian [84]
Other Voices, Other Rooms 1948 Capote, TrumanTruman Capote Joel Harrison Knox
Gay [85]
Passion The Passion 1987 Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson Villanelle Bisexual [86][87]
Patience and Sarah 1969 Miller, IsabelIsabel Miller Patience White
Sarah Dowling
Lesbian [88]
Perks of Being a Wallflower The Perks of Being a Wallflower 1999 Chbosky, StephenStephen Chbosky Patrick Gay. Has a secret relationship with closeted Brad. [89]
Price of Salt The Price of Salt 1952 Highsmith, PatriciaPatricia Highsmith Carol Aird Bisexual. Carol has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman while married to a man. [29]
Price of Salt The Price of Salt 1952 Highsmith, PatriciaPatricia Highsmith Therese Belivet Lesbian. Has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman. [29]
Rubyfruit Jungle 1973 Brown, Rita MaeRita Mae Brown Molly Bolt Lesbian. Has numerous romantic and sexual relationships with other women. [80][90]
Rules of Attraction The Rules of Attraction 1987 Ellis, Bret EastonBret Easton Ellis Paul Denton Bisexual [23]
Single Man A Single Man 1964 Isherwood, ChristopherChristopher Isherwood George Gay [91]
Song of Ice and FireA Song of Ice and Fire 1991–2011 Martin, George R. R.George R. R. Martin Renly Baratheon
Loras Tyrell
Gay. Never explicitly stated in the novels, but Renly's sexual/romantic relationship with Loras is hinted, and was later confirmed by author Martin; TV adaptation makes it clear that they are lovers. [92][93][94]
Stone Butch Blues 1993 Feinberg, LeslieLeslie Feinberg Jess Goldberg Transgender [95][96][97][98]
Tales of the City series 1978-2014 Maupin, ArmisteadArmistead Maupin Anna Madrigal
Jake Greenleaf
Transgender. Original character Anna is a transgender woman, and Jake (introduced in 2007's Michael Tolliver Lives is a trans man.
Tales of the City series 1978-2014 Maupin, ArmisteadArmistead Maupin Michael "Mouse" Tolliver
Jon Fielding
Ben McKenna
Gay [80]
Tales of the City series 1978-2014 Maupin, ArmisteadArmistead Maupin Beauchamp Day
DeDe Halcyon Day
Mona Ramsey
Throne of Saturn The Throne of Saturn 1971 Drury, AllenAllen Drury Pete Balkis Gay. Astronaut Pete harbors unrequited romantic feelings for his commander, Conrad Trasker. [19]
Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy 1974 Le Carre, JohnJohn Le Carre Bill Haydon Bisexual. Has a girlfriend, a male lover, and also seduces Ann, the wife of George Smiley. Rumoured to be the lover of Jim Prideaux. [99]
Tipping the Velvet 1998 Waters, SarahSarah Waters Kitty Butler Bisexual. Has a sexual/romantic relationship with the main character and marries a man. [100]
Tipping the Velvet 1998 Waters, SarahSarah Waters Nancy "Nan" Astley
Florence Banner
Diana Leathaby
Lesbian. Nan has sexual/romantic relationships with Florence and Diana; all three have also been with other women. [100][101]
University Series University series 1990-98 Drury, AllenAllen Drury North McAllister
Amos Wilson and Joel
Gay. North is a "tormented homosexual trying to keep his secret, but recklessly in love"; Amos is protagonist Willie Wilson's gay son, and Joel is Amos' lover. [102][103]
University Series University series 1990-98 Drury, AllenAllen Drury René Suratt Bisexual. René is protagonist Willie Wilson's nemesis, "a bisexual seducer of students". [104]
Vampire Chronicles The Vampire Chronicles 1976-2014 Rice, AnneAnne Rice Bisexual. Lestat, Armand and most of Rice's male vampires have intense sexual and emotional attractions and relationships with both sexes. [105]
Vampire Lestat The Vampire Lestat 1985 Rice, AnneAnne Rice Nicolas de Lenfent Gay. While human, Nicolas shares a romantic sexual relationship with Lestat de Lioncourt [105]
Village Affair A Village Affair 1989 Trollope, JoannaJoanna Trollope Clodagh Unwin Lesbian [29]
Village Affair A Village Affair 1989 Trollope, JoannaJoanna Trollope Alice Meadows Bisexual [29]
Weetzie Bat
Baby Be-Bop
Block, Francesca LiaFrancesca Lia Block Dirk McDonald
Gay [106]

