List of LGBT characters in modern written fiction
This is a list of LGBT characters in modern written fiction. The historical concept and definition of sexual orientation varies and has changed greatly over time; for example the word "gay" wasn't used to describe sexual orientation until the mid 20th century. A number of different classification schemes have been used to describe sexual orientation since the mid-19th century, and scholars have often defined the term 'sexual orientation' in divergent ways. Indeed, several studies have found that much of the research about sexual orientation has failed to define the term at all, making it difficult to reconcile the results of different studies. However, most definitions include a psychological component (such as the direction of an individual's erotic desire) and/or a behavioral component (which focuses on the sex of the individual's sexual partner/s). Some prefer to simply follow an individual's self-definition or identity. See homosexuality and bisexuality for criteria that have traditionally denoted lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) people.
In a historical sense, literature as we understand it is a fairly new innovation, and the current concept of homosexuality is even fresher from the cultural oven. It's no great surprise, then, that gay literature — or even gay characters in literature — are so relatively new as to still be shiny. Nonetheless, there are gay characters that broke barriers and became cultural touchstones... —Kilian Meloy
Items listed here must have verifiable third-party sources commenting on the sexuality of the character(s) in question, and additional explanation may be necessary. Additionally, only notable/significant characters from a given work (which may have multiple LGBT characters) need to be listed here.
|Carmilla||1872||Le Fanu, SheridanSheridan Le Fanu||Carmilla||Lesbian. Carmilla is considered the first lesbian vampire story.|||
|Father Goriot/Lost Illusions/A Harlot High And LowPère Goriot
Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes
|Balzac, Honoré deHonoré de Balzac||Jacques Collin a.k.a. Vautrin a.k.a. Trompe-la-Mort||Gay. Appears in a total of five novels of Balzac's La Comédie humaine, two are cameo appearances; often considered the first openly homosexual character in French literature.|||
|Picture of Dorian GrayThe Picture of Dorian Gray||1890||Wilde, OscarOscar Wilde||Basil Hallward||Gay|||
|Picture of Dorian GrayThe Picture of Dorian Gray||1890||Wilde, OscarOscar Wilde||Dorian Gray||Bisexual|||
|Sins of the Cities of the Plain The Sins of the Cities of the Plain||1881||Anonymous||Jack Saul||Gay. Jack is a male prostitute for other men, and also crossdresses; Sins is one of the earliest pieces of English-language pornography to explicitly and near-exclusively concern homosexuality.|||
|Teleny, or The Reverse of the Medal||1893||Anonymous; attributed to Oscar Wilde||René Teleny
Camille de Grieux
|Gay. Teleny and de Grieux engage in a passionate sexual/romantic affair; Teleny is one of the earliest pieces of English-language pornography to explicitly and near-exclusively concern homosexuality.|||
|Advise and Consent||1959||Drury, AllenAllen Drury||Brigham Anderson||Bisexual. Married US senator Anderson is blackmailed over a secret wartime homosexual affair for which he is unapologetic.|||
|Affinity||1999||Waters, SarahSarah Waters||Margaret Prior
|Alex Delaware series||1985-2014||Kellerman, JonathanJonathan Kellerman||Milo Sturgis||Gay|||
|Along the Journey River||1996||LaFavor, CaroleCarole LaFavor||Renee LaRoche||Lesbian|||
|American Psycho||1991||Ellis, Bret EastonBret Easton Ellis||Luis Carruthers||Gay. In love with the male protagonist, but later marries Courtney.|||
|Annie on My Mind||1982||Garden, NancyNancy Garden||Annie Kenyon
|Arrows of the Queen||1987||Lackey, MercedesMercedes Lackey||Keren||Lesbian. Life bonded to Ylsa and then Sherrill.|||
|Beauty of Men The Beauty of Men||1996||Holleran, AndrewAndrew Holleran||Lark
|Beebo Brinker Chronicles The Beebo Brinker Chronicles||1957-60||Bannon, AnnAnn Bannon||Beebo Brinker
|Blood of the Fold
Temple of the Winds
|Goodkind, TerryTerry Goodkind||Berdine
|Lesbian. The two Mord-Sith are in a relationship with each other.|||
|Blue Place The Blue Place||1998||Griffith, NicolaNicola Griffith||Aud Torvingen||Lesbian|||
|Boy Culture||1995||Rettenmund, MatthewMatthew Rettenmund||X
|Gay. X (narrator's pseudonym) has sexual and romantic relationships with Andrew, Joe and other men.|||
|Breakfast on Pluto||1998||McCabe, PatrickPatrick McCabe||Patrick "Pussy" Braden||Transgender. Braden is an Irish trans woman.|||
|Brideshead Revisited||1945||Waugh, EvelynEvelyn Waugh||Sebastian Flyte