Well of Loneliness The Well of Loneliness 1928 Hall, RadclyffeRadclyffe Hall Stephen Gordon
Valérie Seymour
Lesbian. The book was judged obscene and banned in the UK. [107]

Written on the Body 1992 Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson The Narrator Bisexual. Narrator of unspecified gender who has sexual/romantic relationships with men and women. Some reviewers describe the narrator as a lesbian. [108][109]


Work Year Author Character name(s) Notes References
1Q84 2009-10 Murakami, HarukiHaruki Murakami Tamaru Gay [110]
Adventures of Tulip, Birthday Wish Fairy The Adventures of Tulip, Birthday Wish Fairy 2012 Bergman, S. Bear S. Bear Bergman and Suzy Malik David/Daniela Transgender [111][112]
Almost Perfect 2009 Katcher, Brian Brian Katcher Sage Hendrix Transgender [113][114]
The Art of Being Normal 2015 Williamson, Lisa Lisa Williamson David/Kate, Leo Transgender [115]
Beautiful Music for Ugly Children 2012 Cronn-Mills, Kirstin Kirstin Cronn-Mills Gabe (Elizabeth) Transgender [116]
Being Emily 2012 Gold, RachelRachel Gold Emily Transgender [117]
Black MagicianThe Black Magician trilogy 2001–03 Canavan, TrudiTrudi Canavan Ambassador Dannyl
Tayend of Tremmelin
Gay. Dannyl has relationship with his assistant, Tayend of Tremmelin, who is referred to in the novel as a "lad" [118]
Boy Meets Boy 2003 Levithan, DavidDavid Levithan Paul, Noah, Tony
"Infinite Darlene"/Daryl Heisenberg
Gay. Paul and Noah are in love with each other and Tony is also gay; Paul's ex, Kyle, is bisexual and Daryl/Darlene is a cross-dresser. [4][119][120][121]
Butterfly and the Flame, The The Butterfly and the Flame 2005 De Young, Dana Dana De Young Emily Transgender [122]
Collection The Collection: Short Fiction from the Transgender Vanguard (anthology) 2012 Léger, Tom Tom Léger and Riley MacLeod (editors) Various Transgender [113][123]
Corrections The Corrections 2001 Franzen, JonathanJonathan Franzen Denise Lambert Lesbian [124]
Fever Crumb Series 2009-11 Reeve, PhilipPhilip Reeve Fever Crumb Bisexual. Fever first falls in love with the male Arlo Thursday, and later with the female Cluny Morvish.
Fingersmith 2002 Waters, SarahSarah Waters Sue Trinder
Maud Lilly
Lesbian. Sue and Maud have a sexual/romantic relationship with each other. [125]
Fledgling 2005 Butler, OctaviaOctavia Butler Shori Bisexual
Freakboy 2013 Clark, Kristin Elizabeth Kristin Elizabeth Clark Brandon
Transgender [126]
Gay Pride and Prejudice 2012 Christie Kate Christie Elizabeth Bennett Lesbian. Romantic relationships with Charlotte Lucas and Caroline Bingly. [127]
Gemma Doyle Trilogy 2003-07 Bray, LibbaLibba Bray Felicity Worthington Lesbian
Geography Club 2003 Hartinger, BrentBrent Hartinger Russel Middlebrook Gay [29]
Geography Club 2003 Hartinger, BrentBrent Hartinger Min Wei Bisexual [29]
The Heroes of Olympus The Heroes of Olympus 2010-2014 Riordan, RickRick Riordan Nico di Angelo Gay. Nico sexuality was revealed in the 4th book The House of Hades. He originally had a crush on Percy Jackson. He now has a crush Will Solace which is implied to be mutual. [128][129]
Holding Still For As Long As Possible 2009 Whittall, ZoeZoe Whittall Josh Transgender. Josh is a trans man. [130]
I Am J 2011 Beam, Cris Cris Beam J Transgender. [131]
Just Girls 2014 Gold, RachelRachel Gold Ella Transgender [132]
Kafka on the Shore 2002 Murakami, HarukiHaruki Murakami Oshima Transgender/Gay [133]
Keeping You a Secret 2003 Peters, Julie AnneJulie Anne Peters Holland Jeager Bisexual. Has relationships with both a male character and a female character. [134]
Kushiel's Legacy series 2001-11 Carey, JacquelineJacqueline Carey Phèdre nó Delaunay
Bisexual [105]
Life Mask 2004 Donoghue, EmmaEmma Donoghue Anne Damer Lesbian [135]
Line of BeautyThe Line of Beauty 2004 Hollinghurst, AlanAlan Hollinghurst Nick Guest
Wani Ouradi
Leo Charles
Gay [136]
Lords of the Sith 2015 Kemp, Paul S.Paul S. Kemp Moff Mors Lesbian. First LGBT character in the Star Wars canon universe. [137]
Luna 2004 Peters, Julie AnneJulie Anne Peters Luna (Liam) O'Neill Transgender. Luna is a young transgender female character. [138][139][140][141]
Maxine Wore Black 2014 Olsen, Nora Nora Olsen Maxine Transgender [142]
Millennium series 2005-07 Larsson, StiegStieg Larsson Lisbeth Salander Bisexual [143]
Parrotfish 2011 Wittlinger, Ellen Ellen Wittlinger Grady (Angela) Katz-McNair Transgender [144]
Rainbow Boys 2001 Sánchez, AlexAlex Sánchez Jason Carrillo
Kyle Meeks
Nelson Glassman
Gay [145]
Raven Cycle The Raven Cycle 2012-14 Stiefvater, MaggieMaggie Stiefvater Ronan Lynch Gay. Ronan has been proven to have romantic feelings for Adam Parrish. Adam is implied to possibly reciprocate his feelings, and may be bisexual. [146]
Roving Pack 2012 Lowrey, Sassafrass Sassafrass Lowrey Click Transgender [147]
Run, Clarissa, Run 2012 Eliason, Rachel Rachel Eliason Clarissa Transgender [148]
Safe Girl to Love, A A Safe Girl to Love 2014 Plett, Casey Casey Plett Various Transgender [149]
Slap The Slap 2008 Tsiolkas, ChristosChristos Tsiolkas Richie Gay. Male main character who has a sexual attraction to Hector. [150]
Trans-Sister Radio 2000 Bohjalian, ChrisChris Bohjalian Dana Stevens Transgender [151]
Ukiah Oregon series 2001-04 Wen Spencer Mom Jo & Mom Lara Lesbian. Jo and Lara are in a committed relationship. [152]
Where the Boys Are 2003 Mann, William J.William J. Mann Jeff O'Brien
Lloyd Griffith
Gay [4]
Will of the Empress The Will of the Empress 2005 Pierce, TamoraTamora Pierce Daja Kisubo
Lesbian. Daja is the main character who begins a relationship with a woman; Lark is in a long-term lesbian relationship. [153]

See also


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  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 Meloy, Kilian (September 24, 2007). "Influential Gay Characters in Literature". Archived from the original on August 31, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2014. 
  5. Garber, Eric; Lyn Paleo (1983). "Carmilla". Uranian Worlds: A Guide to Alternative Sexuality in Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror. G. K. Hall. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8161-1832-8. 
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