|Brokeback Mountain "Brokeback Mountain" (short story)||1997||Proulx, AnnieAnnie Proulx||Jack Twist
Ennis del Mar
|Gay. Jack and Ennis have a long term sexual and romantic relationship despite both being married to women and fathering children. Jack also has sexual relationships with other men and a woman, while Ennis does not. Critics have described both men as gay or variably Jack as bisexual and Ennis as heterosexual.|||
|Captain Underpants series||1997-2015||Pilkey, DavDav Pilkey||Harold Hutchins||Gay|||
|CharioteerThe Charioteer||1953||Renault, MaryMary Renault||Laurie Odell
|Chocolates for BreakfastChocolates for Breakfast||1956||Moore, PamelaPamela Moore||Courtney Farrell
|Bisexual. Courtney develops a crush on her female boarding school teacher, and later has a sexual relationship with Barry Cabot, her mother's bisexual friend who is in a relationship with a man.|||
|City and the PillarThe City and the Pillar||1946||Vidal, GoreGore Vidal||Jim Willard
|City of GodCity of God: A Novel of the Borgias||1979||Holland, CeceliaCecelia Holland||Nicholas Dawson||Gay. Nicholas has "a penchant for other men", including the gruff but handsome Stefano Baglione, a heterosexual man who has sex with Nicholas for money.|||
|Confessions of Danny SlocumThe Confessions of Danny Slocum||1980||Whitmore, GeorgeGeorge Whitmore||Danny Slocum||Gay|||
|Dancer from the Dance||1978||Holleran, AndrewAndrew Holleran||Anthony Malone
|Dave Brandstetter Mysteries||1970–91||Hansen, JosephJoseph Hansen||Dave Brandstetter||Gay|||
|Dune||1965||Herbert, FrankFrank Herbert||Vladimir Harkonnen||Gay. Harkonnen's sexual preference for men is implied in Dune and Children of Dune (1976), and presented more explicitly in the Prelude to Dune prequel trilogy (1999-2001) by Brian Herbert and Kevin J. Anderson.|||
|Ethan of Athos||1986||Bujold, Lois McMasterLois McMaster Bujold||Dr. Ethan Urquhart||Gay. Obstetrician Ethan is from a future society on the planet Ethos where male homosexuality is the norm and most inhabitants have never even seen a woman in person.|||
|Fairly Honourable DefeatA Fairly Honourable Defeat||1970||Murdoch, IrisIris Murdoch||Simon Foster
|Fire from Heaven
The Persian Boy
|Renault, MaryMary Renault||Alexander the Great||Bisexual. Alexander is involved in a romantic sexual relationship with Hephaistion, and then the Persian slave Bagoas, but is also married three times and fathers a son.|||
|Fire from Heaven
The Persian Boy
|Renault, MaryMary Renault||Hephaistion
|Gay. Both men are involved in romantic sexual relationships with Alexander the Great.|||
|Fire's Stone The Fire's Stone||1990||Huff, TanyaTanya Huff||Darvish Shayrif Hakem||Bisexual|||
|Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe||1987||Flagg, FannieFannie Flagg||Idgie Threadgoode||Lesbian. Has a long-term romantic relationship with another woman, and sexual encounters with one other woman.|||
|Fried Green Tomatoes at the Whistle Stop Cafe||1987||Flagg, FannieFannie Flagg||Ruth Jamison||Bisexual. Married to a man and bears his child but subsequently has long-term romantic relationship with another woman.|||
|Front RunnerThe Front Runner||1974||Warren, Patricia NellPatricia Nell Warren||Harlan Brown
|Giovanni's Room||1956||Baldwin, JamesJames Baldwin||David
|God Against the Gods A God Against the Gods
Return to Thebes
|Drury, AllenAllen Drury||Akhenaten
|Bisexual. Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten is married to Nefertiti, but his romance with his brother Smenkhkara contributes to his downfall.|||
|Gut Symmetries||1997||Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson||Alluvia (Alice) Fairfax
|Bisexual. Alice has romantic and sexual relationships with both Stella and Stella's husband Jove.|||
|Hallucinating Foucault||1996||Duncker, PatriciaPatricia Duncker||Paul Michel
|Gay. Openly homosexual writer, said to have many male lovers, including relationship with male main character/narrator.|||
|Happy Endings Are All Alike||1978||Scoppettone, SandraSandra Scoppettone||Jaret Tyler
|Harry Potter series||1997–2007||Rowling, J. K.J. K. Rowling||Albus Dumbledore||Gay. Though not stated explicitly in the novels series, author Rowling said in interviews that the character is gay.|||
|Hotel New Hampshire The Hotel New Hampshire||1981||Irving, JohnJohn Irving||Frank Berry||Gay|||
|HoursThe Hours||1998||Cunningham, MichaelMichael Cunningham||Richard Brown
|HoursThe Hours||1998||Cunningham, MichaelMichael Cunningham||Clarissa Vaughan
|Illusionist The Illusionist (Le rempart des Béguines)||1951||Mallet-Joris, Françoise Françoise Mallet-Joris||Hélène Noris
|Bisexual. Tamara has a romantic relationship with both Hélène and her father; Hélène prefers men after the fair ends.|||
|Harris, E. LynnE. Lynn Harris||Raymond Tyler, Jr.
|Bisexual. Raymond is torn between his girlfriend Nicole and his married male lover; Basil leaves his fiancée Yancey at the altar and pursues a gay lifestyle.|||
|Kay Scarpetta novels||1994-2003||Cornwell, PatriciaPatricia Cornwell||Lucy Farinelli||Lesbian. Has romantic relationships and casual sexual encounters with other women.|||
|Kiss of the Fur Queen||1998||Highway, TompsonTompson Highway||Gabriel Okimasis||Gay. "As the story progresses the focus turns to Gabriel’s sexuality. As he confronts his homosexuality, in a time when this was not overly accepted, he descends into promiscuity and prostitution with constant flashbacks of the abuse he suffered at the hands of the priests. This part of the novel is so beautifully written but so hard to endure."|||
|Kiss of the Spider Woman||1976||Puig, ManuelManuel Puig||Luis Molina||Gay|||
|Last Herald Mage The Last Herald Mage trilogy||1989–91||Lackey, MercedesMercedes Lackey||Vanyel Ashkevron
|Gay. In the series, Vanyel has two sexual relationships, both with male partners.|||
|Less Than Zero
|Ellis, Bret EastonBret Easton Ellis||Clay||Bisexual|||
|Lord John series||1998–2011||Gabaldon, DianaDiana Gabaldon||Lord John Grey||Gay. Lord John has sexual and romantic relationships with various men, though he has had sex with and married women to appease societal expectations of him.|||
|Forster, E. M.E. M. Forster||Maurice Hall
|Men from the Boys The Men from the Boys
Where the Boys Are
Men Who Love Men
|Mann, William J.William J. Mann||Jeff O'Brien
|Mr. Benson||1983||Preston, JohnJohn Preston||Mr. Benson||Gay|||
|Myra Breckinridge||1968||Vidal, GoreGore Vidal||Myra||Transgender|||
|Nearly Roadkill||1996||Bornstein, KateKate Bornstein and Caitlin Sullivan||Scratch, Winc||Transgender|||
|Nightrunner The Nightrunner series||1996-2014||Flewelling, LynnLynn Flewelling||Seregil i Korit
Alec i Amasa
Ilar i Sontir
|Bisexual. Seregil and Alec are committed lovers but both have had experiences with women in the past; Ilar is one of Seregil's former lovers.|||
|Now and Then||1995||Corlett, WilliamWilliam Corlett||Christopher Metcalfe||Gay. Main character has a sexual/romantic relationship as a boy with another boy at school; later has sexual and romantic relationships with other men.|||
|Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit||1985||Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson||Jeanette||Lesbian|||
|Other Voices, Other Rooms||1948||Capote, TrumanTruman Capote||Joel Harrison Knox
|Passion The Passion||1987||Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson||Villanelle||Bisexual|||
|Patience and Sarah||1969||Miller, IsabelIsabel Miller||Patience White
|Perks of Being a Wallflower The Perks of Being a Wallflower||1999||Chbosky, StephenStephen Chbosky||Patrick||Gay. Has a secret relationship with closeted Brad.|||
|Price of Salt The Price of Salt||1952||Highsmith, PatriciaPatricia Highsmith||Carol Aird||Bisexual. Carol has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman while married to a man.|||
|Price of Salt The Price of Salt||1952||Highsmith, PatriciaPatricia Highsmith||Therese Belivet||Lesbian. Has a sexual/romantic relationship with another woman.|||
|Rubyfruit Jungle||1973||Brown, Rita MaeRita Mae Brown||Molly Bolt||Lesbian. Has numerous romantic and sexual relationships with other women.|||
|Rules of Attraction The Rules of Attraction||1987||Ellis, Bret EastonBret Easton Ellis||Paul Denton||Bisexual|||
|Single Man A Single Man||1964||Isherwood, ChristopherChristopher Isherwood||George||Gay|||
|Song of Ice and FireA Song of Ice and Fire||1991–2011||Martin, George R. R.George R. R. Martin||Renly Baratheon
|Gay. Never explicitly stated in the novels, but Renly's sexual/romantic relationship with Loras is hinted, and was later confirmed by author Martin; TV adaptation makes it clear that they are lovers.|||
|Stone Butch Blues||1993||Feinberg, LeslieLeslie Feinberg||Jess Goldberg||Transgender|||
|Tales of the City series||1978-2014||Maupin, ArmisteadArmistead Maupin||Anna Madrigal
|Transgender. Original character Anna is a transgender woman, and Jake (introduced in 2007's Michael Tolliver Lives is a trans man.|
|Tales of the City series||1978-2014||Maupin, ArmisteadArmistead Maupin||Michael "Mouse" Tolliver
|Tales of the City series||1978-2014||Maupin, ArmisteadArmistead Maupin||Beauchamp Day
DeDe Halcyon Day
|Throne of Saturn The Throne of Saturn||1971||Drury, AllenAllen Drury||Pete Balkis||Gay. Astronaut Pete harbors unrequited romantic feelings for his commander, Conrad Trasker.|||
|Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy||1974||Le Carre, JohnJohn Le Carre||Bill Haydon||Bisexual. Has a girlfriend, a male lover, and also seduces Ann, the wife of George Smiley. Rumoured to be the lover of Jim Prideaux.|||
|Tipping the Velvet||1998||Waters, SarahSarah Waters||Kitty Butler||Bisexual. Has a sexual/romantic relationship with the main character and marries a man.|||
|Tipping the Velvet||1998||Waters, SarahSarah Waters||Nancy "Nan" Astley
|Lesbian. Nan has sexual/romantic relationships with Florence and Diana; all three have also been with other women.|||
|University Series University series||1990-98||Drury, AllenAllen Drury||North McAllister
Amos Wilson and Joel
|Gay. North is a "tormented homosexual trying to keep his secret, but recklessly in love"; Amos is protagonist Willie Wilson's gay son, and Joel is Amos' lover.|||
|University Series University series||1990-98||Drury, AllenAllen Drury||René Suratt||Bisexual. René is protagonist Willie Wilson's nemesis, "a bisexual seducer of students".|||
|Vampire Chronicles The Vampire Chronicles||1976-2014||Rice, AnneAnne Rice||Bisexual. Lestat, Armand and most of Rice's male vampires have intense sexual and emotional attractions and relationships with both sexes.|||
|Vampire Lestat The Vampire Lestat||1985||Rice, AnneAnne Rice||Nicolas de Lenfent||Gay. While human, Nicolas shares a romantic sexual relationship with Lestat de Lioncourt|||
|Village Affair A Village Affair||1989||Trollope, JoannaJoanna Trollope||Clodagh Unwin||Lesbian|||
|Village Affair A Village Affair||1989||Trollope, JoannaJoanna Trollope||Alice Meadows||Bisexual|||
|Block, Francesca LiaFrancesca Lia Block||Dirk McDonald
|Well of Loneliness The Well of Loneliness||1928||Hall, RadclyffeRadclyffe Hall||Stephen Gordon
|Lesbian. The book was judged obscene and banned in the UK.||
|Written on the Body||1992||Winterson, JeanetteJeanette Winterson||The Narrator||Bisexual. Narrator of unspecified gender who has sexual/romantic relationships with men and women. Some reviewers describe the narrator as a lesbian.|||
|1Q84||2009-10||Murakami, HarukiHaruki Murakami||Tamaru||Gay|||
|Adventures of Tulip, Birthday Wish Fairy The Adventures of Tulip, Birthday Wish Fairy||2012||Bergman, S. Bear S. Bear Bergman and Suzy Malik||David/Daniela||Transgender|||
|Almost Perfect||2009||Katcher, Brian Brian Katcher||Sage Hendrix||Transgender|||
|The Art of Being Normal||2015||Williamson, Lisa Lisa Williamson||David/Kate, Leo||Transgender|||
|Beautiful Music for Ugly Children||2012||Cronn-Mills, Kirstin Kirstin Cronn-Mills||Gabe (Elizabeth)||Transgender|||
|Being Emily||2012||Gold, RachelRachel Gold||Emily||Transgender|||
|Black MagicianThe Black Magician trilogy||2001–03||Canavan, TrudiTrudi Canavan||Ambassador Dannyl
Tayend of Tremmelin
|Gay. Dannyl has relationship with his assistant, Tayend of Tremmelin, who is referred to in the novel as a "lad"|||
|Boy Meets Boy||2003||Levithan, DavidDavid Levithan||Paul, Noah, Tony
"Infinite Darlene"/Daryl Heisenberg
|Gay. Paul and Noah are in love with each other and Tony is also gay; Paul's ex, Kyle, is bisexual and Daryl/Darlene is a cross-dresser.|||
|Butterfly and the Flame, The The Butterfly and the Flame||2005||De Young, Dana Dana De Young||Emily||Transgender|||
|Collection The Collection: Short Fiction from the Transgender Vanguard (anthology)||2012||Léger, Tom Tom Léger and Riley MacLeod (editors)||Various||Transgender|||
|Corrections The Corrections||2001||Franzen, JonathanJonathan Franzen||Denise Lambert||Lesbian|||
|Fever Crumb Series||2009-11||Reeve, PhilipPhilip Reeve||Fever Crumb||Bisexual. Fever first falls in love with the male Arlo Thursday, and later with the female Cluny Morvish.|
|Fingersmith||2002||Waters, SarahSarah Waters||Sue Trinder
|Lesbian. Sue and Maud have a sexual/romantic relationship with each other.|||
|Fledgling||2005||Butler, OctaviaOctavia Butler||Shori||Bisexual|
|Freakboy||2013||Clark, Kristin Elizabeth Kristin Elizabeth Clark||Brandon
|Gay Pride and Prejudice||2012||Christie Kate Christie||Elizabeth Bennett||Lesbian. Romantic relationships with Charlotte Lucas and Caroline Bingly.|||
|Gemma Doyle Trilogy||2003-07||Bray, LibbaLibba Bray||Felicity Worthington||Lesbian|
|Geography Club||2003||Hartinger, BrentBrent Hartinger||Russel Middlebrook||Gay|||
|Geography Club||2003||Hartinger, BrentBrent Hartinger||Min Wei||Bisexual|||
|The Heroes of Olympus The Heroes of Olympus||2010-2014||Riordan, RickRick Riordan||Nico di Angelo||Gay. Nico sexuality was revealed in the 4th book The House of Hades. He originally had a crush on Percy Jackson. He now has a crush Will Solace which is implied to be mutual.|||
|Holding Still For As Long As Possible||2009||Whittall, ZoeZoe Whittall||Josh||Transgender. Josh is a trans man.|||
|I Am J||2011||Beam, Cris Cris Beam||J||Transgender.|||
|Just Girls||2014||Gold, RachelRachel Gold||Ella||Transgender|||
|Kafka on the Shore||2002||Murakami, HarukiHaruki Murakami||Oshima||Transgender/Gay|||
|Keeping You a Secret||2003||Peters, Julie AnneJulie Anne Peters||Holland Jeager||Bisexual. Has relationships with both a male character and a female character.|||
|Kushiel's Legacy series||2001-11||Carey, JacquelineJacqueline Carey||Phèdre nó Delaunay
|Life Mask||2004||Donoghue, EmmaEmma Donoghue||Anne Damer||Lesbian|||
|Line of BeautyThe Line of Beauty||2004||Hollinghurst, AlanAlan Hollinghurst||Nick Guest
|Lords of the Sith||2015||Kemp, Paul S.Paul S. Kemp||Moff Mors||Lesbian. First LGBT character in the Star Wars canon universe.|||
|Luna||2004||Peters, Julie AnneJulie Anne Peters||Luna (Liam) O'Neill||Transgender. Luna is a young transgender female character.|||
|Maxine Wore Black||2014||Olsen, Nora Nora Olsen||Maxine||Transgender|||
|Millennium series||2005-07||Larsson, StiegStieg Larsson||Lisbeth Salander||Bisexual|||
|Parrotfish||2011||Wittlinger, Ellen Ellen Wittlinger||Grady (Angela) Katz-McNair||Transgender|||
|Rainbow Boys||2001||Sánchez, AlexAlex Sánchez||Jason Carrillo
|Raven Cycle The Raven Cycle||2012-14||Stiefvater, MaggieMaggie Stiefvater||Ronan Lynch||Gay. Ronan has been proven to have romantic feelings for Adam Parrish. Adam is implied to possibly reciprocate his feelings, and may be bisexual.|||
|Roving Pack||2012||Lowrey, Sassafrass Sassafrass Lowrey||Click||Transgender|||
|Run, Clarissa, Run||2012||Eliason, Rachel Rachel Eliason||Clarissa||Transgender|||
|Safe Girl to Love, A A Safe Girl to Love||2014||Plett, Casey Casey Plett||Various||Transgender|||
|Slap The Slap||2008||Tsiolkas, ChristosChristos Tsiolkas||Richie||Gay. Male main character who has a sexual attraction to Hector.|||
|Trans-Sister Radio||2000||Bohjalian, ChrisChris Bohjalian||Dana Stevens||Transgender|||
|Ukiah Oregon series||2001-04||Wen Spencer||Mom Jo & Mom Lara||Lesbian. Jo and Lara are in a committed relationship.|||
|Where the Boys Are||2003||Mann, William J.William J. Mann||Jeff O'Brien
|Will of the Empress The Will of the Empress||2005||Pierce, TamoraTamora Pierce||Daja Kisubo
|Lesbian. Daja is the main character who begins a relationship with a woman; Lark is in a long-term lesbian relationship.|||
- Shively, M.G.; Jones, C.; DeCecco, J. P. (1984). "Research on sexual orientation: definitions and methods". Journal of Homosexuality. 9 (2/3): 127–137. PMID 6376622. doi:10.1300/J082v09n02_08.
- Gerdes, L.C. (1988). The Developing Adult (Second ed.). Durban: Butterworths; Austin, TX: Butterworth Legal Publishers. ISBN 0-409-10188-5.
- Sell, Randall L. (December 1997). "Defining and Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review: How do you define sexual orientation?". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 26 (6): 643–658. PMID 9415799. doi:10.1023/A:1024528427013. Retrieved 2007-07-11.
- Meloy, Kilian (September 24, 2007). "Influential Gay Characters in Literature". AfterElton.com. Archived from the original on August 31, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
- Garber, Eric; Lyn Paleo (1983). "Carmilla". Uranian Worlds: A Guide to Alternative Sexuality in Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror. G. K. Hall. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-8161-1832-8.
- LeFanu, J[oseph] Sheridan (1872). "Carmilla". In a Glass Darkly. London: R. Bentley & Son.
- LeFanu, J[oseph] Sheridan (1993). "Carmilla". In Pam Keesey. Daughters of Darkness: Lesbian Vampire Stories. Pittsburgh, PA: Cleis Press.
- Salman, Peerzada (October 25, 2013). "The Human Comedy of Balzac discussed". DAWN. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- Balzac, Honoré de (1835). Father Goriot.
'Trompe-la-Mort ne se laisserait pas aborder par une femme, dit l'agent. Apprenez un secret: il n'aime pas les femmes.'
- Balzac, Honoré de (1835). Father Goriot. Ellen Marriage.
'"Trompe-la-Mort would not let a woman come near him," said the detective. "I will tell you a secret—he does not like them."'
- Horan, Patrick M. (1997). The Importance of Being Paradoxical: Maternal Presence in the Works of Oscar Wilde. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8386-3733-7.
- Garber, Eric; Lyn Paleo (1983). "The Picture of Dorian Gray". Uranian Worlds: A Guide to Alternative Sexuality in Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror. G. K. Hall. p. 148. ISBN 978-0-8161-1832-8.
- Healey, Trebor (May 28, 2014). "Early Gay Literature Rediscovered". Huffington Post. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- Nelson, James (2000). Publisher to the Decadents: Leonard Smithers in the Careers of Beardsley, Wilde, Dowson. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press.
- Gray, Robert; Christopher Keep (2007). "An Uninterrupted Current: Homoeroticism and collaborative authorship in Teleny". In Marjorie Stone; Judith Thompson. Literary Couplings: Writing Couples, Collaborators, and the Construction of Authorship. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-299-21764-7.
- Roditi, Edouard (1986). Oscar Wilde. New Directions Publishing. p. 168. ISBN 0-8112-0995-4.
- Smith, Dinitia (September 3, 1998). "Allen Drury, 80, Novelist; Wrote Advise and Consent (Obituary)". The New York Times. Retrieved January 19, 2015.
- Simon, Scott (September 2, 2009). "At 50, a D.C. Novel With Legs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Holcombe, Garan (2005). "Sarah Waters: Critical Perspective". ContemporaryWriters.com. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- Gibson, Dick (April 1994). "Headshrinker, Gay Cop, Culture Thief: New Role Models in Tony Hillerman and Jonathan Kellerman" (PDF). Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Richardson, Susan B. (1998). "Along the Journey River: Review". MELUS. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
- Cordova, Steven. "Ellis, Bret Easton (b. 1964)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Day, Frances Ann (2000). Lesbian and Gay Voices: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Literature. Korea: Greenwood Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-313-31162-5.
- Lackey, Mercedes (1987). Arrows of the Queen. DAW Books. p. 320. ISBN 0-886-77378-4.
- Parker, Peter (July 25, 1999). "The Party's Over". The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Yndigoyen, Rose (July 16, 2006). "The Beebo Brinker Chronicles". Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Bendix, Trish (September 1, 2009). "Legend of the Seeker features lesbian storyline on season 2". AfterEllen. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
Berdine comes out as a lesbian in the third book of the Goodkind series, Blood of the Fold. She tells Richard that she’s in love with Raina...
- Lo, Malinda (May 22, 2007). "13 Lesbian and Bi Characters You Should Know". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on August 6, 2008. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Bradshaw, Peter (January 13, 2006). "Breakfast on Pluto". The Guardian. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Holden, Stephen (2004). "Review: Breakfast on Pluto". The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Phillips, Richard; Diane Watt (2000). De-Centering Sexualities: Politics and Representations Beyond the Metropolis. Routledge. pp. 2–5. ISBN 0-415-19465-2.
- Rood, Karen Lane (2001). Understanding Annie Proulx. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 187–190. ISBN 1-57003-402-8.
- Flood, Alison (2015-09-09). "Captain Underpants book reveals Harold marries a man". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-20.
- Slide, Anthony (2003). Lost Gay Novels: A Reference Guide to Fifty Works from the First Half of the Twentieth Century. Routledge. p. 152.
- Bronski, Michael (2003). Pulp Friction: Uncovering the Golden Age of Gay Male Pulps. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. pp. 359–360.
- Matheson, Whitney (June 26, 2013). "I love this book: Chocolates for Breakfast". USA Today. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Nedelkoff, Robert (1997). "Pamela Moore Plus Forty". The Baffler (10): 104–117. Retrieved March 2, 2015.
- Slide (2003). Lost Gay Novels. p. 2.
- Austen, Roger (1977). Playing the Game: The Homosexual Novel in America. New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc. p. 119.
- Maclaine, David. "City of God by Cecelia Holland". Historicalnovels.info. Retrieved September 5, 2014.
- Earle, Kathy Weeks (March 1979). "City of God: A Novel of the Borgias by Cecelia Holland". Library Review. Greeley, Colorado: University of Northern Colorado Library. 104 (5): 648.
- Bergman, David (2004). The Violet Hour: The Violet Quill and the Making of Gay Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 78. ISBN 0-231-13050-3.
- Bredbeck, Gregory W. "Holleran, Andrew (b. 1943?)". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Walker, Peter. "Dave Brandstetter". ThrillingDetective.com. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- Herbert, Frank (1965). Dune. ISBN 0-399-12949-9.
'I'll be in my sleeping chambers,' the Baron said. 'Bring me that young fellow we bought on Gamont, the one with the lovely eyes. Drug him well. I don't feel like wrestling.'
- Herbert, Frank (1965). Dune. ISBN 0-202-86504-5.
'Why haven't you ever bought a Bene Gesserit, Uncle?' Feyd-Rautha asked. 'With a Truthsayer at your side —' 'You know my tastes!' the Baron snapped ... 'This old fool saw through the shielded needle you'd planted in that slave boy's thigh. Right where I'd put my hand on it, eh?'
- Though Harkonnen is the biological father of Lady Jessica, it is noted in Dune that this is because he "once permitted himself to be seduced."
- "Reviews: Ethan of Athos". Buffalo & Erie County Public Library. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Walton, Jo (April 2, 2009). "Quest for Ovaries: Lois McMaster Bujold’s Ethan of Athos". Tor.com. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Gerlach, Nicki (2011). "The SF Site Featured Review: Ethan of Athos". SF Site. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
- Grimshaw, Tammy (2005). Sexuality, Gender, And Power In Iris Murdoch's Fiction. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. p. 37. ISBN 0-8386-4061-3.
- Huff, Tanya (1990). The Fire's Stone. ISBN 0-88677-445-4.
Darvish made certain they had plenty to report as he filled his life with wine and his bed with every willing body he stumbled across...
- Greenhill/Tye (1998). Undisciplined Women: Tradition and Culture in Canada. McGill-Queen's Press. p. 143. ISBN 0-7735-1615-8.
- "Return to Thebes by Allen Drury". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- Griffin, Gabriele (2000). Romancing the Margins?: Lesbian Writing in the 1990s. Haworth Press. p. 73. ISBN 1-56023-133-5.
- "Hallucinating Foucault synopsis". Powell's Books. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- Lincoln, Allen (February 16, 1997). "Author! Author!". The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "JK Rowling says wizard Dumbledore is gay". Washington Post. 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-10-20.[dead link]
- "JK Rowling outs Dumbledore as gay". BBC News. 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Rowling dubs Dumbledore of Harry Potter books as gay". Daily News. New York. 2007-10-19. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "J.K. Rowling outs Hogwarts character". Yahoo! News. 2007-10-20. Archived from the original on 2007-10-21. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- Edward Rothstein (2007). "Is Dumbledore Gay? Depends on Definitions of ‘Is’ and ‘Gay’". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
- "The Hotel New Hampshire Review". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved October 6, 2007.
- Young, Tory (2003). Michael Cunningham's The Hours: A Reader's Guide. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 37. ISBN 0-8264-1476-1.
- "Invisible Life". Library Journal. Amazon.com Editorial Reviews. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Abide With Me". Amazon.com Editorial Reviews. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
Basil Henderson ... is regularly attending therapy (although it doesn't seem to be helping him deal with either his denial of his bisexuality...)
- Mizejewski, Linda (2004). Hardboiled and High Heeled: The Woman Detective in Popular Culture. Routledge. p. 26. ISBN 0-415-96971-9.
- Highway, Tompson (1998). Kiss of the Fur Queen. Toronto: DoubleDay Canada. p. 18. ISBN 9780385256520.
- Brown, A (2010). Kiss of the Fur Queen by Tomson Highway. Canadian Book Review. online. p. https://canadianbookreview.wordpress.com/2010/12/11/kiss-of-the-fur-queen-by-tomson-highway/.
- Puig, Manuel (1987). Kiss of the Spider Woman. New York: Norton. p. 18. ISBN 0-393-31148-1.
- Tittler, Jonathan (1993). Manuel Puig. New York: Twayne Publishers. p. 51. ISBN 0-805-78289-3.
- Lackey, Mercedes (2005). "Ask Misty Archive - Valdemar". The World of Mercedes Lackey. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- Silverberg, Robert (December 30, 2003). "Intro: Lord John and the Succubus". Legends II: New Short Novels by the Masters of Modern Fantasy. Del Rey Books. ISBN 0345456440.
- "Official site: Lord John Grey Series". DianaGabaldon.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved October 29, 2013.
- Maurice was written in 1913-14 but not published until 1971, after Forster's death.
- Hunter, Richard (2004). Plato's Symposium. Oxford University Press. p. 115. ISBN 0-19-516079-7.
- Da Silva, Stephen (1998). "Transvaluing immaturity: reverse discourses of male homosexuality in E.M. Forster's posthumously published fiction". Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Fremont-Smith, Eliot (February 3, 1968). "Like Fay Wray if the Light Is Right". The New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Kantrowitz, Arnie. "Humor: Use of a Surrogate and Connecting Openly Gay and Lesbian Characters to a Larger Society". glbtq.com. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- "Nearly Roadkill". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Jamneck, Lynne (2005). "An Interview with Lynn Flewelling". Writing-World.com. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- "Now and Then Review". Amazon.com. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- Griffin, Gabriele (2002). Who's Who in Lesbian and Gay Writing. Routledge. p. 217. ISBN 0-415-15984-9.
- Richards, Gary (2005). Lovers And Beloveds: Sexual Otherness In Southern Fiction, 1936–1961. LSU Press. p. 31. ISBN 0-8071-3051-6.
- "The Passion: Summary & Study Guide". BookRags. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Winterson, Jeanette (b. 1959)". glbtq.com. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Katz, Jonathan. "Writing and Publishing Patience and Sarah". Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- "Screenwriter and Novelist Stephen Chbosky: Rebel with a Cause". Script Magazine. September 21, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Day, Frances Ann (2000). Lesbian and Gay Voices: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Literature. Greenwood Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-313-31162-5.
- Summers, Claude J. "Isherwood, Christopher (1904-1986): Isherwood's Masterpiece, A Single Man". glbtq.com. p. 3. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
- Hibberd, James (July 21, 2011). "George R.R. Martin on Dance With Dragons shocking twist". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
- "To Be Continued (Chicago, IL; May 6–8)". The Citadel: So Spake Martin. Westeros.org. May 6, 2005. Retrieved May 3, 2012.
- Hartinger, Brent. "Gays Go Medieval in Upcoming A Game of Thrones Fantasy Series". Movies/TV. AfterElton. Retrieved February 13, 2012.
- Moses, Cat (Spring 1999). "Queering Class: Leslie Feinberg's Stone Butch Blues". Studies in the Novel. 31. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Violence and the body: race, gender, and the state Arturo J. Aldama; Indiana University Press, 2003; ISBN 978-0-253-34171-6.
- Omnigender: A trans-religious approach Virginia R. Mollenkott, Pilgrim Press, 2001; ISBN 978-0-8298-1422-4.
- Gay & lesbian literature, Volume 2 Sharon Malinowski, Tom Pendergast, Sara Pendergast; St. James Press, 1998; ISBN 978-1-55862-350-7.
- "The Plot Spot plot summary: Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy". The Plot Spot. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Tipping the Velvet by Sarah Waters (review)". BarnesandNoble.com. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- "Tipping the Velvet by Sarah Waters (review)". Powell's Books. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- "Toward What Bright Glory? by Allen Drury". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- "Public Men by Allen Drury". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 20, 2015.
- Tarloff, Erik (February 21, 1999). "Before Monica: Allen Drury's last novel revisits some old political battlefields and ends a trilogy". The New York Times. Retrieved January 23, 2015.
- Haggerty, George E. (1998). "Anne Rice and the Queering of Culture". Novel: A Forum on Fiction. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
- Day, Frances Ann (2000). Lesbian and Gay Voices: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide to Literature. Korea: Greenwood Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-313-31162-5.
- "Banned Books Week: The Well of Loneliness by Radclyffe Hall".
- Stowers, Cath; Purvis, June (1995). (Hetero)sexual Politics - Journeying with Jeanette: Transgressive Travels in Winterson's Fiction. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-7484-0295-0.
- Gilmore, Leigh (2001). The Limits of Autobiography: Trauma and Testimony. Cornell University Press. p. 127. ISBN 0-8014-8674-2.
- Murakami, Haruki (2011). 1Q84. Tokyo, Japan: Shinchosa. p. 928. ISBN 978-0-307-59331-3.
- "The Adventures of Tulip, Birthday Wish Fairy". Flamingo Rampant. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "25th Annual Lambda Literary Award Winners Announced!". Lambda Literary Award. June 4, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Dallara, Angela (January 26, 2011). "Touching Teen Novel About Transgender Girl Wins 2011 ALA Stonewall Award". GLAAD. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Almost Perfect wins 2011 Stonewall Children's and Young Adult Literature Award". American Library Association. January 10, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "'The Art of Being Normal' by Lisa Williamson -- Review by Linda Buckley-Archer". The Gaurdian. Retrieved January 17, 2015.
- "Beautiful Music for Ugly Children by Kirstin Cronn-Mills". Kirkus Reviews. August 22, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "'Being Emily' by Rachel Gold -- Review by Lydia Harris". Lambda Literary Foundation. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Canavan, Trudi (2002). The Novice. Orbit. p. 480. ISBN 1-904233-67-8.
- "Boy Meets Boy description". davidleviathan.com. 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- Amazon.com Editorial Reviews. Boy Meets Boy.
- Webber, Carlie Kraft. Boy Meets Boy review - TeenReads.com
- "Book Review: The Butterfly and the Flame". Allison Granted. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Wexelbaum, Rachel (September 30, 2012). "Review: The Collection: Short Fiction from the Transgender Vanguard edited by Tom Léger and Riley MacLeod". LambdaLiterary.org. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Franzen, Jonathan (2001). The Corrections. New York, New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 568. ISBN 0-374-12998-3.
- Gilling, Tom (February 24, 2002). "Our Mutual Attraction". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- "Authors Ellen Hopkins and Kristin Elizabeth Clark Chat About Freakboy". School Library Journal. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Ashton, Clare (December 11, 2012). Book Review: Gay Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen and Kate Christie. WhenSallyMetSally.co.uk. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Rought, Karen (October 16, 2013). "Ten memorable moments from The House of Hades by Rick Riordan". Hypable. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- Dawson, James (May 14, 2014). "How to use books to create safe spaces for young LGBT people". The Guardian. Retrieved July 24, 2015.
- Gillette, Courtney (May 9, 2011). "Holding Still For As Long As Possible by Zoe Whittall". LambdaLiterary.org. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "I Am J by Cris Beam". Kirkus Reviews. February 1, 2011. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Just Girls by Rachel Gold -- Review by TheBookgeek". Lambda Literary Foundation. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Mitchell, David (January 8, 2005). "Kill me or the cat gets it". The Guardian. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Young Adult Books: Keeping You a Secret (2003)". JulieAnnePeters.com. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Life Mask by Emma Donoghue". BiblioFemme. Retrieved July 7, 2007.
- "Alan Hollinghurst wins prestigious Booker Prize". The Advocate. October 21, 2004. Retrieved February 8, 2015.
- Young, Bryan (March 6, 2015). "Star Wars Introduces an LGBT Character Into Canon". Big Shiny Robot. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
- "10th Annual Report on Banned and Challenged Books in Texas Schools" (PDF). ACLU foundation of Texas. Retrieved April 11, 2012.
- Cart, Michael. "What a Wonderful World: Notes on the Evolution of GLBTQ Literature for Young Adults". The ALAN Review. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- Mason, Katherine. "Creating a Space for YAL with LGBT Content in Our Personal Reading: Creating a Place for LGBT Students in Our Classrooms". The ALAN Review. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- "2004 Lambda Literary Awards Recipients and Finalists". Lambda Literary Foundation. Archived from the original on January 25, 2007. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Anything That Moves Me -- Review of Nora Olsen's Maxine Wore Black". Ann Herendeen. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Lorber, Judith (July 7, 2011). "The Gender Ambiguity of Lisbeth Salander: Third-Wave Feminist Hero?". Dissent. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- "Parrotfish by Ellen Wittlinger". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- Emert, Toby (2002). "An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of Rainbow Boys" (PDF). ALAN Review. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "QUEER REPRESENTATION IN THE RAVEN CYCLE". BooksofAmber.com. October 16, 2014. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Corso, Susan (November 12, 2012). "Sassafras Lowrey's Roving Pack: My Thoughts". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Book Review: Run, Clarissa, Run". Heather McNamara. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "A Safe Girl to Love by Casey Plett -- Review by Mitch Kellaway". Lambda Literary Foundation. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- Tsiolkas, Christos (2008). The Slap. p. 139.
- "He/She's So Fine". The New York Times. Retrieved January 30, 2015.
- "Science Fiction Books with Lesbian Characters". LesbianScienceFiction.com. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
- "AfterEllen Book Club: Will of the Empress and Ammonite". AfterEllen. Retrieved October 18, 2013.